Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya
ISSN / EISSN : 2541-3384 / 2541-3392
Published by: Universitas Negeri Jakarta (10.21009)
Total articles ≅ 151
Latest articles in this journal
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061111
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.05
The choice of natural fibers as a composite reinforcing material is related to the advantages of being cheap, abundant, renewable, and environmentally friendly. This research was conducted to study the effect of de-lignification treatment on the properties of purun tikus (Eleocharis Dulcis) fiber. Purun tikus fiber has been modified with the alkaline treatment of KMnO4 2% and NaOH 5%. This treatment was mainly applied to improve the physical and chemical properties of purun tikus fiber. Changes in chemical characteristics (water, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose), physical (density), mechanical (tensile strength), morphology, and elemental content of purun tikus before and after treated with alkaline were studied. The measurements showed an increase in water content and density while lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were decreased. Thus the alkaline treatment of KMnO4 2% and NaOH 5% reduced lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose of the purun tikus fiber to reduce the size of the fibers, as shown in SEM measurements. There was a change in elemental content after being treated with KMnO4 2% and NaOH 5%. NaOH treatment was better than KMnO4 treatment in terms of removing lignin and hemicellulose in purun tikus fiber. Although the tensile strength of the purun fibers treated with KMnO4 2% and NaOH 5% were lower than untreated, with less lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, it is expected that these fibers will blend better in the composite and improved its mechanical properties.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 61-70; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.07
Osteoporosis is defined by a decrease in bone mass and a deterioration in bone microstructure. It is a major public health issue and a significant economic burden for both individuals and society. Thus, monitoring bone mass and structure is necessary to prevent bone fragility and osteoporosis. This study aimed to develop a prototype of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and to evaluate the feasibility of backscatter mode for the bone assessment. Ultrasound (US) signals that propagate through the bone can be characterized by comparing the signal from both transmitter and receiver transducers. The US backscattered signal depends on the characteristic of both medium and transducer. In this study, we analyzed the attenuated signal based on the parameters: type of bone (compact and spongy), type of coupling medium (air, starch, and gel), the angle between transducers and bone (30o, 60o, and 90o), and transducer distance (0, 10, 5, 15, 20 and 25 cm). We use only 1 MHz transducer frequency. The prototype has been evaluated by Digital Oscilloscope and LabVIEW user interface to observe received signals. The results of this study showed that there was a difference in amplitude of the US signal from compact and spongy bones. The amplitude is directly proportional to acoustic impedance and inversely proportional to the distance between transducers. There is a negative correlation between bone microstructure to attenuation, and compact bones have a greater attenuation coefficient than spongy bones.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.06100
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.03
Sulfur-doped zinc oxide (S-ZnO) nanorod has been successfully synthesized via the seed-mediated hydrothermal method with different sulfur concentrations (0%, 1%, 2.5%). This research aims to study the influence of the concentration of sulfur on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of ZnO as a promising material in a wide range of applications. Crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Electron Scanning Microscopy (FESEM), and UV-Vis Spectroscopy, respectively. The XRD pattern shows the strongest peak at 2θ = 34.43° for crystal orientation of (002). The crystallinity properties of the S-ZnO sample are higher compared to the ZnO sample. The FESEM images of the 1% S-ZnO sample exhibit the highest nanorod density arrangement. The optical absorbance of the higher sulfur dopant possesses a higher optical absorption peak on the UV-Vis spectrum. The results indicate that S doping to ZnO can alter the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.04
This research aims to make ultra high strength Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) with marble powder as one of the components. The use of marble powder can increase Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) and the strength of RPC. The research method used to achieve the objectives is experimental and divided into two steps. The first step is the characterization of a marble and micro silica powder mixture. Stoichiometry calculations are performed to determine the composition of the mixture. The test sample is made in the form of pellets consisting of a mixture of marble powder, micro silica, and water. The water content used is at 30% - 50%. Maintenance is carried out by immersion in water with the temperature of 20oC for 27 days and in steam at temperatures 200oC, 250oC, and 300oC with 2 atm pressure for 4 hours. Material characterization is carried out using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The second step in this research is the RPC compressive strength test. The test sample is made in the form of a cube measuring 50 x 50 x 50 mm. This cube is a mixture of water, cement, micro silica, marble powder, sand, and superplasticizer. Material composition is arranged based on the characterization of the sample pellet test, and maintenance of the sample cube test is carried out as in the sample pellet test.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 49-60; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.06
The devastating earthquake Mw 7.4 hit Palu City, Central Sulawesi on September 28th, 2018, at 17:02:44 WIB. A high tsunami followed it. More than 2000 people died as a result of the earthquake and tsunami disaster. The latest evidence shows that the earthquake was categorized as a rare super shear earthquake. The earthquake shaking that hit Palu City is relatively large. Acceleration data are not available at the study site due to the lack of instrumentation in the area. The Authors present a simulation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) due to the earthquake in three locations Tatura Mall, Roa-Roa Hotel, and Antapura Hospital. PGA describes the maximum acceleration on the ground, while pseudo-spectral acceleration describes the acceleration of earthquake shaking from buildings with various floor numbers. Simulation of PGA and PSA to the three sites used three different Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) functions, BSSA14, CB14, and CY14, with the weighting of each Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) GMPE functions. The results of PGA simulation is about 0.22-0.23 g and show that in the three study site, it is more vulnerable to spectral acceleration period T=0.3 s or building with three floors or about 1-15 floors. These correlate with the level of damage caused by earthquakes which is more impact to relatively higher buildings.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.01
The reading performance of an analog thermometer, Liquid in Glass Thermometer (LiGT), can be improved using a digital camera. The aim is to minimize the human error on the reading of LiGT and increase the accuracy of temperature measurement results. In order to achieve an accurate result, a robust image processing method is required in the measurement. In this work, the LiGT image generated using a digital camera is analyzed using the technique in HSV color space which consists of some image processing methods (e.g., thresholding, morphology filter). The type of LiGT used is the glass thermometer with the colored liquid. There are three main parts to this developed technique process, i.e., identifying the scale of LiGT to calculate the pixel per temperature unit value (ppt), segmentation of the liquid column, and calculate the temperature based on the ppt value. Through simulation with a synthetic image, we demonstrate that the developed technique in this work has successfully read (measured) the temperature value of the LiGT (having a scale unit of 1oC) with a measurement error of 0.04oC. In the experimental results, we also report the developed technique performed on a real image of LiGT.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.02
Data Acquisition System has a significant role, especially in static testing of a rocket, determining whether a rocket is declared eligible to fly or not based on the static rocket test. Static testing of the RX320 rocket involves several numerical data instrumentation components, including the Yokogawa DL850 and the CDA900 Signal Conditioner, and the PT750 Pressure sensor. It has functions to accept the physical force that occurs, measure and record the value of the Pressure force in the RX 320 Rocket Chamber at the time Static test during burning time is performed. From the record value of the RX 320 chamber pressure, it can be stated that the RX 320 is suitable for the rocket flight test. The calculation results of the chamber pressure design and the results of measurement and recording of RX320 static test data indicate that the Pressure Chamber RX320 value is still within the safe limits of the RX320 Rocket motor tube material strength.
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 6, pp 71-88; https://doi.org/10.21009/spektra.061.08
Simulations were carried out to visualize the ratio of granular attachment to porous surfaces. This simulation uses a uFlex three-dimensional simulation using three sizes of porous surface systems in the condition of the smallest human pores and the most extensive human pores and the condition of wet skin and dry skin. Each system was tested using five granular particle sizes according to the range of the makeup granules’ size to determine the optimal adhesive. The results show that the number of cosmetic granular particles entering the porous surface system is directly proportional to the porous surface volume and moisture and inversely proportional to the granular cosmetic size. The larger the cosmetic granular used, the less granular enters the pore.