ISSN / EISSN : 13921126 / 13921126
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 1,782
Latest articles in this journal
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 150-163; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.12
The interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge claims that we come to know our own minds by turning our capacities for knowing other minds onto ourselves. Peter Carruthers argues that two of the theory’s advantages are empirical adequacy and scientific fruitfulness: it leaves few of the old discoveries unexplained and makes new predictions that provide a framework for new discoveries. A decade has now passed since the theory’s introduction. I review the most important developments during this time period regarding the two criteria: whether the theory’s six main predictions were supported, and whether the theory’s predictions contributed to new empirical studies. I argue that the interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge remains empirically adequate and scientifically fruitful.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 186-197; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.15
In the works devoted to the phenomenon of transhumanism, it is widely recognized that philosophy of the Enlightenment had a great intellectual influence on the formation of transhumanism. Yet, this article states that the ideas of Enlightenment philosophy can be reasonably treated as not only consisting the conceptual transhumanism core but also as being a source of its internal contradictions. The paper defends the position that transhumanism in general is an intrinsically controversial project and introduces the premises for this contradiction – the basic anthropological views inherited from philosophy of the Enlightenment. Finally, the article questions the status of transhumanism as a techno-scientific program and states it to be an ideologically engaged project in anthropological engineering, which, in its turn, is devoid of any clear theoretical and practical outline.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 176-185; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.14
The political context of Greek philosophy and its political themes are the subject of numerous studies, but the relation between diplomacy and philosophy, to the best of my knowledge, has not yet been studied. In this article I examine two episodes of diplomatic missions that have left a clear mark on the history of philosophy and I try to show that the link between the history of diplomacy and the history of philosophy is neither accidental nor superficial.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 164-175; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.13
This paper examines under which conditions melancholic experiences of time (“Time has stopped, nothing happens”, “I cannot see the future”) are possible. In recent phenomenological research on melancholia, melancholic time experiences are analyzed as disturbances in affectivity. However, it is not always clear how the disturbance of time experience might be structurally interrelated with the disturbance in affectivity. This paper focuses on the interrelatedness of temporal synthesis and affectivity in Husserl’s phenomenology. Husserl’s analyses will be used to explain what role affectivity plays in the constitution of the normal daily world experience, and in particular the time experience. Further, it will be shown how a possibility of the disturbance in time experience is already rooted in the most basic layer of constitution.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 24-35; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.2
The paper presents an analysis of the three stages of the development of political philosophy since the 17th century. The rise of modern political theory was marked by attempts to develop a philosophy along the lines of natural sciences. These attempts lead to the development of highly speculative and abstract doctrines; political philosophy ceased being a practical discipline. The paper argues that an important aspect of the traditionalist political thought of the 18th century was an attempt to reestablish the link between theory and practice. In the 19th century, the interest in history was supplemented with new premises about the historical process. Political philosophy, which strived to become scientific, became highly dependent on the premises of various philosophies of history.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 123-131; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.10
The article raises the question what is the content of Frege’s infamous notion of Bedeutung? It is claimed that the so–called standard interpretation of this notion – Bedeutung as referential relation between a name and an object – was developed and established evaluating Frege’s ideas in philosophy of language in isolation from his logicist ideas. However, precisely his logicist concerns have motivated Frege’s interest in semantic issues. A broader consideration of Frege’s works reveals an internalist and rationalist notion of meaning, that is based on the context principle, and that should not be reduced to mere reference. The question of the meaning of subsentential components, for Frege, is closely related to the question of the meaning of the whole sentence, that is, the meaning of sub–sentential components should be construed as secondary with regard to the meaning of the whole sentence.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 198-208; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.16
By analysing Jacques Rancière’s conception of art regimes and taking the practical example of paintings by Lithuanian artist Vincas Kisarauskas, it is demonstrated that by thinking about the modern art in the 20th century as the intersection of the three art regimes by Rancière, we might escape from the binary oppositions still prevailing in the interpretations of modern art in post-soviet and post-socialist countries, and also escape the current narratives of late and silent modernisms implying the belatedness and disability of modern art created in Soviet Lithuania. By writing histories of modern art with Rancière, it is possible to claim that at least a part of Lithuanian modern art is neither late nor silent. On the contrary, the part operating in the aesthetic regime of art becomes a space of search for the new tropes of expression and of the common sensual fabric of life.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 114-122; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.9
In 2012, Orenes and Johnson-Laird found interesting results from the cognitive point of view but problematic if analyzed under methods such as the semantic one of extension and intension presented by Carnap. The main difficulty in this way is that Orenes and Johnson-Laird showed that people tend to accept, in the case of certain inferences, conclusions that, by themselves, are, according to the aforementioned semantic method, false in absolutely all of the state-descriptions that can be imagined. However, in this paper, a way to overcome that difficulty is proposed. That way is based upon the idea that the real logical forms of the conclusions accepted by the participants in Orenes and Johnson-Laird’s experiments were not the apparent ones, but they corresponded to other very different structures that can be true in some state-descriptions.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 87-98; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.7
Modern animal rights debates began in the 1970s, mainly as part of the budding field of applied ethics in Anglo-American philosophy. In just a short time, these animal rights discourses received international academic respect, especially through analytically trained philosophers. Central for this development was the analysis that rights language can be principally used species neutrally. This paper’s contribution is to examine the central terms of Tom Regan’s still widely discussed theory for their actuality and usefulness. Hence strengthening these arguments for modern animal rights theory as a serious approach in (inter)national ethical and legal disputes. Translated from German by Gary Steiner, Bucknell University
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 8-23; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.1
In the paper I analyse Daniele Archibugi’s conception of the new cosmopolitanism, aimed at formulation of a theory of cosmopolitan democracy capable of facing contemporary global problems that go beyond the competences of nation-states. My claim is that the advocates of the new cosmopolitanism have yet to come up with a theoretical minimum to which all parties of the cosmopolitan debate would subscribe. I argue that the main obstacle in formulation of a viable cosmopolitanism are attempts at imposition of the universalist uniformity inscribed in the traditional cosmopolitanism or, at best, a straightforward acceptance of cultural differences. In opposition to this, I outline the idea of reciprocal cosmopolitanism which, I believe, should proceed from the acknowledgement of human diversity, thus becoming a more inclusive project than its existing alternatives.