ISSN / EISSN : 2029-6223 / 2029-6223
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 188
Latest articles in this journal
Verbum, Volume 13, pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.30
The article overviews the Lithuanian language of returning emigrant children. It is based on the project “Linguistic Integration of Returning Emigrant Children: Proficiency in Lithuanian and its Development” (RCL Agreement No. S-REP-21-1), implemented in 2021–2022. The data were selected from two Lithuanian language children’s corpora (returning emigrant children (KG) and permanently residing in Lithuania children (KL)) collected during the project at eight Lithuanian schools. The corpora consist of the Lithuanian language production by children aged 8–12 who returned to Lithuania from English-speaking countries 1–2 years ago and by their peers in Lithuania. The article aims to identify differences in the linguistic expression of KG and KL by comparing the word frequency lists and overviewing verb, noun, and adjective. The quantitative findings show no significant differences in the use of the selected parts of speech. The results suggest that according to the available language skills and competences, the returning emigrant children can communicate on everyday topics quite freely, and their linguistic expression is similar to the language of their peers in Lithuania.
Verbum, Volume 13, pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.29
The paper seeks to present a semantico-functional analysis of the French verb falloir. The empirical data are obtained from a parallel corpus – the Corpus Parallèle de Textes Littéraires (CTLFR-LT), which is composed of French literary texts and their translations into Lithuanian. The paper uses quantitative, qualitative and comparative methods. It is based on the studies focusing on the polysemy of modal verbs (Chu 2010; Dendale 1994; Kronning 1988; Le Querler 2001; Rossari 2012) as well as on the development of discourse markers in language (Dostie 2004; Vold 2008). The findings show that the verb falloir, while maintaining its core meaning of necessity, can express conjecture. When it is used in patterns together with verbs of saying (verba cogitandi and dicendi) and verbs of visual perception, falloir no longer functions as a marker of necessity and becomes a pragmatic marker of connection and argumentation. The analysis of the translations of the French verb falloir into a typologically different language, Lithuanian, has also confirmed the entrenched use of the verb in question in the modal field of necessity and its rich functional potential in the French literary texts. The paper contributes to the existing contrastive studies between the French and Lithuanian languages, which are not numerous. The findings of the research could serve didactic purposes as well as add to the field of translation studies.
Verbum, Volume 13, pp 2-2; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.28
The article analyses 200 nouns of Lithuanian slang with the three most common Slavic suffixes: -ka, -kė (Russ. -ка, Pl. -ka); -akas (Russ. -ак, Pl. -ak), -iakas (Russ. -як); -ščikas, -čikas (Russ. -щик, -чик). The majority of nouns in the slang are with the suffixes -kė, -ka. A part of the borrows with theses suffixes are the result of suffix univerbation; the univerbs usually are informal or slang words in Russian language. The borrowings with the suffixes -akas, -iakas are the second most common: these nouns are mostly slang words in Russian. There are many hybrids created with the suffixes -akas, -iakas in Lithuanian slang. The nouns with the suffixes -ščikas, -čikas are the third most common; the words with -ščikas are more ordinary in slang; the suffix -čikas is less common, but both forms are often used as synonyms. There are also few pseudo-borrowings with Russian roots and suffixes -ščikas, -čikas as well as hybrid derivatives.
Verbum, Volume 13, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.27
In this article, we undertake a contrastive analysis of some slang words and expressions of the tennis lexicon in French and Italian. Using the notion of "lexiculture", coined by Robert Galisson, we will adopt - on the basis of a corpus of dictionaries of sports and sports slang in both languages - a comparative approach, reviewing some "culturally charged" terminological entries relating to the French and Italian tennis lexicon. Through this approach, we aim not only to bring out the culture sedimented in the selected lexical units, but also to show how these cultural references — being often specific to the idiom and civilization in which these slang lexical units were forged — pose many difficulties when translating.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 7-7; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.26
In this article, we analyze a corpus made up of two general French-Italian and Italian-French bilingual dictionaries and two multilingual dictionaries. We take into account, in particular, the macrostructure, the microstructure, the technical terminology and the phraseology of these dictionaries. Using a magnifying glass metaphorically, we focus on the treatment of the specialty language of commerce within the articles of the general bilingual dictionaries. With regard to plurilingual dictionaries, we try to show the lexicographical choices dictated by a requirement of extreme synthesis; the size of a dictionary, especially for schools, influences not only the convenience of consultation but also the price. The prodromes of the first business specialty language dictionaries represent an interesting corpus for understanding the first steps taken by lexicographers who decided to include specialty terminology in general bilingual dictionaries or to write multilingual business dictionaries.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 6-6; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.25
The aim of this article was to analyse the reflection of the image of the German in the examples from the current literature and the media present in the Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language of the Vytautas Magnus University. The focus of the study went beyond the collocations with this word and the disclosure of the characteristic traits of Germans all the way to the meaning bestowed upon this word by the broader context – the sentence or a group of them. Examples containing all forms of the lexeme German were examined. A total of six different contexts in which Germans are mentioned were identified: these were the contexts of history, cooperation, sports, culture, characteristic traits, and science. In the context of history, Germans are usually referred to as a belligerent nation, assailants, savage conquerors, invaders. The attitude towards them is negative as often as not. Things are different in the context of cooperation, where the attitude is positive and Germans are seen as friendly partners. In the contexts of sports, culture, and science, the story is more or less the same, with Germans regarded with respect as meritorious and high-ranking representatives of their field.The context of the characteristic traits of Germans has the highest degree of controversy and stereotype. Some data show that Germans, according to the popular belief, are neat, rational, organised, punctual, disciplined, hard-working, cultured, law-abiding; they are rather cold and reserved. Other examples, albeit much smaller in number, bear witness to quite the opposite: that Germans are neither punctual nor overly neat or cultured; some sources even say that they are friendly, merry, and approachable. Besides, this nature loves to travel.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.24
Teacher identity is an evolving, multi-dimensional concept of a teacher’s understanding of self, best understood as a dynamic narrative of self-growth. The present study is focused on hypothesized stages of teacher identity development (Pride, Survival, Experimentation, Disenchantment, Rebellion and Progressive Proficiency) and their occurrence in Lithuanian foreign language teachers. A series of semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight Lithuanian foreign language teachers to discover their personal narratives of teacher identity development.The findings of the qualitative case study research revealed that key features of the six possible identity stages were present across the unique experiences of theforeign language teachers interviewed. However, each research participant displayed only certain key features of each identity development stage rather than a combination of all the possible features. In general, less experienced teachers displayed fewer key features at certain identity stages, implying that they had not experienced particular phases of identity development to completion. The results suggest certain features of identity development stages can be omitted and then experienced later in a teacher’s career. Teacher satisfaction with compensation, job security, professional prestige and the education system in general were additional factors that contributed uniquely to the identity development of teachers working in Lithuania.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.23
This article shows how the influence of Western European expressionism on Ukrainian art contributed to the formation of its national version in the works of Vasyl Stefanyk. The research applied comparative, biographical methods and method of close reading. The outcome of this detailed analysis demonstrates that the common features of Stefanyk’s antimilitary novels and Western European Expressionists are similar and feature such themes as the crisis of cultural values, anti-military issues, condemnation of murder, states of existential anxiety, tragedy of human existence and eschatological feeling. Furthermore, Expressionists and Stefanyk focus on the psychophysical states of characters ‒ death, madness, injury, numbness, screaming, fear, panic, despair, agony, anxiety, prayer.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.15388/10.15388/verb.22
The importance of promoting individual multilingualism is repeatedly emphasised worldwide in didactic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies. The prior knowledge of the learners and the networking of languages is pointed out in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. For this reason, the principles and methods of multilingual didactics play an important role in foreign language teaching due to their positive effects. Therefore, the question is increasingly being addressed how individual differences and progress of the learners regarding their linguistic backgrounds can be taken into account in language teaching.This article examines the question of whether and how Lithuanian university students see their multilingual repertoire as a resource for learning German. For this purpose, a survey was carried out among the Philology students of Vilnius University who study German as an optional course. The aim of this pilot study was to find out whether the students' previous knowledge of other languages helps them to learn German, or whether they see the influences of their mother tongue and other foreign languages as an obstacle that affects them negatively. The data obtained from the questionnaire presents the students' attitudes towards multilingualism, their multilingual skills and language awareness, as well as their language-related experience in acquiring German as a foreign language. The respondents' answers were processed using the method of the qualitative content analysis with a deductive-inductive approach. The results of the survey show that the majority of the students encountered the methods of multilingual didactics and see the multilingual competence as an important advantage for learning other foreign languages. Despite the language interference, the benefits of language skills outweigh the learning process. The students give examples based on their experience of how they use other languages for learning German and show well-developed metalinguistic awareness (e.g. language comparisons) and metacognitive skills (e.g. learning strategies).It is planned to continue this study by interviewing students from other faculties of Vilnius University (Medicine, Law, etc.) comparing their multilingual skills and metalinguistic awareness with the Philology students.
Verbum, Volume 12, pp 2-2; https://doi.org/10.15388/verb.21
Loïc DEPECKER, Saussure tel qu'en lui-même. D'après les manuscrits, Paris, Éditions Champion, 2020, 264 p.