ISSN / EISSN : 1392-1126 / 1392-1126
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 1,809
Latest articles in this journal
Problemos pp 120-129; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.12
The article deals with the absence of medical studies at the Vilnius Jesuit Academy. The question in the historiography is linked rather with the local peculiarities than the Jesuit attitude toward medicine in particular. Some attempts to establish medical studies in Vilnius during the 16th and 17th centuries are discussed in the context of Early-modern Jesuit universities that forbade Jesuits to involve themselves in academic medicine. The exclusion of medicine from Jesuit schools is analyzed as an intentional dissociation from the rise of the learned medicine and early modern philosophical tendencies of the medicalization of the soul. Jesuits also introduced the pattern of medicus religiosus instead of medicus philosophus, which represented their image of medical practitioner.
Problemos pp 111-119; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.11
By refering to the examples of different cultural traditions, Arūnas Sverdiolas in his study Constitution and Preservation described the mechanisms that are involved in the creation of culture – constitution and preservation. The goal of this article is to show how these mechanisms operated in the reality of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The article analyzes the roles that the Lithuanian political society gave to legislation, upbringing, historical narratives, heroic and occasional poetry while constituting and preserving itself.
Problemos pp 19-30; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.2
The article explores Kant’s notion of the human being as the ultimate end of nature, presenting an ethical interpretation of this notion. The author of this article believes that the analysis of Kant’s assumptions will allow a deeper understanding of our own hermeneutical situation, in which ecological problems force us to rethink our relationship with nature and the meaning of human existence. Analyzing Kant’s early texts on Lisbon earthquake and his reflection on the sublime in the Critique of Judgement, the author asks how the experience of an uncontrolled natural element complements Kant’s ethical vision of nature’s teleology. Emphasizing the importance of insight into human vulnerability for the implementation of moral purpose in nature, the article outlines guidelines for interpretation that allow the relevance of Kant’s position in the context of contemporary environmental ethics.
Problemos pp 9-18; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.1
Problemos pp 38-47; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.4
The purpose of the article is to analyze how existential phenomenology and hermeneutics of Sverdiolas helps to understand the formation of culture as a transcendental process in the periods of the social and cultural crisis. Sverdiolas explains in detail the egology of Greimas and the cultural sociology of Kavolis, their understanding of the crisis, the exile and decline of cultures, and the radical choices of public intellectuals. Since much is said about egology and participatory understanding, the article develops the concept of hermeneutical anthropology. In this connection, we discuss Sverdiolas’s relation to the hermeneutical anthropology of Cl. Geertz and the condition of the transgressive being, which partly explains the role of personal choice in the time of cultural crisis. The article asks where and how do existential hermeneutics become anthropological or sociological. Greimas is discussed in the context of the crisis of meaning and phenomenological egology, and Kavolis in the context of group symbolic interactionism, the sociology of trust and friendship.
Problemos pp 31-37; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.3
The article deals with the relationship of hermeneutics and phenomenology in Arūnas Sverdiolas’s philosophy of culture. Firstly what is discussed is the problem of the separation between culture and nature, and then the concept of cultural activity and creation is analyzed. In cultural philosophy it is not enough to reflect on the cultural act of creation. Creation is the discovery of the world’s essential forms of expression. Ideas need to be discovered and only then they can be materialized and communicated to others in such an objective way. Therefore, culture must be understood as the communication of meaning. Cultural objects refer not only to the actions that create them, but also to the demands placed on potential perceivers.
Problemos pp 69-80; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.7
Arūnas Sverdiolas’s way of reading Deleuze raises questions about the compatibility of two traditions: how and to what extent can a philosopher of Culture understand a philosopher of Nature and Life? Deleuze, formed in the rationalist tradition, resists the philosophy of Consciousness and Meaning, in which universality is held higher than empirical particularity. Abstract thinking – a cause of allergy for a Frenchman – is on the contrary an aspiration for a Lithuanian. Sverdiolas’s formation has its roots in resistance against Marxist-materialist thinking, with the help of philosophy of culture. He considers the whole philosophy of the 20th century as an anthropological philosophy of Culture. This does not facilitate understanding Deleuze’s thought. His vitalist philosophy is deemed paramaterialist and considered to be reductionist. Hence a contradiction: Deleuze is recognized as a gifted historian of philosophy, but his own thinking is viewed with scepticism, without seeing its roots in the history of philosophy. The reason why Deleuze’s philosophy rejects the anthropocentric perspective – that of the ego and of consciousness – is not considered.
Problemos pp 81-91; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.8
The paper outlines the methodological orientation of Arūnas Sverdiolas’s scholarship and his school towards the praxis of the hermeneutic understanding of concrete cultural phenomena and takes this approach into the field of the phenomenology of literature. The attempt begins with a definition of the literary work in the hermeneutic framework of discourse, in which the work is considered to be an utterance that expresses an originary grasp of world phenomena. This capacity of the work to express is enabled by the operative mechanism of discourse, which binds, by the means of grammar and reference, the linguistic form of the work to the intentional structure of experience. To show this mechanism at work, the paper looks into Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas’s project of self-creation: Sverdiolas examines the poet’s diaries to reconstruct his effort of cultivating his poetic ego along the hermeneutic lines of the existential time, while Nyka-Niliūnas himself expresses this self-conception poetically as a more general phenomenon – the phenomenon of poetic self-consciousness as such – in the poem “Autobiography 1986”.
Problemos pp 92-100; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.9
In the article the painting Card Player Showing His Hand by T. Rombouts (17th c. Netherlands) is being interpreted. It is noticed that two existential manifestations may interact in this composition: the gambler’s and Vanitas. In the first part of this article, an analysis is made how Rombouts presents card play as a way of being and how he integrates it into the genre of Vanitas. In the second part the hypothesis, is it proven that the composition of the painting continues the theme of Vanitas and questions it at the same time.
Problemos pp 58-68; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.6
By distinguishing between space and place, the article situates and analyses the meaning of the closest place – home – in the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. The effort to encounter transcendence, to escape, to leave, to not be attached a particular place, and not to be driven by a nostalgia to return, is dominant in Levinas’s philosophy. This article shows that dwelling in a place, as settling in a home, also has a positive meaning for Levinas. This positive meaning comes, however, not from an ontological but from an ethical relationship with a place. The home is shown as chosen place, warm and human, as opposed to a given or natural place. On the one hand, the home is a necessary condition for security, but also the very condition of interiority and activity, of having the place in the world in contrast to thrownness. On the other hand, it is not a place where I is embodied and rooted in like a vegetable, but a place where I welcome the other.