Open Journal of Depression

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-9658 / 2169-9674
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 86
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Latest articles in this journal

Omonefe J. Seb-Akahomen, Esther O. Okogbenin, Olukunle M. Obagaye, Paul O. Erohubie, Benjamin E. Aweh
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 43-53; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.102004

Background: Undetected depression can result in a significant decline in productivity among the workforce in every system, the healthcare sector inclusive. It is vital to utilize brief screening tools to detect populations at risk of depression. The 5-item WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5) has been used as a screening measure for depression, but research on this is scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine the utility and validity of the WHO-5 in screening for depression in a population of doctors and nurses in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A representative sample of medical doctors and nurses across Nigeria (n = 464), completed the 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results: The pattern of factors associated with cases of a positive depression screening was considerably similar for the WHO-5 and the PHQ-9. At a cut-off score of 50 for the WHO-5, the sensitivity and specificity values obtained were 0.857 and 0.851 respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.404 and 0.981 respectively. ROC analysis of the WHO-5 against the PHQ-9 revealed that, at a cut-off of 50, the sensitivity of the WHO-5 was 0.857, 1-specificity was 0.152. The AUC was 0.918 (95% CI 0.884-0.953). Also, there was a strong, negative correlation between the WHO and the PHQ-9 scores (r = -0.590, p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: The WHO-5 well-being index has satisfactory validity as a screening tool for the detection of depression. It is also feasible for use in very busy settings, because of its brevity and ease of administration.
Sebastian Salicru
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 54-89; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.102005

Problem: Depression is spreading rapidly worldwide. It has been forecasted to become the leading cause of disability worldwide by 2030, despite significant efforts and investments made to treat it. This menace has been exacerbated by the current COVID-19 pandemic which has triggered psychological distress and a surge in experiences of emptiness, sadness, and loss of meaning in life. Meaninglessness is one of the biggest threats of our times and is associated with depression and suicide. Gap: Existential psychotherapy has been neglected by researchers and remains misunderstood by the new generation of clinicians as an integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of depression, despite being one of the longest-established forms of psychotherapy. Objective: To address the above gap, recommendations, and emerging risks. Methodology: Review of theoretical and empirical findings, and autoethnography taking a scientist-practitioner stance. Results: A comprehensive, practical, integrated, flexible, and evidence-based model for the prevention and treatment of depression, and other internalizing disorders. Utility: This model will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, students of psychology, and the wider public. Conclusion/Recommendations: The model can be used to promote preventative factors in youth development, develop protective factors in high-risk populations with vulnerability to depression, and treat individuals experiencing depression or other internalizing disorders.
Yumei Li
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.101001

This study aims to delve into linguistic evidence for therapists to achieve better therapeutic outcomes by empowering women suffering from postpartum depression with empathic responses. Conversation samples are transcribed from videos for analysis. The focus of analysis is on language features of two postpartum women based on the Postpartum Voice of Depression Response Model. Expressions of negative feelings fall into four emotional domains. Language features of negative feelings are salient in postpartum women, often represented by a frequent use of negative words and sustaining on a sad topic. In clinical settings, therapists can help postpartum women get out of disturbing states by means of eliciting their inner feelings, identifying negative expressions and offering empathic responses accordingly. An empathic attitude matters in a person-centered clinical setting, which means a reassuring expression from the therapist can ease anxiety of the pa-tient. The application of the Model has implications for emotional support in clinical settings, particularly in terms of differentiating between four emotional domains and showing understandings of negative feelings experienced by postpartum women.
Obiefuna George Umeaku, Ferguson Ayemere Ehimen, Chinenye Opogah
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 14-27; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.101002

Background: Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation, it can interfere with the quality of life and general functioning. The Global Burden of Disease study (2016) states that pain and pain-related diseases are the leading cause of disability and disease burden globally. Chronic pain over time can affect our mental health and participation in daily activities viz our affecting general well-being. Documented evidence has shown that simple medications are useful in 20% to 70% of cases but psychological factors such as social support, hypnotic suggestion, diversions such as excitement, or distraction can significantly affect pain’s intensity. For holistic care, diversional therapy can be effective in managing chronic pain, as it is a safe and cheap adjunct in managing chronic conditions. Objective: To explore the effect of diversional therapy as an adjunct in managing chronic pain associated with depression. Methodology: This study involves a case report of two patients been managed as a case of cervical spondylosis with radiculopathy associated with depression. Both patients had diversional therapy as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy. Activity log and chart were developed to monitor the compliance and pain was monitored using the numeric rating scale. Result: Diversional therapy has shown to be a safe adjunct in managing chronic pain associated with depression. Diversional therapy was successfully used as an intervention in decreasing pains of the patients, improving their functioning and participation in activities of daily living. Conclusion/Recommendation: Diversional therapy was found to be a safe adjunct for managing chronic pain-associated depression and consequently reduced the side effect of prolonged medication use. Therefore, diversional therapy should be explored in managing cervical spondylosis with radiculopathy and depression.
Cristie Ritz King, Stephanie M. Morgan, Casey Mace Firebaugh, Tishra Beeson, Timothy J. Legg, Rebecca Wardlow
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 29-42; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.102003

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public and mental health issue, with long-lasting effects on mothers and children. It is expected to be the second largest problem among all general health issues by the year 2030 and 10% - 20% of new mothers experience PPD globally. Early intervention has shown to be effective yet the consensus on best practice is not clear. This systematic review aimed to synthesize prior research to provide practical recommendations for the best practices for both intervention and prevention of PPD. The following databases were scanned: PsychiatryOnline, PsycArticles, PsycBooks, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, and EBSCO. The search included the following keywords: postpartum depression, postpartum mental health, risk factors, intervention, prevention, efficacy, group therapy and empowerment, and perinatal and postnatal. The PRISMA checklist was used to screen studies for inclusion. Using the described search strategy, 45 articles were identified for synthesis. The following themes emerged in the literature: a variety of approaches focus on empowerment, and perceived competency. These themes appeared across various at-risk groups and in different cultural and socioeconomic groups. Recommendations for further investigation include the development of targeted treatment approaches, defining and objectifying maternal empowerment and self-efficacy, and the development of standardized training to improve provider competency so as to benefit mothers, children, communities, and the psychological community at large.
Sunday Onyemaechi Oriji, Bawo Onesirosan James, Paul Ojieiriaikhi Erohubie, Justus Uchenna Onu, Theclar Ogochukwu Iyidobi, Obumneme Kenechukwu Nwiyi, Chijioke Chimbo, Richard Uwakwe
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 10, pp 90-102; doi:10.4236/ojd.2021.102006

Background: There is increasing resurgence of suicide globally, especially in developing countries, probably owing to socio-economic instability. Majority of suicidal phenomenon is attributed to depressive disorders, which significantly contribute to the global burden of diseases. Aim: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of suicidality (suicidal ideation and attempts) among adult outpatients with major depression at Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital (FNPH), Benin City, Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2018 utilizing systematic random sampling of eligible participants, aged between 18 and 64 years. One hundred and thirty-two patients with major depression, with their diagnosis confirmed with the Depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were recruited. A Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Suicidality Module of MINI were administered to consented participants. Results: The past month prevalence of suicidality and suicidal ideation were 47.7% (n = 63) and 36.4% (n = 48) respectively. While, the lifetime prevalence of suicidal attempts was 18.2% (n = 24), the current suicidal ‘moderate-high risk’ was 12.1% (n = 16). Participants were 35% more likely to report suicidality for every unit increase in symptom severity (BPRS score) (aOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.20 - 1.52, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Suicidality is common among outpatients with major depression at the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City. Severity of psychopathology was an independent risk factor for suicidality in depressive disorder.
Ami Rokach
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 09, pp 77-85; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.94007

In this article I highlighted the importance of belonging, togetherness, and interpersonal support, and examined eating rituals, in various cultures and religions, that emphasize that food is not just for the body, but can nurture the soul and bond people.
Toshimasa Mikawa, Hirofumi Tanabe, Takashi Yabe
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 09, pp 86-94; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.94008

During the period effective rehabilitation and occurrence of depressive symptoms overlap in patients with cerebral vascular disorder. This study was conducted to clarify the medical professionals’ responses to such cases by determining the state of depression. This study involved qualitative analysis of free response questionnaire data. The study includes patients with a history of cerebral vascular disorder. The questionnaire authors reviewed all questions intended for free response before inclusion in the questionnaire. Questionnaires were handed off to patients between May 15 and July 15, allowing them 2 weeks to reply. The deadline for return was July 31, 2019. The recovery rate was 64.1%. A total of 245 words and 21 subcategories were extracted. Major categories of One’s own feelings (44.9%), Interaction with people (32.2%), and Uncertainty about the future (22.9%) were identified. Because the recovery of physical functions can aid in the recovery from depressive symptoms, medical professionals must be indirectly involved in the recovery from depressive symptoms.
Ahmad Hanani, Metin Piskin
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 09, pp 95-100; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.94009

Background: Bullying in schools is the problem and an issue of every nation around the globe. Researchers around the globe pointed out an abundance of negative impacts on students involved in bullying and require the focus and attention of adults to address and resolve bullying incidents among students. Aim: This research aimed to study the impact of bullying on gender of secondary school students in Palestine. Methods: The present mixed-method study was directed on samples randomly and total number of samples was 827 students (the male was 388 and female was 439). Bullying was assessed by using Bully Victim Determination Scale, developed by Piskin & Ayas (2007). Result: After analyzing data by using the Mann Whitney U test, it was found that male students are more bullied than females. Conclusion: The study concluded that girls and boys are vulnerable to bullying. But the boys are found to be more bullied than girls.
Sefa Bulut, Thseen Nazir
Open Journal of Depression, Volume 09, pp 31-42; doi:10.4236/ojd.2020.93004

Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting during the night at sleep) is one of the most disturbing and frustrating childhood problems for both parents as well as children (Bulut, 2019). As many as 5 million American children and families are suffering from it (Warzak, 1993). Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common disorders of childhood (Schulpen, 1997). If it is not treated, it has a significant effect on children’s social and emotional health. Even when they reach adulthood, enuresis can still have a serious effect on their careers, social life and personal relationships (Graff, 1992). Furthermore, enuresis causes a financial drain in both the families and the society as a whole. Continuously having to wash, dry, and buy washing soaps and diapers can cause a significant financial burden on families. Additionally, enuresis can limit the family’s mobility and vacation planning. Therefore, it seems that it has multiple consequences to be considered.
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