ISSN / EISSN : 13921126 / 13921126
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 1,782
Latest articles in this journal
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 150-163; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.12
The interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge claims that we come to know our own minds by turning our capacities for knowing other minds onto ourselves. Peter Carruthers argues that two of the theory’s advantages are empirical adequacy and scientific fruitfulness: it leaves few of the old discoveries unexplained and makes new predictions that provide a framework for new discoveries. A decade has now passed since the theory’s introduction. I review the most important developments during this time period regarding the two criteria: whether the theory’s six main predictions were supported, and whether the theory’s predictions contributed to new empirical studies. I argue that the interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge remains empirically adequate and scientifically fruitful.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 24-35; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.2
The paper presents an analysis of the three stages of the development of political philosophy since the 17th century. The rise of modern political theory was marked by attempts to develop a philosophy along the lines of natural sciences. These attempts lead to the development of highly speculative and abstract doctrines; political philosophy ceased being a practical discipline. The paper argues that an important aspect of the traditionalist political thought of the 18th century was an attempt to reestablish the link between theory and practice. In the 19th century, the interest in history was supplemented with new premises about the historical process. Political philosophy, which strived to become scientific, became highly dependent on the premises of various philosophies of history.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 198-208; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.16
By analysing Jacques Rancière’s conception of art regimes and taking the practical example of paintings by Lithuanian artist Vincas Kisarauskas, it is demonstrated that by thinking about the modern art in the 20th century as the intersection of the three art regimes by Rancière, we might escape from the binary oppositions still prevailing in the interpretations of modern art in post-soviet and post-socialist countries, and also escape the current narratives of late and silent modernisms implying the belatedness and disability of modern art created in Soviet Lithuania. By writing histories of modern art with Rancière, it is possible to claim that at least a part of Lithuanian modern art is neither late nor silent. On the contrary, the part operating in the aesthetic regime of art becomes a space of search for the new tropes of expression and of the common sensual fabric of life.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 8-23; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.1
In the paper I analyse Daniele Archibugi’s conception of the new cosmopolitanism, aimed at formulation of a theory of cosmopolitan democracy capable of facing contemporary global problems that go beyond the competences of nation-states. My claim is that the advocates of the new cosmopolitanism have yet to come up with a theoretical minimum to which all parties of the cosmopolitan debate would subscribe. I argue that the main obstacle in formulation of a viable cosmopolitanism are attempts at imposition of the universalist uniformity inscribed in the traditional cosmopolitanism or, at best, a straightforward acceptance of cultural differences. In opposition to this, I outline the idea of reciprocal cosmopolitanism which, I believe, should proceed from the acknowledgement of human diversity, thus becoming a more inclusive project than its existing alternatives.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 61-74; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.5
The destruction of man in the Shoah or Holocaust did not mean that Levinas argues in favor of turning away from the socio-historical reality to cultivate his own little garden. The deepest truth of subjectivity can be found in an alterity that calls for a socio-political responsibility. The political implications are rooted in different layers of Levinas’s thought. In his Talmudic comments, Levinas questions the reality of war as the truth of politics. But his explorations of subjectivity, ethical relationality and society allow to understand different political options such as contract theory (responsibility in the first person), liberation philosophy and human rights (responsibility in the second person) and the necessity of building a just society (ethics in the third person). Paradoxically, a just and equitable society ignores the uniqueness of the unique other. While organized responsibility is necessary, it introduces a new form of violence. In this article, we bring together the different layers in Levinas’s political vision and we explore its limits. A fundamental question is whether Levinas’s vision of politics is based on ethics or whether his ethics is a critique of politics.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 36-47; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.3
The paper analyses the concept of panopticism formulated in Foucault’s works and its possibilities of relevance in contemporary power and (self)surveillance studies. In the book “Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison”, Foucault, applying Jeremy Bentham’s idea of a panoptical prison, writes about the power of the sovereignty that is replaced by the society of discipline. Foucault discusses panopticism in order to unfold the concept of the society of discipline. Here the essential measure of the society of discipline and panopticism becomes the concern for the individual per se. Deleuze in his text “Postscript on the Societies of Control” states that we no longer live in a society of discipline, but rather in a process, where we switch from the society of discipline to the society of control. In these changed circumstances, according to Deleuze, there are no longer individuals, rather dividuals. In these circumstances, is it possible to talk about panopticism? The paper shows that panopticism is still relevant while switching to the society of control. Also, it states that the currently unfolding scheme of the society of control has been programmed in the asymmetry of the panoptical gaze. Precisely in the processes produced in the asymmetry of the gaze gain its flexible totality in the society of control.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 75-86; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.6
Many critics of Hannah Arendt claim that her account of politics lacks moral guidelines and constraints. In their view, she radically dissociated politics from morality. Such an interpretation is mistaken. These critics fail to acknowledge that Arendt’s conception has its own resources of normativity. Fundamental categories of Arendt’s political theory (plurality, natality, freedom, equality, forgiveness, promise) serve moral, as well as political, purposes. The internalization of these categories strengthens political actors’ moral judgment and their sense of responsibility. Active participation in political life engenders respect for human dignity and the multiplicity of different perspectives. Critics ignore the moral dimension of Arendt’s conception of politics because they confuse different levels of analysis of the relationship between politics and morality. In the paper, these levels are discussed using the metaphor of a three-storey house.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 99-113; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.8
In this paper, I sketch an account of emotion that is based on a close analogy with a Husserlian account of perception. I also make use of the approach that I have limned, viz., to articulate a view of the kind of “conflict without contradiction” (CWC) which may obtain between a recalcitrant emotion and a judgment. My main contention is that CWC can be accounted for by appeal to the rationality of perception and emotion, conceived as responsiveness to experiential evidence. The conflicts in question can be regarded as obtaining between different strands of evidence, and our perceptual and emotional experiences can be thus conflicted even among themselves, not only in the special case of a conflict with a judgment.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 164-175; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.13
This paper examines under which conditions melancholic experiences of time (“Time has stopped, nothing happens”, “I cannot see the future”) are possible. In recent phenomenological research on melancholia, melancholic time experiences are analyzed as disturbances in affectivity. However, it is not always clear how the disturbance of time experience might be structurally interrelated with the disturbance in affectivity. This paper focuses on the interrelatedness of temporal synthesis and affectivity in Husserl’s phenomenology. Husserl’s analyses will be used to explain what role affectivity plays in the constitution of the normal daily world experience, and in particular the time experience. Further, it will be shown how a possibility of the disturbance in time experience is already rooted in the most basic layer of constitution.
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 123-131; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.10
The article raises the question what is the content of Frege’s infamous notion of Bedeutung? It is claimed that the so–called standard interpretation of this notion – Bedeutung as referential relation between a name and an object – was developed and established evaluating Frege’s ideas in philosophy of language in isolation from his logicist ideas. However, precisely his logicist concerns have motivated Frege’s interest in semantic issues. A broader consideration of Frege’s works reveals an internalist and rationalist notion of meaning, that is based on the context principle, and that should not be reduced to mere reference. The question of the meaning of subsentential components, for Frege, is closely related to the question of the meaning of the whole sentence, that is, the meaning of sub–sentential components should be construed as secondary with regard to the meaning of the whole sentence.