Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

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ISSN / EISSN : 1477-7525 / 1477-7525
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
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, Peng Zhang, Shunqing Luo, Guifang Zhang, Xian Tang, Lingjuan Liu
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01797-7

Abstract:
Background An increased prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with adulthood cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to explore the potential relationship of quality of life (QoL) and personality traits with adolescent MS. Methods A total of 1961 participants from Chongqing with an average age of 11.68 years old from a cohort study established in 2014 and followed up through 2019 were included. QoL information, Eysenck’s personality questionnaire and MS components were collected. Results A higher QoL domain score of physical activity ability (PAA) was a protective factor for both MS and MS score (all P < 0.01), which was mainly negatively correlated with the MS components of central obesity, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and triglyceride levels, as well as positively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. The total QoL score was negatively correlated with triglyceride levels and positively correlated with DBP (all P < 0.01). High extraversion personality score was a protective factor against adolescent MS (P = 0.04) and MS score (P < 0.05), which were mainly negatively correlated with the MS components of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and TGs, and positively correlated with HDL-C (all P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions QoL score and extraversion personality score were independent protective factors against both MS prevalence and MS score, suggesting that community intervention to improve the QoL and psychological health of children are essential.
Kazuoki Inoue, Jun Watanabe, Eiichi Kakehi
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-2; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01798-6

Abstract:
This letter was written to address two concerns about the results of the paper published by Zeynep et al. (BMC Health Qual Life Outcomes 18:265, 2020). First, the differences between the two groups in the environment with or without occupation may strengthen the primary outcome results. Second, lack of information on the complications and treatments of diabetes makes interpretation of the results difficult.
, A. Scantlebury, A. Byrne, M. Harden, C. Hewitt, G. O’Carroll, H. Sharma, C. McDaid, Joy Adamson, Kim Cocks, et al.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01795-9

Abstract:
Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used to understand the impact of lower limb reconstruction surgery on patients’ quality of life (QOL). Existing measures have not been developed to specifically capture patient experiences amongst adults with lower limb conditions that require reconstruction surgery. This review aimed to synthesise qualitative evidence to identify what is important to patients requiring, undergoing, or following reconstructive surgery for lower limb conditions. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO and Cinahl were searched from inception until November 2020. Studies were included if they employed qualitative research methods, involved patients requiring, undergoing or following lower limb reconstruction and explored patients’ experiences of care, treatment, recovery and QOL. Mixed methods studies that did not separately report qualitative findings, mixed population studies that were not separately reported and studies in languages other than English were excluded. Included studies were analysed using thematic synthesis. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative studies checklist was used to undertake quality assessment. Results Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The thematic synthesis identified two overarching themes: (1) areas of living key to QOL for lower limb reconstruction patients and (2) moving towards a new normal. The way in which lower limb reconstruction affects an individual’s QOL and their recovery is complex and is influenced by a range of inter-related factors, which will affect patients to varying degrees depending on their individual circumstances. We identified these factors as: pain, daily functioning and lifestyle, identity, income, emotional wellbeing, support, the ability to adapt and adjust and the ability to move forwards. Conclusions The way patients’ QOL is affected after a lower limb reconstruction is complex, may change over time and is strongly linked to their recovery. These findings will aid us in developing a conceptual framework which identifies the outcomes important to patients and those that should be included in a PROM. Further research is then required to establish whether the range of factors we identified are captured by existing PROMs. Depending on the outcome of this work, a new PROM for patients following lower limb reconstruction may be required.
Rong-Liang Dun, Jennifer Tsai, Xiao-Hua Hu, Jian-Min Mao, Wen-Jing Zhu, Guang-Chong Qi, Yu Peng
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01796-8

Abstract:
Background The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) was developed to accurately assess the pain, urinary symptoms, and quality of life related to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). This study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptations of the NIH-CPSI. Method PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and SciELO databases were searched from their established year to September 2020. Cross-cultural adaptations and the quality control of measurement properties of adaptations were conducted by two reviewers independently according to the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. Results Area total of 21 papers with 16 adaptations, and six studies of the original version of the NIH-CPSI were enrolled in the systematic review. Back translation was the weakest process for the quality assessment of the cross-cultural adaptations of the NIH-CPSI. Internal consistency was analyzed for most of the adaptations, but none of them met the standard. Only 11 adaptations reported test reliability, then only the Arabic-Egyptian, Chinese-Mainland, Danish, Italian, Persian, and Turkish adaptations met the criterion. Most adaptations reported the interpretability, but only the Danish adaptation reported the agreement. The other measurement properties, including responsiveness, and floor as well as ceiling effects were not reported in any of the adaptations. Conclusions The overall quality of the NIH-CPSI cross-cultural adaptations was not organized as expected. Only the Portuguese-Brazilian, Italian, and Spanish adaptations reached over half the process for the cross-cultural adaptation. Only the Turkish adaptations finished half of the measurement properties of cross-cultural adaptations.
, Renata Morello, Darshini Ayton, Susannah Ahern, Ri Scarborough, Claire Zammit, Margaret Brand, Robert G. Stirling, John Zalcberg
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01794-w

Abstract:
Background The 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), a widely used, generic patient-reported measure of health status that provides summary scores of physical and mental health. No study to date has examined the measurement properties of the SF-12v2 in patients with lung cancer using Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to extend the psychometric evaluations of the SF-12 within the lung cancer population to ensure its validity and reliability to assess the health status in this population. Methods Participants in the Victorian Lung Cancer Registry (VLCR) who completed the SF-12v2 between 2012 and 2016 were included in this study. The structural validity of the SF-12v2 was assessed using Rasch analysis. Overall fit to the Rasch measurement model was examined as well as five key measurement properties: uni-dimensionality, response thresholds, internal consistency, measurement invariance and targeting. Results A total of 342 participants completed the SF-12v2 three months following their lung cancer diagnosis. The SF-12 Physical Component Score (PCS-12) did not fit the overall Rasch measurement model (χ2 107.0; p < 0.001). Three items deviated significantly from the Rasch model (item fit residual beyond ± 2.5) with signs of dependency between item responses and disordered thresholds. Nevertheless, the PCS-12 was uni-dimensional with good internal consistency (person separation index [PSI] 0.83) and reasonable targeting. In contrast, the SF-12 Mental Component Score (MCS-12) had good overall model fit (χ2 35.1; p = 0.07), reasonable targeting and good internal consistency (PSI 0.81). Conclusions Rasch analysis suggests that there is general support for the reliability of the SF-12v2 as a measure of physical and mental health in people with lung cancer. However, the appropriateness of some items (e.g. pain) in the PCS-12 is questionable and further refinement of the scale including changing the response options may be required to improve the ability of the SF-12v2 to more appropriately assess the health status of this population.
, Yuan Cai, Yaqing Xue, Xiao Zheng, Xiaozhao Yang, Jiao Lu, Lihong Hou, Mimi Li
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01793-x

Abstract:
Background As China’s aging trend intensifies and the proportion of empty nests increases, the health-related quality of life of the elderly is the focus of social attention. Previous studies focused on the quality of life of the elderly, rather than empty nesters, and lacked the discussion of the mechanism of influencing factors. Thus, this study aimed to explore the influencing factors of the quality of life (QOL) and interaction mechanisms among empty nesters in Shanxi Province, China, so as to provide practical reference for improving the QOL of empty nesters. Methods A total of 4901 empty nesters in Shanxi Province, China, were selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling method in this cross-sectional study. The quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to examine the factor associated with QOL. Structural equation model (SEM) approach was conducted to test the direct and indirect association between QOL influencing factors with QOL. Results The average QOL score of empty nesters was 63.34 (SD = 17.23). The multiple linear regression revealed that gender, age, education, monthly income, drinking status, exercise frequency, physical examination frequency, attention to daily nutritional health, relationship with a spouse and relationship with children were significant predictors of the empty nester’s QOL (P < 0.05) (R 2 = 0.128). SEM showed that behavioral lifestyle had a direct effect on QOL (β = 0.446, P < 0.001). Socio-economic status had an indirect effect (β = 0.288, P < 0.001) on QOL through behavioral lifestyle. The family relationship had an indirect effect (β = 0.115, P < 0.001) on QOL. Conclusion Behavioral lifestyle was the strongest influencing factor in the quality of life among empty nesters, followed by socio-economic status and family relationships. Thus, maintaining a healthy behavioral lifestyle was important to improve the QOL of the empty nesters. Our findings provide a concrete and strong reference for the formulation of targeted intervention strategies.
, H. Furunes, C. Hellum, T. Solberg, J. I. Brox, K. Storheim, L. G. Johnsen
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01792-y

Abstract:
Background The EuroQol EQ-5D is one of the most widely researched and applied patient-reported outcome measures worldwide. The original EQ-5D-3L and more recent EQ-5D-5L include three and five response categories respectively. Evidence from healthy and sick populations shows that the additional two response categories improve measurement properties but there has not been a concurrent comparison of the two versions in patients with low back pain (LBP). Methods LBP patients taking part in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of lumbar total disc replacement and conservative treatment completed the EQ-5D-3L and 5L in an eight-year follow-up questionnaire. The 3L and 5L were assessed for aspects of data quality including missing data, floor and ceiling effects, response consistency, and based on a priori hypotheses, associations with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Pain-Visual Analogue Scales and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25). Results At the eight-year follow-up, 151 (87%) patients were available and 146 completed both the 3L and 5L. Levels of missing data were the same for the two versions. Compared to the EQ-5D-5L, the 3L had significantly higher floor (pain discomfort) and ceiling effects (mobility, self-care, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression). For these patients the EQ-5D-5L described 73 health states compared to 28 for the 3L. Shannon’s indices showed the 5L outperformed the 3L in tests of classification efficiency. Correlations with the ODI, Pain-VAS and HSCL-25 were largely as hypothesized, the 5L having slightly higher correlations than the 3L. Conclusion The EQ-5D assesses important aspect of health in LBP patients and the 5L improves upon the 3L in this respect. The EQ-5D-5L is recommended in preference to the 3L version, however, further testing in other back pain populations together with additional measurement properties, including responsiveness to change, is recommended. Trial registration: retrospectively registered: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01704677.
, Fhadilla Amelia, Arini Ika Hapsari, Bramantya Wicaksana, Veritea Natali, Alvina Widhani, Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman, Teguh Harjono Karjadi
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01777-x

Abstract:
Background We conducted a real-life study of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) transformation before and 12 weeks after sofosbuvir and daclatasvir therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Factors related to the significant changes of each HRQoL domain/item were also evaluated. Methods A prospective study was performed in the HIV integrated clinic at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. HCV/HIV co-infected patients who started sofosbuvir and daclatasvir from government free DAA program in 2017–2019. WHOQoL-HIV BREF and RAND SF-36 questionnaires were recorded at baseline and post-treatment week 12. Results 145 patients with mean age of 37.8 years (SD = 4.2) were included in the analysis. Most of patients were male (89%), previous IVDU (89%), active smoker (50.4%) and non-cirrhosis (80%). SVR12 was achieved in 95.5% of patients. Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir treatments showed positive impacts on 2 domains and 2 other items of WHOQoL-HIV BREF and 2 domains and 1 item of SF-36. Predicting factors of significant increase in each domain/item were: male and normal body mass index (BMI) for level of independence (RR 4.01,95% CI 1.09–14.74 and 4.80,95% CI 1.79–12.81); higher HCV-RNA for overall perception of QoL (RR 0.42,95% CI 0.18–0.94); non-smoking status for overall perception of health (RR 0.32,95% CI 0.15–0.66); male and fibrosis stage 0–1 for general health (RR 6.21,95% CI 1.69–22.88 and 2.86,95% CI 1.16–7.00); and the use of NNRTI-based ART (RR 5.23, 95% CI 1.16–23.65). Spiritual/personal belief decline was predicted by non-smoking status (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23–0.95). Treatment success was not associated with any changes of HR-QoL domain/item. Conclusions HCV/HIV co-infected patients were successfully treated with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir and experienced improvement of HRQoL 12 weeks after treatment completion.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01791-z

Abstract:
Background The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey for Kids (WURSS-K) is a self-administered questionnaire developed to evaluate the severity of the common cold. It is a patient-oriented instrument that evaluates quality of life in an illness-specific manner to be used in children aged 10 years. The purpose of this study was to validate the Polish version of the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey for Kids. Methods The validation process consisted of five stages: forward translation, backward translation, cognitive debriefing, a pilot study (Study A and Study B), and statistical analysis. The first study (Study A, n = 10, aged 5–13) was conducted in the Emergency Room and an Outpatient Clinic of the Pediatric University Hospital in Warsaw. The purpose of the study was to obtain data for testing the convergent validity of the questionnaire. The second study (Study B, n = 56), consisted of children aged four to six enrolled in three kindergartens in the Warsaw suburbs. The obtained data were subjected to detailed statistical analysis. Results The WURSS Kids Polish showed excellent reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha of the 13 items was 0.791 for the six symptom items and 0.854 for the seven functional items. The Jonckheere–Terpstra trend test was used to evaluate criterion validity. Compliance of the measurement performed independently by the examined person and the doctor on the first day was high (convergent validity). Each particular item was characterized by a different sensitivity to clinical change. The Guyatt’s Responsiveness index ranged from 0.083 to 0.464. Conclusion The internal consistency of the measurements and cross-cultural adaptation of the Polish version of WURSS Kids was satisfactory. The WURSS Kids Polish is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and QOL in Polish patients in the pediatric population with the common cold. It may be used both in clinical practice and for research among Polish children with URTI.
Weiwei Sun, Xinyu Huang, Huailiang Wu, Casper J. P. Zhang, Zongzhi Yin, Qianqian Fan, Huiyun Wang, Pallavi Jayavanth, Babatunde Akinwunmi, Yanxin Wu, et al.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 19, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01785-x

Abstract:
Background With the increase of the number of smokers, tobacco exposure among pregnant women is becoming more and more common. Pregnant women exposed to first-hand smoke and second-hand smoke are susceptible to physiological and psychological health issues has been proved in previous studies. Nevertheless, there are no enough studies focus on the impact of third-hand smoke during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess and compare health-related quality of life for pregnant women with exposure to first-hand smoke, second-hand smoke, third-hand smoke and non-exposure to tobacco in mainland China. Methods National-based cross-sectional study is based on a questionnaire survey which collects information including demographics, smoking behaviors and self-evaluation. All questionnaires were delivered and collected from August to September 2019. EuroQol group’s visual analog scale and EuroQoL Five-dimension Questionnaire were used to collect data in mainland China. Results Totally, 15,682 pregnant women were included in this study, among which non-exposure to smoke were 7564 (48.2%), exposed to first-hand smoke, second-hand smoke and third-hand smoke were 89 (0.6%), 2349 (15.0%), and 5680 (36.2%) respectively. Pregnant women without tobacco exposure had the highest EuroQol group’s visual analog scale score (mean value = 85.4[SD = 14.0]), while those with first-hand smoke had the lowest score (mean value = 77.4[SD = 22.2]). Among all five dimensions of EuroQoL Five-dimension Questionnaire, there were significant differences of EQ-index among groups with different tobacco exposure in usual activity and anxiety or depression dimensions (p < 0.001). Conclusions Third-hand smoke exposure had close relationship with low health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Moreover, second-hand smoke exposure significantly led more problems on mental dimension of pregnant women.
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