Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1819-6446 / 2225-3653
Published by: Stolichnaya Izdatelskaya Kompaniyaizdat (10.20996)
Total articles ≅ 1,626
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O. B. Shvabskaia, O. V. Izmailova, ,
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 889-899; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-12-04

Abstract:
The association of hyperuricemia (HU) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and kidney disease has been demonstrated in numerous studies. НU is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of gout and is associated with an increase in overall and cardiovascular mortality. НU is included in the list of factors determining cardiovascular risk. According to epidemiological studies, there is a high prevalence of HU in the world and its increase in recent decades. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of НU. Non-modifiable factors include gender, age, genetic factors, and modifiable factors include diet and lifestyle. Nutritional unbalances, increased life expectancy, increased prevalence of obesity, and increased use of drugs (especially diuretics) are seen as contributing factors to the rise in НU. The review was carried out to summarize the available information on the effect of dietary habits, individual foods and nutrients on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of developing HU. The review presents the results of scientific studies demonstrating the relationship of НU with the consumption of foods rich in purines (offal, red meat, fish, seafood, legumes), alcohol consumption, drinks sweetened with fructose, coffee, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Diet correction is an important and necessary step in the prevention and treatment of НU. The article reviews the basic principles of dietary management in HU and provides dietary recommendations for patients. For effective prevention and treatment of НU, a mandatory correction of the diet is required.
N. A. Nikolaev, Yu. P. Skirdenko, A. A. Balabanova, A. V. Gorbenko, K. A. Andreev, M. M. Fedorin, , , G. M. Usov
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 845-852; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-12-12

Abstract:
Aim: To update the definitions of selected questions of the "QAA-25" (quantitative adherence assessment) scale and evaluate it according to the criteria of validity and measure of agreement.Materials and Methods. In a descriptive cross-sectional study including 200 patients with coronary heart disease, adherence was determined using traditional and alternative versions of selected questions of the QAA-25 scale, followed by assessment of construct validity, factor validity, and measure of agreement.Results. Alternative question versions did not significantly affect test results, with 81% of respondents in the outpatient sample and 69% in the inpatient sample rating them as "more acceptable." The QAA-25 scale has good construct and internal validity (α – 0.818, αst – 0.832), with moderate agreement (κ – 0.562) and demonstrates high reliability of internal validity – when scale items are consistently excluded, α values remain in the 0.801-0.839 range.Conclusion. The QAA-25 scale with modified question definitions should be used instead of the previous version of the scale. Good construct validity and factor validity, sufficient measure of agreement and specificity, high sensitivity and reliability of the QAA-25 scale allow to recommend it as a tool for assessing adherence to drug therapy, medical support, lifestyle modification and integral adherence to treatment in scientific and clinical practice.
K. A. Zhbanov, A. A. Shchendrygina, E. A. Zheleznykh, E. V. Privalova, A. Y. Suvorov, A. S. Ablyametova, N. F. Fuksman, E. Yu. Salakheeva, Yu. N. Belenkov
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 853-859; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-11-01

Abstract:
Aim. To determine the median levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; endothelium-derived growth factor and the natural agonist of the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptors) NRG-1 in healthy volunteers and to study the associations of NRG-1 levels with gender and age.Material and Methods. Ninety seven healthy participants were enrolled (median age of 44 [32-54], men 45 men [46.4%]). The following age groups were identified: 20-29 y.о. (n=20, men – 50.0%), 30-39 y.о. (n=21, men – 52.4%), 40-49 y.о. (n=22, men – 45.5%), 50-59 y.о. (n=22, men – 36.4%); 60-69 y.о. (n=12, men – 50.0%). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment, standard laboratory tests were performed, and NRG-1 levels were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA.Results. In the cohort of 97 healthy participants the median value of NRG-1 was 0.3 [0.121-2.24] ng/ml. NRG-1 levels did not differ significantly between men and women (p=0.145), indicating that NRG-1 levels are not influenced by gender. The levels of NRG-1 were similar in the different age groups: age 20-29 years=0.26 [0.17-0.37] ng/ml; age 30-39=0.24 [0.1-0.39] ng/ml; age 40-49=0.31 [0.19-1.15] ng/ml; age 50-59=0.37 [0.19-1.0] ng/ml; age 60-69=0.4 [0.13-0.81] ng/ml. Correlation analysis between NRG-1 levels and route blood measurements (haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, creatinine, and uretic acid) did not show significant associations.Conclusions. In this study, the median value of NRG-1 plasma levels were determined. The results of the study show that age and gender had no influence on NRG-1 values.
S. V. Miklishanskaya, L. V. Solomasova, A. A. Orlovsky, S. N. Nasonova, N. A. Mazur
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 867-872; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-12-17

Abstract:
Aim: To assess the content of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in patients with abdominal obesity and its relationship with metabolic disorders.Material and methods. Patients with abdominal obesity (n=107) were included in the study. All participants had an assessment of anthropometric parameters (height, weight), calculation of body mass index (BMI), proportion of total adipose tissue and VAT (bioimpedance analyzer), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, epicardial thickness adipose tissue (two-dimensional echocardiography).Results. The median share of VAT (bioimpedance method) was 13%. Patients with abdominal obesity are divided by VAT into 2 groups: ≥14% or ≤13%. Patients with VAT≥14% had significantly higher levels of triglycerides (1.76 [1.27; 2.38] mmol / L) and glucose (6.33 [5.78; 7.87] mmol / L), and below HDL-c levels (0.95 [0.85; 1.21] mmol / L) compared with patients with VAT≤13% (1.32 [1.02; 1.50], 5.59 [5, 11; 6.16] and 1.31 [1.07; 1.58] mmol / L, respectively; p<0.001 for all three comparisons). A significant correlation was found between VAT and triglyceride, glucose and HDL-c levels (r=0.40; r=0.40; r=-0.31, respectively; p<0.001).Conclusion. Persons with abdominal obesity are heterogeneous in the proportion of VAT. The proportion of VAT above the median is associated with metabolic disorders that are significant for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. An increase in BMI in obese individuals is not associated with an increase in VAT and an increase in the severity of metabolic disorders.
, , D. A. Vyzhigin, E. O. Novosel, K. V. Gallinger
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 900-907; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-12-03

Abstract:
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the world, second only to cardiovascular diseases. Simultaneously cancer mortality has been steadily decreasing due to the development of new chemotherapy and targeted drugs and the improvement of existing treatment protocols. Improving the prognosis of treatment of cancer patients leads to an unexpected result - more patients are faced with side effects of cancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity, including arrhythmia, has become a significant factor to reduce the effectiveness of cancer patient’s treatment. Atrial fibrillation is frequent and persistent a rhythm disorder, affecting all categories of patients, especially the elderly. An association between these two conditions can be expected, considering the fact that in old age the prevalence of malignant neoplasms and comorbid pathology predisposing to the onset of AF is high. Therefore, AF may be an additional factor negatively influencing the prognosis and treatment tactics in patients with malignant neoplasms. A comprehensive search was conducted using the keywords “cancer”, “atrial fibrillation” and “cardiotoxicity” using the PubMed, Scopus and Cohrane databases. We reviewed publications having the relationship between AF and cancer. The literature review considered 61 publications on the prevalence of AF in cancer patients, classification, mechanisms of development, the effect of anticancer drugs and other treatment methods on this group of patients. Analyzed articles include clinical guidelines, consensus expert opinions, systematic reviews, meta-analyzes, and previously published reviews of the literature. The problem of cardiotoxic complications diagnostics is evaluated separately, incl. arrhythmias, and their monitoring in cancer patients. Therefore, the direction of medicine named "Cardio-oncology" comes to the fore. Interdisciplinary interaction will allow identify cardiotoxic manifestations at the subclinical stage and optimize anticancer treatment.
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 908-915; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-12-07

Abstract:
This review discusses reasons for prolonged use of anticoagulants after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without additional indication for anticoagulation. Data regarding rate of thrombotic and thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from the hospital are presented. Large randomized controlled trials EXCLAIM, ADOPT, MAGELLAN, APEX and MARINER with prolonged use of anticoagulants in patients hospitalized with acute nonsurgical diseases before pandemia of COVID-19 are discussed. The first prospective randomized controlled trial MICHELLE with direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in a dose 10 mg once daily after discharge of patients with COVID-19 with high risk at least venous thromboembolism are analyzed. It seems that the most relevant approach for the determination of indications for prolonged use of anticoagulants in doses dedicated for primary prevention of venous thromboembolism after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without apparent indication for anticoagulation is a modified IMPROVE VTE risk score with the addition of elevated in-hospital D-dimer level. And the most well-studied approach for anticoagulation in these patients is a direct peroral anticoagulant rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily for 35 (and possibly up to 45) days after discharge.
, L. N. Mishchenko
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 771-778; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-10-01

Abstract:
Oral anticoagulant therapy is widely used in different patients for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events: in atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, acute coronary syndrome, in the early postoperative period after orthopedic surgery. Nowadays it is possible to use vitamin K antagonists (warfarin) as well as direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC): dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban. The mai complication of any anticoagulant therapy is bleeding (gastrointestinal, intracranial, etc.), which seriously limits its usage. In this review the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) associated with oral anticoagulants intake was analyzed according to the results of both large randomized and postregistration trials. Furthermore, the effect of age on the risk of GIB development is discussed, and also aspects of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal mucosa lesions in patients taking DOAC are considered.
, , A. I. Zaitseva, A. V. Nedostup
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 792-798; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-10-16

Abstract:
September, 2021 marks the 175th anniversary of the opening of the Faculty Therapeutic Clinic (FTC) of the Imperial Moscow University, which is a successor of the First (1805) and Second (1820) Clinical Institutes with their therapeutic beds and chairs, and thus is the oldest therapeutic clinic in Russia. From 1930 the Clinic became part of the newly formed I.M. Sechenov First Moscow Medical Institute (now Sechenov University) and retains continuity to the present day. This publication is one of three research articles prepared by the staff of the Clinic for the anniversary and devoted to little-known pages of biography and scientific activities of the three heads of the FTC at the crucial stages of its history – A.I. Over, G.A. Zakharyin and the last prerevolutionary director – N.F. Golubov.
, , I. G. Beliaev, Ju. S. Kucherova, A. V. Kazadaeva
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 674-682; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-10-05

Abstract:
Aim. To study the relationship between the level of haptoglobin and the main indicators of microcirculation (MC) in patients with different phenotypes of chronic heart failure (CHF).Materials and methods. Patients with different phenotypes of functional class II-IV chronic heart failure according to NYHA (n=80) underwent a general clinical examination, determination of the serum haptoglobin level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as well as an assessment of the MC state on the medial surface of the upper third of the leg by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF).Results. Patients with CHF included patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF; n=27, intermediate ejection fraction (HFmrEF; n=25) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; n=28). The median value of haptoglobin in the HFpEF group was 1387.6 [ 747.5; 1946.9] mg/l, in the HFmrEF group was 1583.4 [818.9; 2201.4] mg/l, in the HFrEF group was 968.5 [509.5; 1324.4] mg/l. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between haptoglobin and the amplitudes of the endothelial frequency range (Ae) in the groups of HFmrEF (r=-0.628, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.256; -0.825, p=0.003) and HFrEF (r=-0.503, 95% CI -0.089; -0.803, p=0.02). A negative relationship between the haptoglobin level and Kv and σ was revealed, as well as a formula for calculating the value of haptoglobin was obtained, which is predicted on the basis of the amplitude index of the endothelial frequency range: [haptoglobin]=1787-(4053×Ae).Conclusion. The multifactorial effect of haptoglobin is realized in the central and peripheral mechanisms of MC regulation. Low values of haptoglobin in blood plasma should be considered as a potential marker for the development of complications and used in a comprehensive assessment of the state of patients with CHF. Evaluation of the diagnostic and prognostic significance of haptoglobin, especially in patients with HFmrEF, requires further study.
E. S. Mazur, V. V. Mazur, N. D. Bazhenov,
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 17, pp 724-728; https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2021-10-08

Abstract:
Aim. Compare the incidence of the left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus dissolution in patients with persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC).Materials and methods. 68 patients with persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were included in a retrospective study (age was 59.7±9.8 years, 60.3% men), in whom at least one repeated transesophageal echocardiographic examination was performed after detecting a thrombus. After detecting a thrombus in the LAA, 37 (54.4%) patients started or continued taking warfarin in doses that ensure the INR maintenance at the level of 2-3, 14 (20.6%) started or continued taking dabigatran at a dose of 150 mg 2 times/day, 14 (20.6%) started or continued taking rivaroxaban 20 mg 1 time/day and 3 (4.4%) started or continued taking apixaban 5 mg 2 times/day. Repeated transesophageal echocardiographic examination was performed on average 33.3±14.2 days after the first one.Results. Dissolution of a previously identified thrombus was found in 26 (83.9%) of 31 patients receiving DOAC and in 19 (51.4%) of 37 patients receiving warfarin (p=0.011). The logistic regression analysis showed that the chances of a thrombus dissolution in LAA while taking DOAC are 14.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI] was 2.469-88.72) higher than while taking warfarin. The size and the rate at which blood is expelled from the LAA also have an independent influence on the chances of thrombus dissolution. An increase in the size of a thrombus by 1 mm reduces the chances of a thrombus dissolution by 1.136 (95% CI was 1.040-1.244) times, and an increase in the rate of blood expulsion from the LAA by 1 cm/sec increases these chances by 1.105 (95% CI was 1.003-1.219) times.Conclusion. In the present study, the incidence of the LAA thrombus dissolution in patients with persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation while receiving DOAC was higher than while receiving warfarin.
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