ISSN / EISSN : 2045-9769 / 2045-9769
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 132
Latest articles in this journal
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00095-3
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00094-4
Pig and monkey are widely used models for exploration of human diseases and evaluation of drug efficiency and toxicity, but high cost limits their uses. Organoids have been shown to be promising models for drug test as they reasonably preserve tissue structure and functions. However, colonic organoids of pig and monkey are not yet established. Here, we report a culture medium to support the growth of porcine and monkey colonic organoids. Wnt signaling and PGE2 are important for long-term expansion of the organoids, and their withdrawal results in lineage differentiation to mature cells. Furthermore, we observe that porcine colonic organoids are closer to human colonic organoids in terms of drug toxicity response. Successful establishment of porcine and monkey colonic organoids would facilitate the mechanistic investigation of the homeostatic regulation of the intestine of these animals and is useful for drug development and toxicity studies.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00093-5
In vertebrates, the skeletal muscles of the body and their associated stem cells originate from muscle progenitor cells, during development. The specification of the muscles of the trunk, head and limbs, relies on the activity of distinct genetic hierarchies. The major regulators of trunk and limb muscle specification are the paired-homeobox transcription factors PAX3 and PAX7. Distinct gene regulatory networks drive the formation of the different muscles of the head. Despite the redeployment of diverse upstream regulators of muscle progenitor differentiation, the commitment towards the myogenic fate requires the expression of the early myogenic regulatory factors MYF5, MRF4, MYOD and the late differentiation marker MYOG. The expression of these genes is activated by muscle progenitors throughout development, in several waves of myogenic differentiation, constituting the embryonic, fetal and postnatal phases of muscle growth. In order to achieve myogenic cell commitment while maintaining an undifferentiated pool of muscle progenitors, several signaling pathways regulate the switch between proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. The identification of the gene regulatory networks operating during myogenesis is crucial for the development of in vitro protocols to differentiate pluripotent stem cells into myoblasts required for regenerative medicine.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00092-6
Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) are essential in mouse gastrulation and specify neural ectoderm in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but the underlying molecular basis remains unclear. Here in this study, by employing an array of different approaches, such as gene knock-out, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, et al., we uncover that EZH2, an important PRC factor, specifies the normal neural fate decision through repressing the competing meso/endoderm program. EZH2−/− hESCs show an aberrant re-activation of meso/endoderm genes during neural induction. At the molecular level, EZH2 represses meso/endoderm genes while SOX2 activates the neural genes to coordinately specify the normal neural fate. Moreover, EZH2 also supports the proliferation of human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) through repressing the aberrant expression of meso/endoderm program during culture. Together, our findings uncover the coordination of epigenetic regulators such as EZH2 and lineage factors like SOX2 in normal neural fate decision.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00091-7
Organoid has become a novel in vitro model to research human development and relevant disorders in recent years. With many improvements on the culture protocols, current brain organoids could self-organize into a complicated three-dimensional organization that mimics most of the features of the real human brain at the molecular, cellular, and further physiological level. However, lacking positional information, an important characteristic conveyed by gradients of signaling molecules called morphogens, leads to the deficiency of spatiotemporally regulated cell arrangements and cell–cell interactions in the brain organoid development. In this review, we will overview the role of morphogen both in the vertebrate neural development in vivo as well as the brain organoid culture in vitro, the strategies to apply morphogen concentration gradients in the organoid system and future perspectives of the brain organoid technology.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00090-8
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00089-1
Building human organs in a dish has been a long term goal of researchers in pursue of physiologically relevant models of human disease and for replacement of worn out and diseased organs. The liver has been an organ of interest for its central role in regulating body homeostasis as well as drug metabolism. An accurate liver replica should contain the multiple cell types found in the organ and these cells should be spatially organized to resemble tissue structures. More importantly, the in vitro model should recapitulate cellular and tissue level functions. Progress in cell culture techniques and bioengineering approaches have greatly accelerated the development of advance 3-dimensional (3D) cellular models commonly referred to as liver organoids. These 3D models described range from single to multiple cell type containing cultures with diverse applications from establishing patient-specific liver cells to modeling of chronic liver diseases and regenerative therapy. Each organoid platform is advantageous for specific applications and presents its own limitations. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of major liver organoid platforms and technologies developed for diverse applications.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00087-3
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiomyocytes are capable of coordinated contractions, which are mainly responsible for pumping blood. When cardiac stress occurs, cardiomyocytes undergo transition from physiological homeostasis to hypertrophic growth, proliferation, or apoptosis. During these processes, many cellular factors and signaling pathways participate. PTEN is a ubiquitous dual-specificity phosphatase and functions by dephosphorylating target proteins or lipids, such as PIP3, a second messenger in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Downregulation of PTEN expression or inhibiting its biologic activity improves heart function, promotes cardiomyocytes proliferation, reduces cardiac fibrosis as well as dilation, and inhibits apoptosis following ischemic stress such as myocardial infarction. Inactivation of PTEN exhibits a potentially beneficial therapeutic effects against cardiac diseases. In this review, we summarize various strategies for PTEN inactivation and highlight the roles of PTEN-less in regulating cardiomyocytes during cardiac development and stress responses.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00088-2
Tissue engineering has provided new treatment alternatives for tissue reconstruction. Advances in the tissue engineering field have resulted in mechanical support and biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue/organs structures and functions. The application of tissue engineering technology in the vaginal reconstruction treatment can not only provide mechanical requirements, but also offer tissue repairing as an alternative to traditional approaches. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cell-based therapy in combination with scaffolds strategies that can potentially be adopted for gynaecological transplantation.
Cell Regeneration, Volume 10, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-021-00085-5
Recent innovations in single cell sequencing-based technologies are shining a light on the heterogeneity of cellular populations in unprecedented detail. However, several cellular aspects are currently underutilized in single cell studies. One aspect is the expression and activity of transposable elements (TEs). TEs are selfish sequences of DNA that can replicate, and have been wildly successful in colonizing genomes. However, most TEs are mutated, fragmentary and incapable of transposition, yet they are actively bound by multiple transcription factors, host complex patterns of chromatin modifications, and are expressed in mRNAs as part of the transcriptome in both normal and diseased states. The contribution of TEs to development and cellular function remains unclear, and the routine inclusion of TEs in single cell sequencing analyses will potentially lead to insight into stem cells, development and human disease.