Open Journal of Blood Diseases
ISSN / EISSN : 21643180 / 21643199
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 116
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 22 January 2020
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 12-21; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.101002
EmoTypeSC™ test is a new cheap, faster, and appropriate screening method for neonatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease. The literature reports a few cases of its applicability. This study extends the cases study and reviews the available literature. The sample consisted of 99 subjects, including 87 newborns (36 girls and 51 boys; 1.9 - 4.9 kg BW) sampled among 566 babies bone at six hospitals in Kisangani city (Democratic Republic of Congo) during March-April 2019; height infant-adolescents (
Published: 22 January 2020
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.101001
Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) is essential to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In our institution, MFC specimens are submitted by pathologists or an ordering provider. As endoscopy has revolutionized the ability to biopsy the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, our lab increasingly receives provider-submitted, endoscopically-acquired GI biopsies (PEGIB) for MFC analysis. This study evaluates the clinical utility of MFC performed on PEGIB and proposes a new testing algorithm to enhance the pathology team’s role in MFC test utilization. Fifty-five archival PEGIB MFC cases were identified and histories were reviewed. MFC was non-contributory to the overall diagnosis in 85% of PEGIB. Retroactively implementing an algorithm that used PEGIB permanent section screening to triage the 55 archival cases resulted in the appropriate identification of 100% of specimens whose diagnosis would have benefitted from MFC analysis, and the optimization of test utilization by decreasing unnecessary MFC studies.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 23-36; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.102003
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the sickle cell trait carriage is estimated at 25%. Routine neonatal screening is not a common practice, leading to a very late diagnosis. In this study, the screening of pregnant women was assessed as well as their attitudes. This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 245 pregnant women, sampled by convenience in four hospitals in Kisangani city (Democratic Republic of Congo) and screened using the sickle SCAN® test, from February 1 to July 31, 2019. The sensitivity and specificity of the latter were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry as the gold standard. The attitudes of 240 pregnant women without previous screening history were assessed upon the announcement of the results. The sensitivity of screening for hemoglobin (Hb) AA and Hb AS was 96.69% and 98.39%, respectively; while the specificities were 99.43% and 96.32%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient (κ) was excellent. Concerning attitudes, Hb SS pregnant women and 55.17% of AS pregnant women worried when the results relating to their hemoglobin status were announced. The sickle SCAN® test was found reliable for sickle cell disease screening in Kisangani. The announcement of the results, mainly positive, raises worry among pregnant woman. Therefore, we recommend the involvement of a clinician psychologist for pre-screening counselling and for results announcement, as well as early newborns and unmarried teenage girls screening.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 71-76; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.103009
Plasma cell leukemia is a rare malignant hemopathy, characterized by a peripheral plasma cell proliferation of more than 20% of the leukocyte formula. A few rare cases have been described. From which we report a case of plasma cell leukemia in a 52-year-old Nigerien subject initially in a coma, whose anemia led to the diagnosis in the Onco-Hematology department of the National Hospital of Niamey and the evolution was marked by clinical and biological remission after 3 cures of CTD, but died in an infectious picture after 6 cures.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 37-40; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.102004
Objective: In Japan, red blood cell (RBC) solution is usually transported by car from a medical institution to the patient’s house for home transfusion. However, there are no regulations for transporting blood by car in the medical setting. Therefore, we assessed and compared the methods (containers) used for transporting the RBC solution by car. Materials and Methods: Irradiated RBC solution samples (280 mL) supplied by the Japan Red Cross Society were each divided into two bags. The quality of blood transported by car (1 - 2 hours) in an active transport refrigerator (ATR) (control group) was compared with that transported in a cooler, or styrofoam box (study group). We tested the hemolytic effects of transportation by car, storage, and filtration through a transfusion set on the lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels in the RBC solutions. Results: Post-filtered LD levels were significantly higher in the RBC solutions transported in a cooler-box with inadequate temperature control when compared to those transported in an ATR with optimal temperature control. However, under conditions of optimal temperature control, the post-filtered LD levels were comparable in the control and study (both cooler and styrofoam boxes) group RBC solutions. Conclusion: Temperature management is critical for the maintenance of the quality of the RBC solution transported by car.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 61-70; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.103008
Background: Toxoplasmosis is an extremely rare disease that occurs in the hosts contact with cat and dog frequently. Most human acute infections go unnoticed in immunocompetent individuals, and gradually transformed into chronic infection. However, while host immunity significantly waned, the risk of reactivation of chronic toxoplasma infection is greatly increased. Reactivation of latent toxoplasmic infection often presents with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neurological signs and pneumonia. However, for the non-specific clinical and biological signs and its fetal outcome, toxoplasmosis is often misdiagnosed and only revealed at autopsy. Case Presenation: We report a case hospitalized for a week history of cough, anorexia and fatigue with nasal bleeding for a day. After hospitalization, broad-spectrum antibiotherapy was started without a clear diagnosis of infection. Then the patient did a lot of investigations to search the cause of infection, but there were no positive findings. However, an unexpected discovery was detected from peripheral blood smears, shows 1 - 3 μm in diameter, scattered, short and bow like microorganisms on Day 39 of hospitalization. Combined with the medical history and clinical manifestation, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed finally. Unfortunately, secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was diagnosed only two days after targeted anti-infection therapy, and the patient died on Day 45 of hospitalization. Conclusions: Patient with unexplained long-term fever and neurological symptoms, interstitial pneumonitis or myocarditis, toxoplasmosis should be positively considered. Only early diagnosis and treatment can increase the possibility of a successful cure and avoid other secondary diseases.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 77-88; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.103010
Background: Haematological abnormalities are strong independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. Objectives of the Study: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of the changes in the baseline peripheral blood cell counts among adult HIV positive patients. To also determine the CD4+ T cell levels and its correlation with the changes in the baseline cell counts of the patients using HIV negative blood donors as controls. Methods: This was a case controlled prospective study. The subjects were antiretroviral therapy naive adult HIV positive patients and HIV negative blood donor controls. Five milliliters (5 mls) of venous blood was collected from the cubitus of every consecutive consenting subject. Blood sample was analysed for baseline complete blood cell counts and the CD4+ T lymphocyte levels using Sysmex and Cyflow R Counter autoanalysers respectively. Obtained data was analysed with the statistical package for the social scientist (SPSS version 20.0). The Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of subjects was measured by the manual standard Westergreen method. Results: Of 300 subjects, there were 139 (46.3%) males and 161 (53.7%) females in the study. Anaemia was found in 72 (29.2%), leucopenia in 20 (8%) and thrombocytopenia in 6 (2.4%) of the patients. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates of the subjects were 81.88 mm/hr and 9.46 mm/hr (p = 0.000) for the patients and the controls respectively. The mean CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counts were 293 cells/μl and 750 cells/μl (p = 0.000) for the patients and controls respectively. Conclusion: Anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were more prevalent among the studied HIV positive patients.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 48-54; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.102006
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which was first described in 1939 by paediatricians Scott and Robb-Smith, is a life-threatening disease. HLH is characterized as cytokine release syndrome which is caused by excessive but non-malignant activation of macrophages and/or histiocytes in bone marrow and other reticuloendothelial systems. EBV-HLH is the most common type of infection-associated HLH, has a high mortality rate without prompt and effective treatment. A previous study showed that the one-year mortality rate of EBV-HLH patients is 75%. Here we report a case of EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in adult, and the lessons from the treatment process. Through this case, we think that for EBV-related HLH, EBV-DNA should also be monitored in addition to hemophagocytosis-related indicators during treatment. In addition, DEP regimen may not be suitable for patients who have received at least partial response, because impaired immunological functioning may lead to EBV and hemophagocytic re-activity.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 41-47; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.102005
Background: There are no consensual diagnosis criteria to make diagnosis of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis and identify its 2 variants. Here we delineate the frequency of the complication in its severe form and describe its clinical features. Methods: We included in the study all the patients with sickle cell disease who were presenting fever, jaundice, pain in the upper right quadrant and filling up the biological criteria of the severe sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (serum direct bilirubin ≥ 78.5 mg/dL). Patients with evidence of viral hepatitis or gallstones were not included in the study. Results: Sixty-two patients with an average age of 21.5 years (range 18 and 25 years) meet the inclusion criteria, minimum serum direct bilirubin: 82 versus 528 for the maximum. The liver cytolysis was major and ranged from 310 to 1550 UI/L. Forty-nine patients (83.9%) did not develop any organ failure. The symptoms and biological abnormalities resolved with supportive treatment within 7 days. The global lethality was 16.1% associated with liver failure. Conclusion: Severe sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis is more frequent than we thought and was mainly represented by borderline clinical feature. Early intervention may reduce the progression to organ failure stage and ultimate death.
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 10, pp 55-60; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2020.102007