Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1819-6446 / 2225-3653
Current Publisher: Stolichnaya Izdatelskaya Kompaniyaizdat (10.20996)
Total articles ≅ 1,523
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M. M. Loukianov, E. Yu. Andreenko, S. Yu. Martsevich, S. S. Yakushin, A. N. Vorobyev, K. G. Pereverzeva, A. V. Zagrebelnyy, E. Yu. Okshina, V. V. Yakusevich, E. M. Pozdnyakova, et al.
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 888-898; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-12-01

Abstract:
Aim. To study comorbidity, drug therapy and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) included in the outpatient and hospital RECVASA registries.Material and methods. Patients with AF (n=3169; age 70.9±10.7 years; 43.1% of men) in whom comorbidity, drug therapy, short-term and longterm outcomes (follow-up period from 2 to 6 years) were included in hospital registers RECVASA AF (Moscow, Kursk, Tula), as well as outpatient registers RECVASA (Ryazan) and RECVASA AF-Yaroslavl.Results. Outpatient registries (n=934), as compared to hospital registries (n=2235), had a higher average age of patients (73.4±10.9 vs 69.9±10.5; p2DS2-VASc 4.65±1.58 vs 4.15±1.71; p80 bpm, systolic blood pressure 80 bpm (RR=1.50). Anticoagulant prescription in women was associated with a lower risk of ACVA (if adjusted for age: RR=0.54; p=0.04), in contrast to men (RR=1.11; p=0.79).Conclusion. The majority of patients with AF registries in 5 regions of Russia had a combination of three or more cardiovascular diseases (73.9%), as well as chronic non-cardiac diseases (68.8%). The frequency of proper cardiovascular pharmacotherapy was insufficient (68.6%), especially at the outpatient stage (55.6%). Over the observation period (2-6 years), the average mortality per year was 10.3%, but at the same time it differed significantly in the regions (from 3.7% in Moscow to 9.7-12.5% in Yaroslavl, Ryazan and Kursk). Cardiovascular causes of deaths occurred in 62%. A higher risk of death (1.5-2.7 times) was associated with a history of stroke and MI, diabetes mellitus, COPD, heart rate>80 bpm, systolic blood pressure
I. A. Skripnikova, M. A. Kolchina, O. V. Kosmatova, M. A. Myagkova, V. E. Novikov, O. Yu. Isaykina, O. M. Drapkina
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 868-875; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-11-02

Abstract:
Aim. To study associations between calcification of the coronary arteries (CA), the state of the peripheral vascular wall and bone strength indices.Material and methods. In a cross-sectional study were included 200 women at the age 45-69 y.o. who were observed on an outpatient basis and signed informed consent. A survey was conducted on the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and the risk of fractures. The intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence and number of atherosclerotic plaques (AP) were studied using duplex scanning. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI) were measured by applanation tonometry. The presence of calcium deposits in coronary vessels was determined by multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) using the Agatston index. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine, hip neck (HN) and proximal hip (PH) was measured using double energy x-ray absorptiometry. The marker of bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide of type-1 collagen (СТх) was determined in blood serum by the β-crosslaps method.Results. There was a positive correlation between the parameters of vascular stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis of peripheral vessels and CA calcification: AI and calcium index (r=0.25, pConclusion. The correlation of stiffness indices and subclinical atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries, which is a predictor of high risk of cardiovascular events, allows to suggest an important role of changes in the peripheral vascular wall in increasing cardiovascular risk. A decrease in BMD and an increase in the marker of bone resorption, associated with an increase in indices of vascular stiffness and subclinical atherosclerosis and, especially, CA calcification, allows us to think about the common mechanisms of development and progression of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Therefore, early examination of women with a high cardiovascular risk, assessed by the SCORE scale, after 45 years and before menopause to detect vascular rigidity and the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, and performing x-ray densitometry for individuals with changes in these indices will allow stratify the risks of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis complications and recommend preventive use of drugs that reduce vascular rigidity and increase BMD.
N. M. Vorobyeva, O. N. Tkacheva
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 984-993; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-12-03

Abstract:
The administration of oral anticoagulants in elderly patients with geriatric syndromes such as senile asthenia syndrome, falls and high risk of falls, dementia, polymorbidity, polypharmacy are discussed in the article. The evidence base for the anticoagulants taking in patients with atrial fibrillation aged ≥75, ≥80, ≥85 and ≥90 years, in patients with atrial fibrillation and various geriatric syndromes, as well as in elderly patients with venous thromboembolic complications and frailty syndrome is presented. Most studies indicate significant advantages of direct oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) over the vitamin K antagonist warfarin in elderly patients with geriatric syndromes. An updated version of the FORTA consensus document, which aims to optimize the prescription of medicines for the elderly, is also presented. Apixaban has a FORTA-A safety class and is the safest oral anticoagulant in elderly patients.
A. A. Klimenko, N. A. Demidova, N. A. Shostak, M. O. Anischenko
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 1002-1008; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-12-09

Abstract:
After suffering pulmonary embolism (PE), doctors are confronted with various consequences of the disease, from asymptomatic residual pulmonary thrombosis to the formation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). There is also a subgroup of patients who have undergone pulmonary embolism, who experience shortness of breath during physical exertion, absent before pulmonary embolism, or shortened dyspnea preceding PE, combined with residual thrombosis of pulmonary artery (PA) and normal average pressure in PA at rest during catheterization of the right heart (CRH). This condition is defined as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease or post thromboembolic syndrome. Pathogenetic aspects of this condition are not fully investigated. It is important to predict the development of postembolic syndrome and to develop algorithms for the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with symptoms and residual pulmonary thrombosis. In case of the development of pulmonary vasculopathy in some patients who have undergone pulmonary embolism, a severe life-threatening condition forms - CTEPH, characterized by an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery, right heart failure due to the presence of organized blood clots that have entered the pulmonary vascular bed during PE. The volume of thrombotic masses does not always correlate with clinical symptoms, which indicates the importance of microvascular remodeling. If CTEPH is suspected, a diagnostic algorithm is required, including ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, CT angiopulmonography and catheterization of the right heart. Treating a patient with CTEPH is a difficult task fora doctor. The timely referral of the patient to the center where they are involved in treatment, including surgery and CTEPH is extremely important. Timely performed thrombendarterectomy in some cases allows to completely cure the patient. In the case of inoperable CTEPH or residual pulmonary hypertension after thrombendarterectomy, balloon angioplasty of the PA is used as well as drug treatment with specific drugs that reduce the pressure in the PA (riociguat), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, macitentan), prostanoids (inhalant illoprost) phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and combined therapy. In this article we considered some consequences directly related to PE: asymptomatic residual pulmonary thrombosis, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
T. M. Uskach, A. S. Tereshchenko
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 1017-1023; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-11-12

Abstract:
Dual antiplatelet therapy is the most important step in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treatment. The new generation of inhibitors of P2Y12 platelet receptors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) provide more pronounced platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. The drugs differ in pharmacodynamics and platelet reactivity tests due to different mechanisms of binding to P2Y12 receptors. The antiplatelet effect of prasugrel and ticagrelor provides clinical benefit and better prognosis in patients with various forms of ACS. In patients with ST-segment elevation ACS prasugrel and ticagrelor are preferred over clopi-dogrel due to their higher efficacy and better clinical outcomes, and currently have preferential positions in guidelines compared to clopidogrel. The comparison of prasugrel versus ticagrelor (ISAR-REACT 5 trial) demonstrated superiority of prasugrel over ticagrelor in patients with ST-segment elevation ACS, for whom an invasive evaluation is planned and in early invasive treatment non-ST-segment elevation ACS. The choice of a drug for dual antiplatelet therapy in various clinical situations remains controversial. The latest ESC guidelines on non-ST elevation ACS (2020) [1] demonstrate the possible preference for prasugrel in patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Current article demonstrates the results of recent clinical studies and the real clinical data regarding antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary interventions. The indications for the use of P2Y12 platelet inhibitors in certain groups of patients are outlined. Treatment selection of the most effective and safe drugs in patients with ACS is highlighted according to the updated European guidelines.
R. M. Velieva, T. B. Pecherina, A. S. Vorobiev, V. V. Kashtalap, D. Yu. Sedykh
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 1024-1030; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-12-10

Abstract:
Today, optimal duration of double antiplatelet (DAPT) and triple antithrombotic therapy (TATT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains the subject of scientific and practical discussion on possibilities of ischemic and hemorrhagic risks assessment. Good clinical risk metrics is based on validated risk scales. However, actual clinical guidelines do not provide a universal and generally accepted scale for assessing the balance of risks of ischemic events and bleeding. Is very necessary to determine the optimal content and DAPT or TATT duration is the existence of validated risk assessment scales would allow to optimize the accuracy of risk assessment of ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients after ACS. One of the probable reasons is absence of validation of existing scales for each specific population of patients with ACS. In this regard, the use of «new» risk assessment systems: PRECISE DAPT and DAPT, in addition to the routine risk assessment scales (GRACE, CRUSADE), could become optimal in all ACS patient categories. In order to identify the initial risk of community-acquired hemorrhagic events during the first 12 months all patients with ACS at the inpatient stage of treatment is used the PRECISE DAPT score. In order to determine the need for prolongation of the standard DAPT. It should be used after 12 months of receiving DAPT in survivors of ACS patients without ischemic events, must be used the DAPT score.
T. V. Pavlova
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 1031-1038; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-12-05

Abstract:
Anticoagulant therapy in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant diseases is often the challenge for clinicians. The high risk of stroke is inherent in atrial fibrillation, and it increases when combined with coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. On the other hand, the comorbidity increases the risk of bleeding. Older age is also the risk factor of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. As a consequence, the choice of specific anticoagulant should be based on a solid evidences, obtained both from randomized clinical trials and from daily clinical practice. In the ROCKET AF trail the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban showed a tendency to reduce the risk of thromboembolism by 20% compared with warfarin in the patients aged 75 years and older. The safety of rivaroxaban has been evaluated in the XANTUS POOLED program. According to the follow-up results for 12 months, more than 96% of patients didn't have any adverse event, and the number of patients with major bleeding was 1.5%. Several meta-analyzes reported a reduction of cardiovascular complications in patients treated by rivaroxaban. In the ROCKET AF trail, a “renal” dose of rivaroxaban (15 mg OD) was studied in patients with chronic kidney disease. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban were validated in this patients, and a simple algorithm for selecting the dose of this drug in patients with chronic kidney disease was provided.
C. M. Razzakova, L. E. Ziganshina
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 916-924; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-11-05

Abstract:
Aim. The aim of our study was to continue a comparative analysis of availability and access to cardiovascular medicines in 2017 and 2018 in the city of Kazan according to the original WHO/HAI methodology to assess the effectiveness of government interventions to ensure access to medicines.Material and methods. We performed a comparative analysis of prices of cardiovascular medicines in 2017 and 2018 in Kazan using the World Health Organization and Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology, to assess medicines' availability and affordability to ensure their rational use. We studied availability and prices of 71 cardiovascular medicines in public and private pharmacies in the city of Kazan and analyzed procurement prices of these medicines in hospitals. Also we studied the affordability of medicines, as well as performed pharmacoeconomic cost-minimization analysis for arterial hypertension pharmacotherapy in 2018. For each name, we studied the prices for the original brand and its lowest-priced generic. We compared medicine prices with international reference, delivered by the Management Sciences for Health and by expressing them as median price ratio (MPR).Results. In the public sector, prices of generic medicines were at the level of reference prices with the indicators of MPR 1.14 [0.41-1.84] and 1.17 [0.49-2.21], in 2017 and 2018 respectively. In the private sector, prices of generics reduced 2 times in 2018 compared to 2017, with the decrease in MPR from 2.22 [1.12-3.91] to 1.25 [0.44-2.32], (p0.05). In 2018, depending on the choice of the medicine the annual course of therapy of hypertension varied from 149 to 28835 rubles.Conclusions. In 2018, the prices of generic cardiovascular medicines, but not of originator brands, reached the level of reference prices in both the public and private sectors of Kazan. According to the WHO/HAI methodology, generic cardiovascular medicines became affordable. In the private sector, there was a reduction in the prices of generic medicines, but not of originator brands, with an improvement of affordability of generics in 2018 compared to 2017.
E. V. Filippov
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 1009-1016; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-11-11

Abstract:
The article is devoted to topical issues of management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and strategies for switching to riociguat therapy in patients with insufficient clinical response against the background of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. The role of the NO metabolic pathway in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was shown. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the importance of the effect of medication on this pathway through soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) has been assessed. The effects of the drug riociguat, the only member of the sGC stimulant class approved for the treatment of PAH, are associated with a dual mechanism of action: riociguat sensitizes the sGC enzyme to endogenous NO by stabilizing the NO-sGC bond, and also directly stimulates the latter through another site of the bond, regardless of NO. The favorable efficacy and safety profile of riociguat has been demonstrated in the PATENT-1,2 studies. During therapy, patients showed an improvement in exercise tolerance, functional class, and a number of other indicators. Studies that indicate the feasibility of using a change in therapy in clinical practice are reviewed. In particular, the article provides a detailed analysis of the REPLACE study. It demonstrated a significantly greater likelihood of achieving clinical improvement and a significant decrease in the rate of development of clinical deterioration when switching patients with PAH from PDE-5 inhibitors to riociguat. This therapy was well tolerated and can be considered as a strategy for managing patients at intermediate risk with insufficient patient response to PDE-5 inhibitors. In conclusion, the need to plan the need for specific therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the region is noted in order to rapidly escalate therapy to achieve a low risk of mortality in these patients.
S. V. Nedogoda, T. N. Sanina, V. V. Tsoma, A. A. Ledyaeva, E. V. Chumachek, A. S. Salasyuk, D. S. Vlasov, O. I. Bychkova
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology, Volume 16, pp 931-937; doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2020-11-03

Abstract:
Aim. To evaluate the single pill combination with lisinopril, amlodipine and indapamide ability in additional angioprotection achievement in patients with arterial hypertension and high pulse wave velocity (PWV) regardless on previous antihypertensive therapy (AHT).Material and methods. To the open non-randomized study duration 12 weeks 40 patients were included taking triple AHT during 6 months. All participants underwent ambulatory 24 hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring, applanation tonometry (augmentation index and central BP), pulse wave velocity assessment, laboratory tests (HbA1c, serum uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], serum uric acid).Results. We observed additional systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) reduction by 16.9% and 22.11% on lisinopril, amlodipine and indapamide single pill combination. Lisinopril, amlodipine and indapamide single pill combination decreased 24 h mean SBP by 16.77%, and 24 h mean DBP -23.5% (ABPM data), PWV by 19.7%, augmentation index by 14.81%, central SBP by 11.9% (pConclusion. Lisinopril, amlodipine and indapamide single pill combination provided control BP, arterial elastic properties improving (augmentation index, PWV, central BP) and favorable influence on inflammation and serum uric acid level.
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