Advances in Marine Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2376-4260 / 2376-4279
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 110
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刚李 玉
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 45-55; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.83006

Abstract:
在海洋工程试验水池中,进行模型试验时,造波机产生的波浪从池壁和结构模型上反射后生成反射波,传播到造波机处再次反射产生二次反射波,二次反射波干扰了水池的波浪场,从而降低了试验的精度,这对试验是不利的。为消除二次反射波常采用主动吸收系统,其中,力反馈式主动吸收系统考虑造波板上作用力,以力与造波板冲程之比为吸收传递函数,实时控制系统的输入与输出,使得生成的波逐渐接近理想波浪。为了使得造波板冲程和力保持最优平衡关系,本文基于理论传递函数,设计了IIR数字滤波器进行滤波,实现主动吸收控制。对于设计IIR数字滤波器,粒子群优化算法是一种非常有效的设计方法,该算法设计简单,运算速度快,但是该算法在优化过程中可能会局限于局部最优,而无法得到全局最优解。本文在更新粒子速度时,采用了一种新型的方法——即基于惯性权重改进学习因子,惯性权重与学习因子呈非线性函数关系,对比惯性权重线性递减、非线性递减的改进方法。仿真实验结果表明,该方法收敛速度较快,迭代次数较少,求解效率较高,优化结果最优。 In the ocean engineering test basin, during the model test, the wave generated by the wave-makers generates reflected waves after being reflected from the basin wall and structural model, which propagates to the wave-making plates and reflects again to generate the secondary reflected wave. The secondary reflected wave interferes with the wave field of the basin, thus reducing the accuracy of the test, which is unfavorable to the test. An active absorption system is often used to eliminate the secondary reflection wave. The force-feedback type active absorption system takes the ratio of the force to the stroke of the wave-making paddles as the absorption transfer function, and controls the input and output of the system in real time, so that the generated wave gradually approaches the ideal wave. In order to maintain the optimal balance between the stroke and force of the wave-making paddles, IIR digital filter based on the theoretical transfer function is designed to realize the active absorption control. To design IIR digital filter, particle swarm optimization algorithm is a very efficient design method, the algorithm is simple and has fast calculation speed, but the algorithm in the optimization process could be limited to the local optimum, and can’t get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a new kind of method is used to update the particle velocity based on inertia weight to improve the learning factor. Inertia weight and learning factor have a nonlinear function relation. Compared with the improved method of linear decrease and nonlinear decrease of inertia weight, the simulation results show that this method has fast convergence speed, fewer iteration times, higher solving efficiency and optimal optimization results.
平王 金
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.82005

Abstract:
通过船载自动气象站雨量计记录的两个航次高分辨率降雨资料,对太平洋、印度洋和大西洋的热带和副热带海域海上降雨的频率、强度和时间分布规律进行了统计,结果显示在这两个航次中,热带辐合云系是造成高强度降水的主要天气系统,海上有降雨的天数约占45.2%,以阵性降雨为主,从凌晨4点到下午15点下阵雨的概率相对较大。结合自动气象站同步记录的其他气象要素和船载多普勒天气雷达回波资料,对一次典型海上降雨过程进行了分析,发现在降雨期间会有明显的能见度下降,大气温湿度和海表皮温也会在降雨期间产生明显变化,多普勒天气雷达回波强度可以比较直观地显示出雨区大小、方位和距离。 Based on the high-resolution rainfall data recorded by the ship-borne automatic weather station rainfall gauge in two voyages, the frequency, intensity and time distribution of rainfall in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean are statistically analyzed. The results show that in these two voyages, the tropical convergence cloud system is the main weather system that causes high-intensity rainfall, and the number of days with rainfall at sea accounts for about 45.2%, which is dominated by intermittent rainfall. The probability of intermittent rainfall is relatively large from 4:00 a.m. to 15:00 p.m. Combined with other meteorological elements synchronously recorded by automatic weather station and ship-borne Doppler weather radar echo data, a typical rainfall process at sea is analyzed. It is found that there will be a significant decrease in visibility during rainfall, and the atmospheric temperature, humidity and sea surface temperature will also change significantly during the rainfall process. The echo intensity of Doppler weather radar can intuitively show the size, orientation and distance of the rain area.
菁崔 晓
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.81003

Abstract:
中国正处于海岛旅游发展的起步阶段,旅游海岛开发模式比较单一。本文从投资者角度出发对海岛单岛开发模式进行了分类。将旅游海岛分为:度假型旅游海岛、观光型旅游海岛、生态旅游海岛、专项旅游海岛、私人海岛。并在在世界范围内选取典型海岛开发案例进行分析、评价,总结分析了各类型海岛开发的要求和特点以及兼容性。对中国旅游海岛开发模式的选择具有十分重要的借鉴意义。 China is in the initial stage of the development of island tourism, with few development modes. Island tourism is in the initial stage with few development modes in China. This paper classifies island development modes from the perspective of investors. The islands for tourism are divided into: vacation tourist islands, sightseeing tourist islands, ecotourism islands, special tourist islands and private islands. In addition, the paper selected, analyzed and evaluated several typical island development cases, and summarized the requirements, characteristics and compatibility of different types of island development. It is of great significance to the selection of China’s tourism island development modes.
许 洋
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.81002

Abstract:
随着海洋经济的不断发展,对海洋科技创新水平的需求不断提高,海洋科技创新能力决定一个国家的海洋经济发展水平。山东省作为我国海洋经济和渔业大省,至今尚未成为经济和渔业强省的重要原因,显然有科学规划滞后,科技发展带动不足以及只顾眼前、不求长远的发展意识制约和影响。本文根据山东半岛海洋渔业的发展现状及存在的问题,以新旧动能转换背景下的山东半岛蓝色经济区为研究对象,通过建立山东半岛蓝色经济区的海洋渔业科研创新能力和经济发展的指标体系,对2006~2019年协调度进行测算实证分析。研究结果表明,海洋科技和海洋区域发展是一个整体,一方面加大海洋科研力度可以促进蓝色经济增长、促进产业结构优化升级、增强海洋经济的核心竞争力;另一方面,海洋经济发展可以为海洋科研创新提供资源,包括人力、财力和物力,也可以相应的加大市场需求,最终两者相互促进协调发展。 With the continuous development of Marine economy, the demand for innovation level of Marine science and technology is constantly increasing, and the innovation ability of Marine science and technology determines the development level of a country’s Marine economy. Shandong Province, as a major province of Marine economy and fishery in China, has not yet become a strong province of Marine economy and fishery. Obviously, it is restricted and influenced by the lag of scientific planning, insufficient drive of scientific and technological development, and the developing consciousness of focusing only on the short term and not seeking long-term development. Based on the development status and existing problems of Marine fishery in Shandong Peninsula, this paper takes the Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone as the research object under the background of the transformation of new and old kinetic energy. By establishing the index system of Marine fishery scientific research and innovation ability and economic development in Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone, the empirical analysis of the coordination degree from 2006 to 2019 is carried out. The research results show that ocean science and technology are integrated with ocean regional development, On the one hand, strengthening Marine scientific research can promote the growth of blue economy, promote the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, and enhance the core competitiveness of Marine economy. On the other hand, the development of Marine economy can provide resources for Marine scientific research and innovation, including human, financial and material resources, and can also increase the market demand accordingly. Finally, the two can promote the coordinated development of each other.
韵刘 诗
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 56-67; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.83007

Abstract:
本研究通过对2018年春季大亚湾海域的海水、沉积物及生物体中石油类含量的调查检测,分析评估其分布特征及质量状况,并对大亚湾历年来海水及沉积物石油类含量以及国内各海域生物体石油类含量进行对比。结果表明,海水石油类含量为0.006~0.038 mg/L,均值为0.015 mg/L;沉积物石油类含量为44.1~483 mg/kg,均值为105 mg/kg;生物体石油类含量为 ,均值为8.5 mg/kg。海水、沉积物中石油类含量呈现出从大亚湾北部沿岸向外海下降的趋势;评价结果是海水、沉积物及生物体石油类含量基本符合1类标准;通过历年比对(1996年至本研究数据采集时间),大亚湾的海水、沉积物石油类质量情况相对良好,而通过对比我国其他海域,大亚湾的生物体石油类含量处于中低水平。 On the basis of monitoring concentration of petroleum in seawater, sediments and organisms along Daya Bay in spring of 2018, the distribution and environmental quality were analyzed and evaluated, as well as compared the petroleum content of seawater and sediments in Daya Bay over the years, and compared the petroleum content of organisms in various sea areas in China. The result shows that the petroleum content of seawater is 0.006~0.038 mg/L, the average is 0.015 mg/L, the petroleum content of sediment is 44.1~483 mg/kg, the average is 105mg/kg, the petroleum content of organism is
明钟 锦
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.81004

Abstract:
大亚湾海域是粤港澳大湾区生态安全屏障的重要区域。2020年6~7月,国内首次发生大亚湾海域“尖笔帽螺”生物灾害事件。本文利用尖笔帽螺持续跟踪监测数据,分析了尖笔帽螺生物性状、时空变异特征,探讨了生境与生物量分布的关系,结果显示:1) 尖笔帽螺的生物性状显示其为南海海域常见物种;2)尖笔帽螺的生物量和密度在7月8日~7月10日达到最大值,主要分布在大亚湾中西部海域;3) 尖笔帽螺的活动受到海水溶解氧的显著影响;4) 尖笔帽螺异常增殖需进一步研究其生态位特征。 The Daya Bay area is an important site of the ecological security barrier of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area. The first biological disaster event of Creseis acicula occurred from June to July 2020 in Daya Bay of China. Using the continuous monitoring data, we analyzed the biological characteristics, temporal and spatial variation characteristics of Creseis acicula. Furthermore, we discussed the relationship between living habitat and biomass distribution. Results show that: 1) The biological characteristics of Creseis acicula suggest it is a common species in South China Sea; 2) The biomass and number of Creseis acicula reached the maximum from July 8 to July 10, with the distribution mainly in the central and western of Daya Bay; 3) The dissolved oxygen in seawater affected the activity of Creseis acicula significantly; 4) It is necessary to study the niche characteristics for the anomalous proliferation of Creseis acicula.
迁汪 迁
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 08, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2021.81001

Abstract:
本文利用NCEP/NCAR近70年(1948~2020年)的海平面气压、气温、位势高度等再分析资料和GPCP近50年(1979~2020年)全球月平均降水资料,讨论了北大西洋涛动及其正负相位转换过程的基本特征,研究表明:NAO全年均存在但在冬季最强,且NAO正负相位的转换对东亚大气环流形式有着显著影响。采用相关分析和合成分析方法,对冬夏两季的NAO与东亚地区的环流形势、冬季气温和夏季降水进行研究,发现北大西洋涛动与东亚地区的气候有着明显的相关性,且因季节不同,对冬夏两季东亚地区的气候影响也不同。当北大西洋涛动表现较强时,东亚冬季风偏弱,夏季风偏强,东亚地区冬季气温整体偏高,夏季东亚北部地区降水偏多,南部及西南部降水偏少;反之,当北大西洋涛动较弱时,东亚冬季风偏强,夏季风偏弱,东亚冬季气温偏低,夏季东亚北部地区降水偏少,南部偏多。 In order to further study the characteristics of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its influence on East Asia, this paper discusses the basic features of the North Atlantic Oscillation and its positive and negative phases conversion process by using the monthly average reanalysis data of sea level pressure, temperature and potential height of NCEP/NCAR in the past 70 years (1948~2020) and the global monthly average precipitation data of GPCP in the past 50 years (1979~2020). Research shows that NAO exists all year round but performs best in winter, and the phase conversion of NAO has significant effects on the atmospheric circulation in East Asia. After that, we used correlation analysis and synthetic analysis methods to study the relationship between NAO and the circulation situation in East Asia, winter temperature and summer precipitation in the different seasons. The results show that there is a significant correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the climate of East Asia, and its influence performed quite differently in winter and summer. When the North Atlantic Oscillation is strong, the East Asian winter monsoon is weak and the summer monsoon is strong. The overall winter temperature in East Asia is relatively high. In summer, there is more precipitation in the northern part of East Asia and less precipitation in the south and southwest; conversely, when the North Atlantic Oscillation is weak, the East Asian winter monsoon is strong, the summer monsoon is weak, the East Asian winter temperature is relatively low, and in summer the northern part of East Asia has less precipitation and the southern part is more.
飞李 雪
Published: 1 January 2020
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 7, pp 44-51; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2020.72007

Abstract:
白斑综合症病毒(white spot syndrome virus, WSSV)是危害我国虾蟹类水产养殖业健康发展的重要病毒性病原体之一,与其他病毒相比,庞大的基因组和较低的基因组同源性是其显著特征。本文对WSSV病毒在基因组、病毒与宿主互作的机制、检测方法及防治手段方面的最新研究进展进行了综述和展望,为加深人们对于WSSV病毒的理解,把握未来发展方向提供帮助。White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major viral pathogens which has greatly hampered the healthy development of the aquaculture industry of shrimps and crabs. Compared with other viruses, the WSSV genome is characterized with a huge size and relatively low homology. This paper has summarized and prospected the recent progress in the study of the genome, mechanism of virus-host interaction, detection, prophylaxis and control of the WSSV. This review will contribute to the better understanding of the WSSV and its future research direction.
钊赵 方
Published: 1 January 2020
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 7, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2020.71002

Abstract:
红树林具有防风消浪、促淤保滩、固岸护堤、净化海水和空气的功能。本研究在四个季节分别采集角果木、卤蕨、榄李、水椰、秋茄、木果楝、尖瓣、杯萼海桑、海南海桑、海莲、木榄、红海榄、桐花、白骨壤和卵叶海桑树下沉积物,按照《海洋调查规范》分别测定0~2 cm、2~5 cm和5~8 cm深度叶绿素a含量。结果显示,叶绿素a含量全年平均1.7308 ± 0.6510 μg·g−1,在海莲站点叶绿素a含量最高3.2960 ± 2.0909 μg·g−1,显著高于白骨壤、水椰、卤蕨、榄李、木果楝、卵叶海桑、角果木和秋茄植被下含量(0.01 ≤ p ≤ 0.05)。海莲采样点含量与杯萼海桑、木榄、尖瓣、红海榄、海南海桑和桐花有差异不显著(0.05 ≤ p ≤ 0.1),为叶绿素a高浓度区。叶绿素a水平分布呈现由浅海区到近岸逐渐由低到高的趋势。垂直分布,在0~8 cm深度中叶绿素a含量较低,在0~2 cm表层叶绿素a含量最高。统计分析表明,四个季节叶绿素a含量差异显著(p > 0.01)。研究测定了东寨港15种不同红树植物种类间叶绿素a的分布特征,为红树林保护区的监测及综合保护提供基础资料。 Mangrove have the functions of preventing wind and waves, accelerating silting and protecting beaches, fixing bank dikes, and purifying seawater and air. In this experiment, 15 sampling points were set up for sampling in four seasons. The 15 sampling points were respectively of hornbeam, Brassica, R. sylvestris, S. sylvestris, K. candel, K. sylvestris, Caudal Flap, Sonneratia alba, Hainan Sea mulberry, Bruguiera sexangula, hibiscus, red sea urchin, Paulownia, Avicennia marina and Sonneratia ovata. Three samples of different depth layers were taken at each sampling point, which were 0 - 2 cm, 2 - 5 cm and 5 - 8 cm depth layers respectively. The chlorophyll a content was determined by spectrophotometry in the Ocean Survey Code. From the horizontal distribution, the chlorophyll a content was 1.7308 ± 0.6510 μg·g−1 for the whole year. The chlorophyll a content in the site of Bruguiera sexangula was the highest 3.2960 ± 2.0909 μg·g−1, which was significantly higher than that under the vegetation types of Avicennia marina, S. arborescens, Brassica chinensis, R. sylvestris, C. sylvestris, C. sylvestris, C. sylvestris and Kandelia candel (0.01 ≤ p ≤ 0.05). There is no significant difference between the sampling points of Bruguiera sexangula and Sonneratia alba, hibiscus, cusps, red sea lam, Hainan sea mulberry and Paulownia (0.05 ≤ p ≤ 0.1), so they formed a high concentration zone. The horizontal distribution data of chlorophyll a content showed a trend of gradually increasing from low to high from shallow sea to near shore. From the vertical distribution, the chlorophyll a content was the lowest in the depth of 0~8cm and the highest in the surface of 0 - 2cm. Statistical analysis showed that the content of chlorophyll a in the four seasons was significantly different (p>0.01). The distribution characteristics of chlorophyll a among 15 species of mangrove plants in dongzhai port were determined to provide basic data for monitoring and comprehensive protection of mangrove reserve.
操 戈
Published: 1 January 2020
Advances in Marine Sciences, Volume 7, pp 115-124; https://doi.org/10.12677/ams.2020.74016

Abstract:
当不同的天气模式导致海洋在不同的方向产生两个海流系统时,就会产生一个交叉波,最终导致海面上的方波生成。方波的出现将威胁船舶的航行性能,严重时可能导致船舶倾覆。本文利用自研CFD软件HUST-Ship开展了基于规则波叠加方法进行方波数值波浪水池的研究。在进行数值模拟时,对不可压缩流体的RANS方程进行求解,数值造波采用在入口边界施加相应规则波的数学方程模拟方波,自由液面采用level-set方法获取。数值模拟结果表明两个有90度交叉角、相同波长和相位的规则波叠加在一起能够形成方波。选择水池中的四个点作为标记点,追踪标记点处液面高度变化,仿真结果与解析解得到的结果吻合。 When two waves in different directions meet due to different weather patterns, a cross wave pattern will be generated, which will finally result in the spread of square waves on the sea surface. The emergence of square waves will threaten the navigation performance of the ship and may lead to ship capsized in severe case. In this paper, the numerical square wave flume is developed by using the in-house CFD software HUST-Ship. In the process of data simulation, by means of solving the RANS equation of incompressible fluid, the analytical solution of the corresponding regular wave is imposed at the inlet boundary, and the free surface is captured by level-set method. Two regular waves with a cross angle of 90 degrees and the same wavelength and phase are superimposed. The probe is used to deal with the simulation results and trace the selected points to obtain the relative errors between the simulation results and the analytical solutions. Moreover, error analysis is used to ensure the accuracy of the numerical tank.
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