International Marketing Review

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ISSN : 0265-1335
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 1,342
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Published: 14 October 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-07-2020-0141

Abstract:
Purpose Although both institutional export assistance and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) contribute separately and positively to export performance, the interplay between them has received little attention. This study examines the role of international EO in deriving performance benefits from governmental and nongovernmental export assistance. Design/methodology/approach In this longitudinal study, two surveys were administered at two different times: In 2011, 705 Bangladeshi apparel exporters were surveyed, and in 2019, a subsequent survey of 198 firms in multiple industries was conducted. The aim of the surveys was to assess the relationships between governmental and nongovernmental assistance, EO and export performance. Findings The results of the first survey show that, while nongovernmental assistance influences performance directly and via EO, governmental assistance has only direct effects. Furthermore, the negative influence of government assistance on EO reduces the total effects and renders them nonsignificant. The results of the second survey demonstrate that government EPPs have both direct and indirect positive and significant effects on market performance, indicating a partial mediation, whereas quasi-governmental assistance has positive and significant direct effects as well as negative but nonsignificant indirect effects. Nongovernmental EPPs have both direct and indirect significant effects on international performance, indicating a partial mediation. Research limitations/implications The study has important implications for researchers studying export assistance and its impact on firm performance. Instead of adopting a parochial view of government assistance, this study categorizes such assistance into three types – government, quasi-government and nongovernment. Furthermore, this study bridges the export assistance and international entrepreneurship literature by including EO. Practical implications Entrepreneurs must emphasize the use of government assistance in order to enhance export performance. However, to promote both entrepreneurship and performance, they must emphasize nongovernment assistance. Exporters should also capitalize on the assistance extended by various quasi-governmental agencies to bolster export performance. Originality/value Given the performance advantage of export assistance, this study highlights the contribution of the private sector in promoting export entrepreneurship while shedding light on the pernicious role of (quasi-)governmental assistance in export entrepreneurship.
Published: 7 October 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-04-2021-0154

Abstract:
Purpose Despite luxury's increasing globalization and broadening scope via digitalization and new markets, the intellectual structure of the overall research corpus remains tenuous. This work therefore aims to provide an overview of published work on international luxury marketing and to contribute to a better understanding of the research area. Design/methodology/approach Using a systematic approach, 1151 items (papers) were retrieved and 181 selected from the international luxury marketing field published before 2019. These items were analyzed by using various bibliometric techniques to identify the most productive countries, journals, influential authors, papers and research clusters. Findings Although most of the outputs originate from business, management and marketing journals, other disciplines also research this topic. The analysis reveals an emerging field, with 85% of the published papers appearing between 2010 and 2018, which are primarily the output of US- and UK-based authors and none of whom dominates the field. The three identified keyword clusters are (1) consumers and consumption (2) tools and (3) core themes. Practical implications This article contributes to our understanding of the evolution, current status and research trends of published research on international luxury marketing by presenting a mapping analysis and proposing future research directions. Originality/value This is the first bibliometric mapping analysis of research on the topic from its conception to 2019. It contributes insights from different research disciplines, adds to the categorization of the international luxury marketing literature and provides promising future research directions in terms of research areas and strategies.
, JungKun Park, Annalisa Tarquini-Poli
Published: 5 October 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-02-2021-0085

Abstract:
Purpose Traditionally, international luxury marketing highlights possible disparities of cultural and value perception. The context-specific nature of traditional international luxury marketing, which ranges from educational and cultural to financial and offering-based variations, delivers little guidance to managers in the field regarding how to cater best to their highest target segment. The study aims to exemplify the relevance of global consumer culture (GCC) theory for the ultra-high-net-worth-individual (UHNWI) context. The authors' research on UHNWIs maps the DNA, so to speak, of the UHNWI customer experience (CX) by determining what drives UHNWI purchasing behavior independent of background – in other words, what matters most to this exclusive consumer segment. Design/methodology/approach Interviewing 15 UHNWIs using a means-end approach and incorporating the emerging consensus technique (ECT), the authors explored the CX of UHNWIs leading to their purchasing decisions. Findings The authors' analysis reveals the three main constituents of the UHNWI CX: the value of time, expectation mismanagement and the utilitarian nature of luxury. The findings highlight that UHNWIs see traditional luxury as a necessity rather than a luxury and value different factors, such as time, much more highly. The findings highlight the UHNWI homogenous nature, connecting GCC to purchasing behavior. Practical implications The authors' study delivers empirical evidence of what matters most to the UHNWI segment and drives their purchasing behavior. The authors are questioning existing luxury segmentation strategies and lay out a clear guidance on how to design and deliver effective and efficient marketing, sales and communications strategies for the elusive UHNWI segment. The research highlights that it is the experience and the three main dimensions, namely expectation mismanagement, luxury as a utility and the value of time. Following UHNWI CX DNA framework will allow luxury companies to build their marketing and client acquisition efforts on a solid understanding of what matters most to the UHNWI target segment. Originality/value The study highlights the commonalities of UHNWIs in terms of what matters most to them. Based on this, the authors develop a UHNWI CX DNA. The authors propose that traditional context-specific differences upheld by international marketing researchers might not apply to the UHNWI segment. The authors deliver evidence that UHNWI are an excellent example of the applicability of GCC theory. The only difference in perception the authors noticed was between CX evaluations of self-made UHNWIs and those who inherited their wealth in an otherwise homogenous segment.
Published: 4 October 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-03-2021-0109

Abstract:
Purpose Previous research focused on open innovation (OI) suggests that enterprises benefit from adopting the journey; however, the relationship among OI, marketing journey and knowledge-intensive innovation marketing activities (KIIMA) remains unclear. The present study proposes a conceptual model of the marketing journey linking heterogeneous modes of marketing collaboration to knowledge-intensive activities. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model was tested via ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression based on a sample of data drawn from the Eurostat database. Findings The results indicate that strategies are a robust proxy for evaluating KIIMA, and partnerships, heterogeneous sources of knowledge and different marketing modes for collaboration among European knowledge-intensive firms are core antecedents of KIIMA, such as new-product development and marketing innovation, as well as firms' sustainable competitive advantage. Originality/value This study fills the gap by tracking the role of the journey within marketing collaborations on KIIMA, and it intervenes in the debate about interactive marketing innovation mechanisms. The study contributes to OI, knowledge management and the marketing literature by identifying the heterogeneous modes for marketing collaborations under which the marketing journey enhances knowledge-intensive activities such as those for marketing innovation.
, , Tran Tien Khoa, , Zafar U. Ahmed
Published: 1 October 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-01-2021-0046

Abstract:
Purpose While the number of global alliance terminations in the business world has grown steadily during the past few decades, the scholarly literature on strategic alliance (SA) termination remains limited. This research paper aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of the literature on alliance termination and propose a model for future research agenda that links the termination phase to the pre-alliance termination phase and post alliance termination phase. Design/methodology/approach A search query on global alliance termination identified a total of 69 research papers from the Scopus database, and a bibliometric analysis was performed using the bibliometrix R-package and VOSviewer. The analysis further used the TCCM framework to review the set of papers. Findings This research analysis reveals that, compared to the pre-formation, formation, and process stages of alliances, limited research has been undertaken on global alliance termination. The bibliometric analysis and TCCM framework provide a complete view of the extant literature on global alliance termination from different dimensions and act as the which as the foundation for a developing the research agenda that links pre-alliance termination phase and post-alliance termination phase to that of alliance termination phase. Research limitations/implications The proposed research agenda is unique as it integrates multiple phases in the alliance lifecycle with global alliance termination phase and develops a distinct view for future research that emphasizes on the post-alliance termination phase. Practical implications The bibliometric analysis provides a precise snapshot of the state of the literature on global alliance termination. The research agenda developed provides a direction for further academic research that links alliance termination not only to pre-alliance termination phase but also to the post-alliance termination phase that is nascently explored in the literature. Originality/value This study is among the few to review and synthesize the literature on global alliance termination. It, therefore, functions as a catalyst to draw global scholars' attention. Further, it provides global researchers with direction by proposing a global research agenda.
Xiaoxuan Li, Yue Wang, Miles M. Yang, Yanzhao Tang
Published: 23 September 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-07-2020-0169

Abstract:
Purpose This study explores the impact of owner chief executive officers' (CEO) narcissism on the exporting small to medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) decision-making on the international market expansion speed after their initial entry. Specifically, the authors use the mechanism of firms' international entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) to examine how owner CEO narcissism may influence SMEs' post-entry speed of internationalization (PSI), both directly and indirectly. Design/methodology/approach To test the hypotheses, the authors draw on data from a two-wave questionnaire and on archival export data from 291 Chinese exporting SMEs in three municipalities and 17 provinces from 2019 to 2020. Findings The results support the theoretical predictions that owner CEO narcissism shapes exporting SMEs' decisions on PSI, both directly and indirectly, through the mediation of firm-level IEO. Originality/value The study extends emerging research on the role of CEO narcissism in the upper echelons literature into the international marketing (IM) context. It also offers new insights into what drives exporting SMEs' IM decision-making from a psychological microfoundations perspective. Furthermore, the authors theoretically establish and empirically demonstrate the key role of a firm's IEO as a mediator to complement the existing literature's focus on the direct influence of CEO narcissism on firms' internationalization decisions.
, Julie McColl, Christopher Moore
Published: 22 September 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-02-2021-0079

Abstract:
Purpose From an international retailing perspective, this empirical study aims to examine luxury fashion retailers' changing marketing strategies in China. Design/methodology/approach Using case studies of 14 luxury fashion retailers, qualitative data were collected via 31 semi-structured executive interviews. Findings Both standardised global and localised multinational marketing strategies were found to have initially been employed by luxury fashion retailers entering into China. Subsequently, localised multinational strategies became increasingly important for their post-entry operations and business development, particularly in terms of their product strategies. More specifically, as well as the introduction of Chinese brand names, product design has been adapted according to Chinese market conditions, and product portfolios have been adapted to satisfy regional differences. However, localised product sourcing in China is far less common. Research limitations/implications As the findings are generated from China, they may not explain luxury fashion retailers' marketing strategies in other markets. Despite the relatively small sample size, the 14 luxury fashion retailer case studies originate from across a wide range of countries, retail formats and ownership structures and are therefore considered to be varied enough to represent the market. Practical implications The study offers practitioners insights into the success that can be generated by the manipulation of marketing strategies, particularly product strategies, within the world's second biggest luxury market. Originality/value This paper extends the current international retailing literature by examining and comparing the motives and practices of luxury fashion retailers and the increasing localisation of their marketing strategies in China as they move from initial market entry into their post-entry operations.
Saurabh Bhattacharya, Arpita Agnihotri, Natalia Yannopoulou, Georgia Sakka
Published: 21 September 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-02-2021-0082

Abstract:
Purpose The authors combine institutional theory with resource-based theory to explain how emerging market firms (EMFs) manage their technological knowledge capital by venturing into international markets. The authors further explore the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in the home country in influencing technological knowledge capital and internationalization relationship. Design/methodology/approach The study employs multiple linear regression analysis using a dataset consisting of 326 Bombay Stock Exchange-listed A and B category stocks for a six-year period (2010–2016). Findings The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship. Research limitations/implications The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship. Practical implications The authors’ findings increase international marketing managers' awareness of how internationalization acts as a knowledge management tool for EMFs under the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity. Originality/value The study provides novel insights into the technological knowledge capital management strategy by EMFs through internationalization and the role of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in increasing firms' ability to even better manage technological knowledge capital.
Published: 9 September 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-05-2021-0173

Abstract:
Purpose Nation brand building is a complex task as it involves multiple stakeholders. In the context of globalisation, a strong nation brand has important implications not only for attracting foreign businesses and tourists but also for the brands originating from that country. This study examines the role of nation brand experience in enhancing a nation's global reputation. Design/methodology/approach The relationships between nation brand experience, nation brand love, nation brand loyalty and positive word of mouth (WOM) were examined by analysing 334 survey responses collected from foreign tourists in India. Structural equation analysis was carried out as part of the analysis. Findings The results confirmed that international visitors' sensory and affective nation brand experiences significantly enhance brand love for a nation, leading to national brand loyalty and positive WOM among them. The findings are expected to help practitioners understand consumer buying behavior related to nation brand and develop innovative strategies for improving brand values. Originality/value Understanding a developing nation brand experience and how it converts to brand loyalty through the mediation effect of nation brand love from the lens of foreign tourists is the novelty of this study.
, Pervez Nasim Ghauri
Published: 7 September 2021
International Marketing Review; https://doi.org/10.1108/imr-08-2020-0186

Abstract:
Purpose The authors discuss a dominant logic as the main idea behind a global marketing logic (GML) of an MNE and investigate how local stakeholders’ influence the feasibility of applying the GML in emerging markets. The aim of the paper is to enhance the understanding of the factors that influence the local stakeholders' acceptance of the MNEs' GML and the different activities of MNEs that may increase the acceptance. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply a qualitative case study method investigating three Swedish MNEs and their activities while implementing a GML in the big emerging markets. The authors study their relationships with business, political and social stakeholders. Findings The authors identify three persistent contents of the GML: (1) a consistent value chain role across markets, (2) standardized, premium products/services and promotion strategies, (3) a corporate brand-based identity. The development of trust, commitment, legitimacy and power within local stakeholders’ relationships influences the approval. The acceptance of the MNE's GML by local stakeholders strengthens its market position. Originality/value The authors extend the knowledge by investigating the nature of a GML and explain to what extent it may help MNEs to gain a competitive position. The authors also discuss how global and local activities may influence local stakeholders' acceptance. This study contributes towards a better understanding of how and to what extent a GML can be successful.
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