World Journal of Surgical Oncology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1477-7819 / 1477-7819
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
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Total articles ≅ 2,969
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Ding Nie, Qiuyue Fang, Bin Li, Jianhua Cheng, Chuzhong Li, Songbai Gui, Yazhuo Zhang,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02272-9

Abstract:
Background Pituitary adenomas are one type of intracranial tumor, which can be divided into microadenoma (≤ 1 cm), macroadenoma (> 1 cm), and giant adenoma (≥ 4 cm) according to their diametral sizes. They are benign, typically slow-progressing, whereas the biological behavior of some of them is invasive, which presents a major clinical challenge. Treatment of some pituitary adenomas is still difficult due to drug resistance or multiple relapses, usually after surgery, medication, and radiation. At present, no clear prediction and treatment biomarkers have been found in pituitary adenomas and some of them do not cause clinical symptoms, so patients are often found to be ill through physical examination, and some are even found through autopsy. With the development of research on pituitary adenomas, the immune response has become a hot spot and may serve as a novel disease marker and therapeutic target. The distribution and function of immune cells and their secreted molecules in pituitary adenomas are extremely complex. Researchers found that infiltration of immune cells may have a positive effect on the treatment and prognosis of pituitary adenomas. In this review, we summarized the advance of tumor immunity in pituitary adenomas, revealing the immunity molecules as potential biomarkers as well as therapeutic agents for pituitary adenomas. Conclusion The immune studies related to pituitary adenomas may help us find relevant immune markers. At the same time, the exploration of immunotherapy also provides new options for the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
Qingjuan Meng, Ningning Wang,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02274-7

Abstract:
Background X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST) is the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) related to cancer, which is involved in the development and progression of various types of tumor. However, up to now, the exact role and molecular mechanism of XIST in the progression of ovarian cancer are not clear. We studied the function of XIST in ovarian cancer cells and clinical tumor specimens. Methods RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-335 and BCL2L2 in ovarian cancer cells and tissues. MTT and transwell assays were carried out to detect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression level of BCL2L2. The interaction between miR-335 and XIST/BCL2L2 was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay. Results The inhibition of XIST can inhibit the proliferation invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells. In addition, the miR-335/BCL2L2 axis was involved in the functions of XIST in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggested that XIST could regulate tumor proliferation and invasion and migration via modulating miR-335/BCL2L2. Conclusion XIST might be a carcinogenic lncRNA in ovarian cancer by regulating miR-335, and it can serve as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer.
, MukurDipi Ray, Babul Bansal, Sandeep Bhoriwal, Sushma Bhatnagar, Rakesh Garg, Nishkarsh Gupta, Atul Sharma, Lalit Kumar, Sanjay Thulkar, et al.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02276-5

Abstract:
Background Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has recently emerged as a viable management option for peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM). CRS and HIPEC is a complex, multidisciplinary and resource-intensive surgical procedure. It has a steep learning curve and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The expertise is mostly limited to few dedicated high-volume centers located in developed countries. We present a single institutional experience of 232 cases of CRS and HIPEC performed at a tertiary care cancer center in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). Methods A multidisciplinary PSM program was initiated in 2015 at a high-volume public-sector tertiary care cancer center in North India catering largely to patients belonging to low- and middle-income groups. Perioperative protocols were developed, and a prospective structured database was created to capture data. All patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC between January 2015 and December 2020 were identified, and the data was retrospectively analyzed for clinical spectrum, surgical details, and perioperative morbidity and mortality. Results Two hundred and thirty-two patients underwent CRS and HIPEC during the study period. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (56.5%) was the most common malignancy treated, followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei (18.5%), colorectal carcinoma (13.4%), and malignant mesothelioma (5.6%). Optimal CRS could be achieved in 94.4% of patients. Cisplatin and mitomycin were the most common drugs used for HIPEC. A total of 28.0% of patients had morbidity including deep vein thrombosis, subacute intestinal obstruction, sepsis, burst abdomen, lymphocele, urinoma, acute renal failure, and enterocutaneous fistula. The overall treatment-related mortality was 3.5%. Conclusions Results of the current study indicate that it is feasible to establish a successful CRS and HIPEC program for PSM in government-funded hospitals in LMIC facing resource constraints. The most common indication for CRS and HIPEC were carcinoma of the ovary followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei and colorectal carcinoma. Overall morbidity and mortality in the current series are comparable to global standards, reported from high-income countries. A protocol-based multidisciplinary team approach, optimal patient selection, and surgical expertise can help achieve optimal outcomes in government-funded hospitals in LMIC.
Zhaoxia Lin, Yaosheng Li, Rongfeng Shao, Yuqing Hu,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02279-2

Abstract:
Background The incidence of gallbladder carcinoma (GBM) in China has increased in recent years. Here, the functional mechanism of lncRNA TTN-AS1 in GBC was preliminary elucidated. Methods The expression levels of lncRNA TTN-AS1, miR-107, and HMGA1 in tissues and cell lines were assessed by RT-qPCR. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assays. Cell invasion and migration abilities were evaluated by Transwell assays. The relationship between miR-107 and lncRNA TTN-AS1 or HMGA1 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Results Upregulation of lncRNA TTN-AS1 and downregulation of miR-107 were detected in GBC. Furthermore, the expressions between TTN-AS1 and miR-107 were mutually inhibited in GBC. Functionally, lncRNA TTN-AS1 promoted cell viability and motility in GBC by sponging miR-107. In addition, miR-107 directly targets HMGA1. And HMGA1 can be positively regulated by lncRNA TTN-AS1 in GBC. Furthermore, HMGA1 promoted GBC progression by interacting with lncRNA TTN-AS1/miR-107 axis. Conclusion LncRNA TTN-AS1 acted as a tumor promoter in GBC by sponging miR-107 and upregulating HMGA1.
Zhimin Qiu, Ling Wang,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02273-8

Abstract:
Background Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly malignant tumor among women worldwide. Many studies have reported that circular RNAs (circRNAs) were participated in the regulation of multiple cancers development. However, the mechanism underlying hsa_circ_0001982 in breast cancer development is still unclear. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of circ_0001982, microRNA-1287-5p (miR-1287-5p), and mucin 19 (MUC19) in BC tissues and cells under hypoxia. Moreover, glycolysis was evaluated by glucose consumption, lactic acid production, and hexokinase II (HK2) protein levels. The protein levels of cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and HK2 were determined by western blot assay. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-h-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and transwell assays, respectively. The relationship between miR-1287-5p and circ_0001982 or MUC19 was predicted using starbase v3.0 or Targetscan, and verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. The xenograft model in nude mice was established to examine the effect of circ_0001982 in vivo. Results The levels of circ_0001982 and MUC19 were upregulated, while miR-1287-5p was downregulated in BC tissues and cells under hypoxia. Knockdown of circ_0001982 hindered glycolysis, cell viability, migration, and invasion of BC cells under hypoxia. Mechanistic studies discovered that circ_0001982 could act as a sponge for miR-1287-5p to enhance MUC19 expression in BC cells. In addition, circ_0001982 silencing reduced xenograft tumor growth by regulating miR-1287-5p/MUC19 axis. Conclusion Circ_0001982 affected BC cells glycolysis, proliferation, migration, and invasion through miR-1287-5p/MUC19 axis under hypoxia.
Bisheng Cheng, Shuchao Ye,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02265-8

Abstract:
Backgrounds At present, the application of tumor reduction surgery in oligometastatic prostate cancer has aroused extensive discussion among urologists, but clinicians have not reached a consensus on this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cytoreductive surgery for patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer by meta-analysis. Methods All relevant studies were systematically searched through The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) up to December 2019. All the previous clinical studies on the comparison of long-term efficacy between the cytoreductive surgery group and the endocrine therapy group were included in the search. The included studies were analyzed using Stata ver.14.0. The research has been registered on PROSPERO website with the registration number of crd42021224316. The relevant registration information can be obtained from the website: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero. Results The case presentation is as follows: ten studies were identified that met the conclusion criteria. The total number of samples was 804; 449 patients underwent cytoreductive surgery, and 355 patients underwent endocrine therapy, and we conducted a meta-analysis of studies to compare the prognosis of endocrine therapy and cytoreductive surgery for treating prostate cancer. After all the studies were analyzed, we found that between cytoreductive surgery and endocrine therapy, a significant difference existed in overall survival (HR = 0.635, 95% CI 0.443–0.908, P = 0.013), cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.407, 95% CI 0.243–0.681, P = 0.001), and progression-free survival (HR = 0.489, 95% CI 0.315–0.758, P = 0.001), while there were no significant difference in progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (HR = 0.859, 95% CI 0.475–1.554, P = 0.616). Conclusion The cytoreductive surgery held advantages in overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and progression-free survival. Therefore, compared with endocrine therapy, cytoreductive surgery could be a more suitable approach in treating oligometastatic prostate cancer.
Correction
, Robert R. J. Coebergh Van Den Braak, Jeroen L. A. van Vugt, Jan N. M. Ijzermans, Stefan Buettner
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-1; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02252-z

, , Weihua Xu, Guoxing Chen, Zhijun Liu,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02270-x

Abstract:
Background Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) refers to an abnormal channel between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. It is a potentially fatal postoperative complication after pulmonary resection and a complex challenge for thoracic surgeons because many patients with BPF ultimately develop refractory empyema, which is difficult to manage and has a major impact on quality of life and survival. Therefore, an operative intervention combined with conservative and endoscopic therapies may be required to control infection completely, to occlude BPF, and to obliterate the empyema cavity during treatment periods. Case presentation Two patients who suffered from BPF complicated with chronic empyema after lobectomy were treated in other hospitals for a long time and did not recover. In our department, we performed staged surgery and creatively combined an Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO) device (AGA Medical Corp, Golden Valley, MN, USA) with pedicled muscle flap transposition. First, open-window thoracostomy (OWT), or effective drainage, was performed according to the degree of contamination in the empyema cavity after the local infection was controlled. Second, Amplatzer device implantation and pedicled muscle flap transposition was performed at the same time, which achieved the purpose of obliterating the infection, closing the fistula, and tamponading the residual cavity. The patients recovered without complications and were discharged with short hospitalization stays. Conclusions We believe that the union of the Amplatzer device and pedicle muscle flap transposition seems to be a safe and effective treatment for BPF with chronic empyema and can shorten the length of the related hospital stay.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02271-w

Abstract:
Background Biologic bone reconstruction in limb salvage surgery for the treatment of malignant bone tumours has always been controversial. The various inactivation methods, their convenience and stability, the curative effects elicited and associated costs all need to be considered. This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of intraoperative extracorporeal irradiated reimplantation with alcohol-inactivated autograft reimplantation for limb salvage surgery in patients with osteosarcoma. Methods We retrospectively analysed 28 patients with osteosarcoma, 14 patients treated with intraoperative cobalt 60 irradiation and reimplantation (group A), and 14 patients treated by alcohol-inactivated autograft reimplantation (group B). The postoperative complications and clinical efficacy of each treatment method were compared by statistical analysis. Results The local recurrence rate was 14.3% in each group. Complete bony union was achieved in 64.3% of patients in group A and 71.4% of patients in group B. The overall 5-year survival rate was 71.4% in group A and 78.6% in group B. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 25.33 ± 4.72 (range 15–30) in group A and 24.00 ± 5.85 (range 15–30) in group B, and the mean International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) score was 25.79 ± 5.13 (range 20–36) in group A and 26.14 ± 5.33 (range 20–30) in group B. P < 0.05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. The results showed that the long-term clinical efficacy did not differ significantly between the two methods. Conclusions In limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma, intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and alcohol-inactivated autograft reimplantation yielded equivalent outcomes. The alcohol-inactivated method may be a much more convenient and inexpensive way to reconstruct bone defects. Additional studies as well as more case studies are needed to fully evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of this treatment method.
Jinbo Song, Zhe Yu, Bingqi Dong, Mingkai Zhu, Xiaofeng Guo, Yongkang Ma, Shiming Zhao,
World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s12957-021-02268-5

Abstract:
Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignant tumour of the genitourinary system. We aimed to analyse the potential value of metastasis-related biomarkers, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and the proliferative marker Ki-67 in the diagnosis of RCC. Methods Data from 24 laparoscopic radical nephrectomies (RNs) and 17 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (PNs) were collected in 2018. The numbers and positive rates of CTCs and circulating tumour microemboli (CTM) in the peripheral blood were obtained at three different time points: just before surgery, immediately after surgery and 1 week after surgery. Ki-67 protein expression was evaluated in the RCC tissue by immunohistochemistry. Results Except for the statistically significant association between the preoperative CTC counts and tumour size, no association between the number and positive rate of perioperative CTCs and clinicopathological features was found. The CTC counts gradually decreased during the perioperative period, and at 1 week after surgery, they were significantly lower than those before surgery. High Ki-67 expression was significantly positively correlated with preoperative CTC counts. In addition, Ki-67 expression was higher in the high CTC group (≥ 5 CTCs). Conclusion Our results suggest that surgical nephrectomy is associated with a decrease in CTC counts in RCC patients. CTCs can act as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC. A careful and sufficient long-term follow-up is needed for patients with high preoperative CTC counts.
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