Instrumentation Science & Technology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1073-9149 / 1525-6030
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.1080)
Total articles ≅ 1,992
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Naga P. D. Boppana, Robyn A. Snow, Paul S. Simone, Gary L. Emmert,
Published: 3 October 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2129677

Abstract:
A low-cost, automated pipetting system (auto pipet) was developed to deliver microliter volumes of aqueous solutions. This system was constructed using a single board computer, 3 D-printed parts, stepper motors, and other commercially available components. The performance of the auto pipet was found to be comparable or better than manual pipetting and a commercially available liquid handling system. Inter-day, intra-day, inter-instrumental, and intra-instrumental validation studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of liquid delivery using the auto pipet. Accuracy was determined to be from 98 to 102% with the precision, represented as the relative standard deviation, to be less than 3%. The auto pipet was further evaluated by the preparation of calibration and check standards for the determination of method detection limit, accuracy, and precision for trihalomethanes using a commercially available monitoring system. The auto pipet was also used as a digital buret to perform water hardness and water alkalinity titrations with promising results. Graphical Abstract
, Yang Zhao, Tonglei Cheng, Rao Fu
Published: 29 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2127759

Abstract:
This paper reports a double-sided polished microstructured fiber based on the refractive index that simultaneously measures the refractive index and temperature. Two polished planes were introduced into the cladding. A gold film and polydimethylsiloxane are deposited on one side of the plane for temperature measurements, and graphene layers are coated on the surface of the silver film on the other side for refractive index measurements. The finite element method is used to characterize the sensing characteristics of the sensor. The results show that when the liquid refractive index is from 1.36 to 1.4 and the temperature from 70 °C to 110 °C, the maximum sensitivity of the sensor is 15,000 nm/RIU and 8.8 nm/°C, respectively. The double-sided polished structure facilitates the development of multi-parameter measurement sensors for various applications.
R. C. de Holanda, , ,
Published: 29 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2128371

Abstract:
Praziquantel (PZQ) is a racemic mixture prescribed for Schistosomiasis disease treatment. However, only the enantiomer (R)-PZQ presents demonstrated efficiency against infirmity; the (S)-PZQ causes sickness and vomiting due to its bitter taste. The simulated moving bed chromatography system (SMB) is a well-established separation process applied in many branches of the chemical industry from drug purification stages to food processing systems. In order to implement and operate an SMB for the PZQ separation, allowing the production of medication with proven efficiency and without side effects, a LabVIEW supervisory system was developed. The automated software remotely controlled all equipment in the operational unit, such as automatic pumps, multi-position valves for flow rate alignments, and a chiral detector. Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system’s operational properties and efficiency. The first set of results demonstrated that the data acquisition programming retrieved information constantly, evidencing a direct correlation between the internal liquid pressure and the valve system position, with mean pressure values of approximately 50 bar. The second set of results demonstrated the SMB efficiency, with the raffinate stream producing (R)-PZQ of 100% purity.
Zeliha Erbas,
Published: 28 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2127109

Abstract:
A microextraction method has been developed for the determination of rhodamine B (Rh-B) in water and cosmetics by separation and preconcentration with liquid microextraction based upon a switchable hydrophilic solvent and determination by spectrophotometry. The analyte was extracted into the triethylamine (TEA) phase using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to convert protonated triethylamine carbonate (P-TEA-C) to triethylamine. Various analytical parameters such as the pH of the sample solution, extraction solvent volume, and sample volumes affecting the quantitative recovery values of rhodamine B were optimized. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 2.96 and 9.88 ng/mL, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of rhodamine B and satisfactory recovery values were obtained. The developed approach is fairly fast and an environmentally friendly alternative for the separation and preconcentration of rhodamine B water and cosmetic samples.
J. Hallas, A. J. Janvier, K. F. Hoettges,
Published: 20 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2124418

Abstract:
During exercise, mechanical loads from the body are transduced into interstitial fluid pressure changes which are sensed as dynamic hydrostatic forces by cells in cartilage. The effects of these loading forces in health and disease are of interest to biologists, but the availability of affordable equipment for in vitro experimentation is an obstacle to research progress. Here, we report the development of a cost-effective hydropneumatic bioreactor system for research in mechanobiology. The bioreactor was assembled from readily available components (a closed-loop stepped motor and pneumatic actuator) and a minimal number of easily-machined crankshaft parts, whilst the cell culture chambers were custom designed by the biologists using CAD and entirely 3 D printed in PLA. The bioreactor system was shown to be capable of providing cyclic pulsed pressure waves at a user-defined amplitude and frequency ranging from 0 to 400 kPa and up to 3.5 Hz, which are physiologically relevant for cartilage. Tissue engineered cartilage was created from primary human chondrocytes and cultured in the bioreactor for five days with three hours/day cyclic pressure (300 kPa at 1 Hz), simulating moderate physical exercise. Bioreactor-stimulated chondrocytes significantly increased their metabolic activity (by 21%) and glycosaminoglycan synthesis (by 24%), demonstrating effective cellular transduction of mechanosensing. Our Open Design approach focused on using ‘off-the-shelf’ pneumatic hardware and connectors, open source software and in-house 3 D printing of bespoke cell culture containers to resolve long-standing problems in the availability of affordable bioreactors for laboratory research.
Haena Chu, Kyoung-Soon Jang, Byunghyun Choi, Jae Wook Kang, Chae Eun Son,
Published: 19 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2123817

Abstract:
Comprehensive analytical validation studies of a developed ion molecule reaction – mass spectrometer (IMR-MS) were undertaken for the real-time determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The instrument was developed with a focus on promoting chemical ionization (CI) in the reaction chamber by direct sample loading and enhancing maintenance efficiency and reliability of the results. Instrument stability was assessed through a system check and pre-performance check process, and consequently, the instrumental and analytical conditions including the plasma generation, pressure, temperature, and flow rate were successfully optimized. Relevant performance characteristics, such as mass resolution, mass detection range, accuracy, and precision were also investigated by VOC standards composed of benzene, toluene, perfluorotoluene, propylbenzene, and octane. To evaluate whether the performance of the technology is comparable to already accepted techniques, the quantitative results of the IMR-MS were compared with those of a commercial mass spectrometer. This evaluation was successful and suggests the applicability of the technology for spillage accidents of hazardous chemicals and identification of odor-causing substances as well as for real-time gas analysis.
Wenyin Li, , Dong Wang
Published: 15 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2123343

Abstract:
This article reports a distributed thermal monitoring approach for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The detecting system is based on using an electrically non-conductive and electromagnetic interference-free fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor embedded in the stator of PMSMs. FBG thermal sensors with different annealing temperature were fabricated and integrated with a motor stator, and their accuracy for temperature measurement was evaluated. According to the experimental results, the error within 200 °C is limited between −6 °C and 2 °C when the annealing temperature is 95 °C, and the error decreases to ±1 °C when the annealing temperature is 120 °C, indicating that performance of FBG thermal sensor is improved by increasing the annealing temperature. This article provides methodogical guidance for improving the accuracy of stator temperature distribution measurements based on the FBG thermal sensor.
Ronaldo Challhua,
Published: 15 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2122996

Abstract:
A low-cost 3D-printing system is reported for the deposition of thin films by a dip-coating technique. The structure was constructed using 3D-printed pieces of polylactic acid (PLA) joined by simple snap-fit. This structure assembly and design simplifies the construction and replicability of dip-coating equipment. The components used are affordable and accessible, reducing the cost of implementation. An Arduino controls the system through a C++ program that varies the pulling and dipping speed from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. The pulling and dipping process uses a servomotor motion transformed into linear by a rack and pinion mechanism. The performance of the presented system was validated by comparison of thin-film reduced graphene oxide (rGO) deposition onto gold. The rGO thin films obtained were homogeneous and smooth, capable of being used as electrodes in biosensors.
Shan Wang, Yamei Han, Jiangwei Chen, Ligai Bai, Hongyuan Yan,
Published: 13 September 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2120894

Abstract:
A metal organic framework (MOF)-based monolithic column was prepared by in situ polymerization using modified MIL-101-NH2 and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers. The monolithic column was used as a solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for on-line enrichment and preliminary purification of diosmetin in traditional Chinese medicine. After being characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption, the advantages of the monolithic column with MIL-101-NH2 added were reflected in the pore structure and specific surface area. The monolithic column for SPE had a linear relationship from 0.13 µg/mL to 5.0 × 102 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.04 µg/mL and 0.13 µg/mL, respectively. The recovery was from 96% to 104%, and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 1.1%. This method was suitable for the determination of diosmetin in complex samples.
, Fatma Güzel
Published: 27 August 2022
Instrumentation Science & Technology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/10739149.2022.2115511

Abstract:
Emitted X-ray energies, line shapes, fluorescence yields, absorption probabilities and absorption edges of the elements are X-ray fundamental parameters that are of practical significance because they facilitate compositional analysis of complex materials. They are also a potent test of atomic theory. The chemical effects may cause changes in the energy of the X-ray lines and line shapes, such as the full width at half maximum and asymmetry index values depending on the chemical state of the substance. Although these effects vary for each element, the causes of these differences have been investigated. In this study, changes in chemical action values of lanthanide group compounds were investigated using a single crystal wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with a rhodium anode X-ray tube. The Ll and X-ray emission lines are characterized by fitting of the Lorentz function. The chemical shift was investigated according to the chemical bond type, molecular structure, and oxidation number.
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