Open Journal of Depression

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21699658 / 21699674
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 77
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Latest articles in this journal

A. Bloore Rebecca, E. Jose Paul, Joshanloo Mohsen, Rebecca A. Bloore, Paul E. Jose, Mohsen Joshanloo
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.91001

The literature is beginning to document how and for whom “fear of happiness” (happiness aversion, i.e. the expectation that being happy can have negative consequences) is predictive of psychological outcomes. We sought to determine whether hope, an important protective factor against depressive symptoms, might mediate and moderate the relationship between happiness aversion and depression. In a dataset of 588 undergraduate psychology students, evidence was found that hope functioned as a mediator as well as a buffer in the relationship between happiness aversion and depression. In addition, exploratory analysis of a small longitudinal dataset (N = 74) suggested that hope also played the same roles in the relationship between fear of happiness and depression over time. These findings suggest that interventions that create hope can be effective in disrupting the relationship between happiness aversion and depressive symptoms.
Bulut Sefa, Nazir Thseen, Sefa Bulut, Thseen Nazir
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 31-42; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.93004

Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting during the night at sleep) is one of the most disturbing and frustrating childhood problems for both parents as well as children (Bulut, 2019). As many as 5 million American children and families are suffering from it (Warzak, 1993). Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common disorders of childhood (Schulpen, 1997). If it is not treated, it has a significant effect on children’s social and emotional health. Even when they reach adulthood, enuresis can still have a serious effect on their careers, social life and personal relationships (Graff, 1992). Furthermore, enuresis causes a financial drain in both the families and the society as a whole. Continuously having to wash, dry, and buy washing soaps and diapers can cause a significant financial burden on families. Additionally, enuresis can limit the family’s mobility and vacation planning. Therefore, it seems that it has multiple consequences to be considered.
Gomes Laurentino Silvia, Lopes De Souza Sandra, Botelho Sougey Everton, Silvia Gomes Laurentino, Sandra Lopes De Souza, Everton Botelho Sougey
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 43-57; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.93005

Background: The neural circuits involved in the decision-making process and social emotion participate in the same circuits seen in major depressive disorder. This study aimed to investigate in depressed patients, the decision making process in risk/reward situations using neurophysiological methods for a better assessment of functional aspects related to decision making deficit that are seen in major depression. Methods: Forty patients were studied, 20 with depression and 20 without. After applied the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Depression scale (HAM-D), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was applied to analyze the risk/ reward decision-making behavior. The Skin Conductance Response (SCR) was recorded to analyze the emotional anticipatory learning effect during the IGT. Besides, an EEG was recorded to measure the Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Index (FAAI). Results: Depressed patients presented a lower Net score and a deficit in anticipatory learning effect in the IGT. Furthermore, the FAAI revealed more frontal right activation as have described in previous studies. Conclusion: Patients with major depression have a dysfunction in the circuits that modulate cognitive, emotional and social behavior, and also, impairment in cognitive fluidity for evaluating strategies for risk-reward. The EEG helps to confirm that asymmetry in frontal areas and oscillation of alpha frequencies participate in the regulation of emotion in depressed patients.
Chao Ran, Hu Zhou, Chao Tan, Juntao Tan, Zhengyu Zhang, Wenlong Zhao
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 17-25; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.92002

Background: Pre-marketing clinical research of drugs can not completely solve the safety problems in the process of wide application of drugs post-marketing, so it is necessary to re-evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs after marketing. Objective: To detect and analyze the adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRIs) post-marketing and provide references for clinical rational drug use. Methods: Reporting Ratio (ROR) method was used to mine the adverse reaction signals of SSRIs in the Adverse Reaction Reporting System (ARES) of the Food and Drug Administration of the United States (FDA), and the results were analyzed and evaluated. Results: Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline and citalopram were 40,217, 2907, 52,439, 63,849 and 42,588 cases respectively. After ROR test, there were 187 ADR signals of the five drugs, among which ADR was most prominent in psychiatric and nervous system. It mainly includes adverse reactions such as anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, 5-HT syndrome, withdrawal syndrome and so on. Conclusion: The study based on ADR signals in the real world is helpful to evaluate the post-marking safety drugs and provide references for safety in clinical medication.
Hanif Soomro, Alex O'neill-Kerr, Leigh Neal, Chris Griffiths, Robert De Vai
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 26-30; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.92003

Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the clinical data analysis results from a service delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for people with cocaine-use disorder (CUD). Methods: The study was a retrospective investigation of routinely collected data on patients receiving rTMS between 2018 and 2019. Measures used were a cocaine craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) self-rated depression measures. Results: The outcome data of 10 patients with CUD were analysed. There was a statistically significant reduction and a large effect size on CUD and depression scales. Conclusions: Reductions in craving and depression indicate the potential benefits to patients and to society of rTMS in treating CUD. Further sufficiently powered RCTs are warranted with studies focusing on the optimization of rTMS treatment and exploring the underlying mechanisms.
Paul E. Jose, Jason S. Spendelow, Jared Watson
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 9, pp 58-76; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.93006

The chief goal of the present study was to elucidate whether the short-term temporal relationships between depressive and anxious symptoms vary by sex. Three hundred and fifty-seven undergraduate students self-reported depressive and anxious symptomatology with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) two times 11 weeks apart. A latent variable path model analysis found support for a bi-directional relationship between depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms for the overall sample. An equality constraint analysis revealed that depressive symptoms predicted anxious symptoms over time to a similar extent as anxious symptoms predicted depressive symptoms over time. However, several temporal relationships significantly varied by sex, namely, females demonstrated greater stability of depressive symptoms over time, and evidenced a stronger cross-lag relationship from depressive symptoms at Time 1 to anxious symptoms at Time 2, and males, on the other hand, exhibited a marginally more stable anxious symptoms test-retest relationship over time. The results supported the existence of a bi-directional relationship between depressive and anxious symptoms over a short-term period of time for emerging adults. We conclude that current states of depressive symptoms may be more influential for females’ subsequent negative affective states, whereas anxious symptoms may be more important for males’ subsequent negative affective states.
Alfred Anselme Dabilgou, Desiré Nanema, Alassane Dravé, S. P. Sawadogo, Julie Marie Adeline Kyelem, Christian Napon, Jean Kaboré
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 8, pp 29-40; doi:10.4236/ojd.2019.81004

Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its factors associated in patients with epilepsy at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Teaching Hospital (Burkina Faso). Methods: This was a prospective 6-month study carried out in Neurology Department from February to July 2017. This study included all the patients with epilepsy aged over 18 years. Sampling was non-random with systematic recruitment. The informed consent of the patient was required. All included patients were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Gererd questionnaire. The analysis of the data was performed by the software Epi Info version 7. Results: One hundred two patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 41.47 ± 16.67 years were included. The symptoms of depression were present in 67.3% of patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 42.59 ± 17 years, and 78 years (19 - 88 years). Depression was mild in 35%, moderate in 34% and severe in 31%. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was respectively 57.6% in male patients and 79% in female gender. The mean score of HDRS for depression was 15.62 ± 4.26. Hypochondriasis (97%), work and interest (95.5%) and anxiety-somatic (94.1%) were the most symptoms of HDRS-17. Higher scores were found for work and interests, anxiety-psychic and hypochondriasis. There was a significant association between perceived stigma, female gender, seizure frequency and presence of depression among patients with epilepsy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study had found a high prevalence of depression among patients with epilepsy. High perceived stigma, female gender and seizure frequency were the most associated factors with depressive symptoms.
Sefa Bulut
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 8, pp 41-47; doi:10.4236/ojd.2019.82005

Christopher Griffiths, Ksenija Maravic Da Silva, Rob De Vai, Alex O’Neill-Kerr
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 8, pp 16-28; doi:10.4236/ojd.2019.81003

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