Open Journal of Blood Diseases

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21643180 / 21643199
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 106
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Alejandra Ensinck María, Eliana Luján Brajovich Melina, Estela García Borrás Silvia, Miguel Cotorruelo Carlos, Silvia Biondi Claudia, María Alejandra Ensinck, Melina Eliana Luján Brajovich, Silvia Estela García Borrás, Carlos Miguel Cotorruelo, Claudia Silvia Biondi
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 47-59; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.93006

Abstract:Background: Mature red blood cells lack protein synthesis and are unable to restore inactivated enzymes, damaged cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. An oxidation breakdown of band 3 is probably part of the mechanism leading to the generation of a senescent cell antigen. This specific signal serves for the clearance of RBCs by inducing the binding of autologous IgG and C3, leading to phagocytosis. In addition, phosphatidilserin molecules appear in the outer membrane and the CD47 expression diminishes. Methods: Erythrocytes of different ages from whole blood were studied by flow cytometry analysing light scatter proprieties, binding of autologous IgG, C3 complement deposits, externalization of phosphatidylserine and CD47 expression. Dot-plot analysis based on forward scatter versus side scatter parameters showed two RBCs populations of different sizes and density. RBCs were further incubated with Alexa 488 IgG, APC-anti-C3, PE-annexin-V and PE-CD47. The comparison of the values obtained for the different variables studied in SeRBC and YRBC populations was carried out by the Student t-test for matched samples or by the Wilcoxon test (after verification of the normality assumption). Results: The percentage of IgG and C3 positive cells was significantly higher in senescent red blood cells population. The fraction of annexin-V positive RBCs was also larger in SeRBCs while the CD47 expression was lower in this population. Conclusions: These results indicate that flow cytometry allow differenciation of erythrocytes populations of different ages, turning this tool into an useful alternative option to study erythrocyte aging process. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the process and mechanisms involved in erythrocyte senescence process.
Osaro Erhabor, Nma Muhammed Jiya, Murtala Bello Abubakar, Sadiya Usman
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 60-76; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.93007

Abstract:Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. It is associated with oxidative stress which occurs as a result of HbS unstable character causing a rise in the formation of free radicals. The aim of this study was to determine some antioxidant enzymes activities among patients with SCD. We investigated the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) levels among 60 children aged 1 - 14 years with SCD. Twenty-two age-matched non-SCD children served as control. The study subjects were divided into two groups; steady state A (n = 30) and vaso- occlusive crisis (VOC) B (n = 30). The SOD, and GPx levels were significantly lower among the SCD subjects compared to controls (p = 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences in the SOD and GPX levels between sickle cell disease patient in steady state (A) and those in crisis (B) (p = 0.998 and 0.555) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the SOD and GPX levels between sickle cell disease patient in steady state (A) and non-sickle cell controls (p = 0.005 and 0.000) respectively as well as between sickle cell disease patient in VOC (B) and non-sickle cell controls (p = 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences in the SOD and GPX levels of sickle disease subjects based on age, gender, maternal level of educational attainment, occupational group and income (p = 0.629 and 0.476; p = 0.382 and 0.417; p = 0.450 and 0.314 and p = 0.397 and 0.762 and p = 0.553 and 0.929) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the SOD and GPX levels of sickle disease subjects of Hausa/Fulani extraction versus Yoruba (p = 0.714 and 0.856), between Hausa/Fulani extraction versus Igbo (0.917 and 0.486) and between Yoruba extraction versus Igbo (p = 0.740 and 0.965) respectively. This study confirms that SCD children have lower values of antioxidant enzymes compared to controls. SOD and GPX levels in sickle cell disease patient in steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis are significantly lower compared that of non-sickle cell controls. Patients with SCD may benefit from substances with antioxidant properties which can potentially reduce the complications associated with the disease.
Kasinathan Ganesh, Naila Kori Ahlam, Ganesh Kasinathan, Ahlam Naila Kori
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 41-46; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.92005

Abstract:Introduction: Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma (AITL) is a well-recognized subtype of peripheral T cell lymphoma. It occurs predominantly in the lymph nodes with presence of systemic symptoms and carries a dismal prognosis. AITL accounts for about 1% - 2% of all cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Case presentation: A 59-year-old gentleman of Chinese ethnicity with no prior medical illness presented to Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital with a two-month history of fever, anorexia, unintentional weight loss and generalized lymphadenopathies. Physical examination revealed diffuse lymphadenopathies involving the cervical, axillary and inguinal regions bilaterally. He had hepatosplenomegaly. An excisional biopsy of the cervical and inguinal lymph nodes was compatible with AITL. The bone marrow biopsy demonstrated disease infiltration. He was treated with 6 cycles of Etoposide-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation high dose therapy-autologous stem cell transplant (HDT-ASCT). He achieved complete remission on 18-Fluoro- deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18-FDG-PET) imaging. His bone marrow biopsy showed disease clearance. Conclusion: The diagnosis of AITL remains challenging and often poses a dilemma to clinicians and lymphoma pathologists. The natural history of AITL remains very variable with many of them relapsing subsequently despite achieving prior complete remission.
Hani M. Mohamed, Isam M. Sadik, Abdelgadir Eltom, Ahmed L. Osman, Asaad Ma. Babker
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.91001

Abstract:Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease and it is a major cause of morbidity; several studies indicate that diabetes is a likely under reported cause of death. Chromium’s is important trace element to control diabetes mellitus and metabolism of carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Objective: The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between serum chromium, with HbA1c, Total cholesterol and Triglycerides among type 2 diabetes patients among diabetic patients. Methodology: This is cross-sectional study done in Jabber Abu Ezz Centre for treatment and care of diabetics in Khartoum―Sudan. Four hundred subjects were enrolled in this study; one hundred subjects were normal healthy as control group, and three hundred subjects diabetic patient type 2 as test group; demographic and biochemical data were collected; serum chromium, Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c), Total cholesterol Triglycerides, were determined by using NYCOCARD READER II, spectrophotometer (Biosystem 310) and spectrophotometer 210-VGP. Result: In this study there is significant parameters level means of FBS HbA1c, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Chromium of the test groups when compared with healthy control groups subjects (P = 0.001, 0.018, 0.01, 0.011, 0.004), respectively. Significant negative correlation is between FBS, HbA1c, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Chromium (r = −0.555, P value = 0.003), (r = −0.668, P value = 0.002), (r = −0.335, P value = 0.004) and (r = −0.774, P value = 0.002) respectively. Conclusion: There was significant correlation between serum Chromium level with fasting blood sugaer, Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c), Total cholesterol and Triglycerides among type 2 diabetes patients.
Hiroshi Fujita, Shigeko Nishimura, Kazuhiro Sugiyama
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 20-29; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.91003

Abstract:Purposes: Hypofibrinogenemia is usually complicated with severe and massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, especially in liver cirrhosis. In Japan, neither fibrinogen concentrate nor cryoprecipitate (CRYO) is available for cases of acquired hypofibrinogenemia to recover the hemostatic level of fibrinogen rapidly. We prepared and produced in-house CRYO from fresh frozen plasma, and compared mortality between pre-implementation and post-implementation of CRYO. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our single tertiary medical center with upper GI bleeding from January 2011 to December 2016. The observational control period was from January 2011 to February 2013. From March 2013 to December 2016, we implemented the transfusion of CRYO, which was prepared and produced in our hospital. Clinical outcomes were compared between the patients in the two periods. Patients: Eleven patients in the control period and 10 in the intervention period were eligible for analysis. Results: In-hospital mortality (55% vs. 20%, P = 0.238) and mortality within 24 hour after admission (27% vs. 0%, P = 0.246) tended to be lower in the intervention period than in the control period, although the patients had more severe coagulation on admission than those in the control period. The plasma fibrinogen level before the treatment of hemostasis in the intervention period was higher than that in the control period (80 ± 9 mg/dL vs. 127 ± 15 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Implementation of in-house CRYO transfusion may reduce the rate of mortality due to severe upper GI bleeding.
Japheth C. Kipkulei, Nathan Buziba, Simeon Mining, Hellen Jepngetich
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 30-40; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.91004

Osaro Erhabor, Abdullahi Shehu, Tosan Erhabor, Teddy Charles Adias, Ikechukwu Polycarp Iwueke
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 9, pp 77-91; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2019.94008

Abstract:Hypertension (HTN) is a major health problem worldwide. It can lead to cardiovascular disease and functional disturbances including haematological parameters. Full blood count (FBC) parameters of a total of 60 consecutively-recruited hypertensive subjects and 30 age-matched non-hypertensive controls were studied between June and September, 2018. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) anticoagulated blood and serum from subjects and control participants were analyzed for FBC. The total white cell count (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV) haemoglobin (Hb), neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly lower among hypertensive subjects compared to non-hypertensive controls (p 40-year-old compared to those <40 years of age (p = 0.02 and 0.01) respectively. The RBC count was significantly higher among female compared to male hypertensives (p = 0.05). The haemoglobin and monocyte count were significantly higher among male compared to female hypertensives (p = 0.02 and 0.04) respectively. The monocyte count was significantly higher among hypertensive subjects of Hausa ethnic group compared to Fulani (t = 2.79, p < 0.01). The findings from this study indicates that the WBC, PCV, Hb, neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly lower among hypertensive subjects compared to non-hypertensive controls. Stage of the disease, age, gender and ethnicity had a significant effect on the FBC parameters of the hypertensive patients. There is need to step up public enlightenment programme to educate hypertensive patients on the need for attending clinic regularly for effective follow up. It is recommended that facilities for the routine monitoring of FBC parameters among hypertensive in the area be provided.
Elham O. Hamed, Abeer Fakher El-Deen
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 8, pp 37-48; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2018.82005

Abstract:Background: Multiparameter flow cytometry is the most important method for the lineage assignment and maturational analysis of acute leukemias (AL) cells. The multi parametric immunophenotyping analysis allows the detection of aberrant antigen expression and the analysis of heterogeneity and clonality of malignant cells in AL. The aim of the work is to study the immunophenotypes of blasts from patients with AL and determine the frequency of aberrant markers. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study to analyze immunophenotypic data of de novo 144 AL patients who were diagnosed in Clinical Pathology Department, Sohag University. Results: We found that 61.8% of AL patients were classified as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) while 38.9% classified as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The commonest FAB subtype in AML group was AML-M2 (31.8%) followed by M4-M5 27.3%. As regard ALL, there were 85.7% with B-ALL and 14.3% with T-ALL. The aberrancy expressions were found in 66 of AL cases (45.8%), CD7 was the most commonly expressed lymphoid antigen in AML (25%), CD13 was the most commonly expressed myeloid antigen in ALL (39.3%). Conclusion: The multi parametric immunophenotyping analysis of AL is sufficient for diagnosis and classification of leukemia. The frequencies of aberrant markers in AL were matched with many published data.
Salwa S. Khodeir, Tahany A. Elkerdany, Abeer Attia Saad, Yasmin N. El Sakhawy, Gehan M. Hamed, Noha Bassiouny Hassan
Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Volume 8, pp 27-36; doi:10.4236/ojbd.2018.82004

Abstract:Introduction: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) enables the examination of a greater number of trephine biopsy levels and is helpful in determining additional scattered malignant cells. The aim of this study is to detect extra-pattern and subtle lymphomatous infiltration in bone marrow biopsies using CD20 and CD3 immunostaining. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 newly diagnosed Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) patients. Their bone marrow trephine biopsies were assessed on routine histology [Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E)], and were further subjected to IHC using CD20 and CD3. Results: Pattern of involvement by H & E was highlighted by IHC. It showed additional interstitial pattern in 9 cases, parasinusoidal streaks in one case and highlighted a patchy pattern in another case with interstitial involvement on H & E. IHC also detected subtle infiltrations on additional 5.5% cases compared with histology alone. It helped in differentiating reactive (12 cases) and malignant lymphoid infiltration (33 cases). Conclusion: CD20 and CD3 immunostaining performed routinely on bone marrow trephine biopsies has the ability to reveal extra-pattern of infiltration and improve detection of subtle lymphoid involvement. A combined procedure identifying several distinctive features, in particular histotopography and IHC, provides a promising way of discriminating reactive from neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates in bone marrow trephine biopsies.