Problemos

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1392-1126 / 1392-1126
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 1,862
Current Coverage
SCOPUS
AHCI
DOAJ
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Christos Y. Panayides
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 62-74; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.5

Abstract:
As M. Loux has recently reminded us, there are two basic strategies for explaining the character of particular objects, the ‘relational approach’ and the ‘constituent approach’. The prime example of a constituent approach would be Aristotelian hylomorphism. This article reveals three things. First, it gives a roadmap towards what the author considers to be the exegetically correct reconstruction of Aristotle’s hylomorphic theory. Second, it provides a presentation of the basic claims of a neo-Aristotelian hylomorphic theory, the one argued for by M. Johnston. Finally, it argues that regardless of whatever shortcomings it may have, Aristotle’s theory has an advantage over that proposed by Johnston. Unlike Johnston’s theory, it may give us a complete account of the character of a particular object.
Kasparas Pocius
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 100-113; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.8

Abstract:
The article analyses Jacques Lacan’s theory of rupture that encompasses the three planes – the imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real – that comprise his topology. It is named the theory of rupture because it allows grasping the unfinished Lacanian subject as it encounters Other in all of those planes. The main question is whether this lack could be considered as positive. The attention is paid to the phallic signifier; the hypothesis is that this signifier, by linking the symbolic and the Real, allows the creation of new meanings and the resistance towards the fundamental fantasy.The Lacanian ternary conception of topology helps us to analyse the field of politics. While grasping this field from the “ex-sisting” perspective of the Real, we can observe the two scenarios of the development of (political) subject. On the one hand, there is a possible link between the subject and fantasy, in which one tries to compensate for the lack of the Real by “comforting” itself in the plane of symbolic discourse. On the other hand, in the alternative scenario, the subject consciously admits its lack, rejects the fantasy and begins to create new names which “hole” the symbolic discourse itself as well as the insufficiency of the symbolic field. The Real is defended by the phallic signifier, which helps to maintain the subject’s negativity and militancy. By enclosing the Real into the Symbolic we create the new consistency as the subject seeks not to maintain a passive form and place inside the structure, but names the positive lack in the structure itself and thereby creates the new political content.
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 114-126; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.9

Abstract:
In this article, I argue that a universalistic thrust of secularism should not be located in a Habermasian deontological liberal principle of the priority of universal morality over particularistic ethical doctrines. I show that Habermas cannot plausibly demonstrate that this principle can be invariably applied across different cases. However, in order not to succumb to parochialism, the failure of the deontological model should not prompt us to give up on the search for a universalistic drive behind secularism. To this end, I advocate a Derridean critique of religion and secularism as an alternative solution. By deconstructing the Kantian dichotomy of faith vs. knowledge, Jacques Derrida shows that secularism is, paradoxically, both a concrete socio-political regime and a possibility for a radical change.
Sigita Dackevičiūtė
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 180-190; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.14

Abstract:
Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of art (the logic of sensation) has been interpreted in the context of the opposition between modernism and contemporary art, and then it is either attributed only to modernism, which gives priority to the aesthetic dimension of art, or it is argued that we must see its potential to create “new connections.” These opposing views are expressed by Stephen Zepke and Simon O’Sullivan. However, Deleuze and Guattari’s artistic sensation is not a sensory perception, it is the main concept of their logic of sensation, encompassing both the sensory and the conceptual-virtual dimensions. In the article, I seek to demonstrate that Deleuze and Guattari’s artistic sensation, encompassing both of these dimensions, relates to the general context of Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophy and resonates with the aesthetic and semantic dimensions of contemporary art projects. Discussing Thomas Feuerstein’s installation Prometheus Delivered I demonstrate in what ways the notion of the logic of sensation expands the field of the interpretation of this work of art.
Dalius Jonkus
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 8-19; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.1

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to analyse the concept of consciousness in Vasily Sesemann’s manuscripts. Sesemann studied consciousness, describing it as an intentional experience and rejecting its naturalistic explanations. Sesemann revealed the irreducibility of life to physiological or chemical processes and at the same time rejected the dualistic opposition of spirit and matter, soul and body. In the manuscript text “Self-knowledge, self-consciousness and objectification” the philosopher explores the relationship of consciousness with self-consciousness and the subconscious, as well as various forms of objectification of consciousness. This manuscript can be attributed to a group of manuscript texts that discuss the origin of consciousness and the metaphysical relationship between matter and spirit. In the article, I will first discuss the relationship between Sesemann’s concept of consciousness and the philosophy of nature. Second, I will examine how Sesemann understands the relationship between consciousness and self-consciousness and the objectifications of consciousness. Third, I will analyze how the philosopher understands emotional intuition and subconsciousness. I argue that Sesemann’s approach is phenomenological.
Jonas Čiurlionis
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.4

Abstract:
The article analyses the remaining fragments and testimonies of Heraclitean philosophy and their connection with Hippocratic medicine. It is claimed that both schools belong to the same philosophical-scientific paradigm of the elements. Therefore, theoretical insights of the school of Cos might well serve explaining complicated and often difficult to interpret Heraclitean thoughts. Moreover, it is plausible that parts of Corpus Hippocraticum were written under the influence of the Heraclitean philosophy and therefore its analysis and interpretative application allows us to partially reconstruct the fragmented Heraclitean ideas into the single unified system. The article uses comparative analysis of both thinking traditions in regard to psychological, ethical, physiological, cosmological, and medical ideas. Similarities in explaining human nature are revealed. It is shown that science (medicine) and philosophy in Antiquity use the same paradigmatic utterances to describe reality. Therefore, there are many mutual interconnecting principles between early philosophy and medicine.
Simonas Baliukonis
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 33-49; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.3

Abstract:
This paper examines the question concerning the right model of epistemically rational dialogue. First of all, the main, though not undisputed, principles of rational dialogue are defined according to the contemporary field of the epistemology of disagreement. It then explains why even these principles are not sufficient for making the disagreement between believers and atheists not only a rational discourse but also a fruitful dialogue. This paper defends a thesis that the latter aim can be achieved with a proper model of dialogue, which is found in Plato’s Laws – one of the first discussions between the believers and the atheists in the Western intellectual tradition. This model not only includes the contemporary principles of rational argument but also provides some new guidelines for the solution of problems that lead the believers and the atheists to the communicational dead end.
Alvydas Jokubaitis
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 75-86; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.6

Abstract:
Researchers of Kant’s political philosophy have not paid enough attention to the problem of certainty in politics which is inseparable from the distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. The primacy of practical reason means that morality has a higher value than knowledge. This is a fundamental presupposition of Kant’s philosophy. However, this emphasis on the importance of morality leads to the problematic question of certainty in politics. The recognition of the primacy of morality seems to lead to a situation where politics loses the certainty that belongs to the sphere of noumenon. Such a situation seems to lead to an impossible situation when the distinction between phenomenon and noumenon reappears in the theory of practical reason. The paper puts forward a thesis that for Kant morality is the only ground that allows speaking about the certainty of politics. However, his understanding of certainty in politics has its drawbacks. Politics is dependent not only on the ontology of morality that was emphasized by Kant, but it is also dependent on the kind of certainty that one finds in the sphere of interpersonal relationships. Kant did not pay enough attention to this aspect which remains outside the sphere of the universal law of morality.
Vosylius Sezemanas, Dalius Jonkus
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 191-209; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.15

Abstract:
Rankraščio nuorašą, vertimą ir komentarą parengė Dalius Jonkus(Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas) Pristatome Vosyliaus Sezemano rusiško rankraščio, saugomo Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos Rankraščių skyriuje, vertimą. Užrašytas nedideliame bloknote, kuris pagamintas 1954 metais trečiame kvartale Krasnokamske. Tad galima manyti, kad rankraštis rašytas 1955 metais, dar iki grįžtant iš lagerio Taišete į Lietuvą. Rašyta rašalu ir kai kur pieštuku. Tekste analizuojama sąmonė, savimonė ir pasąmonė. Aptariamas sąmonės įkūnytumas, sąmonės emocionalumas, empatija ir intencionalus sąryšis su aplinkiniu pasauliu bei kitomis gyvomis būtybėmis. Sezemanas pažymi, kad pagrindinis sąmonės bruožas yra atvirumas ir gebėjimas praktiškai formuoti supratingą santykį su savimi, aplinka ir kitais. Laužtiniuose skliaustuose skaitytojų patogumui įterpti skyrelių pavadinimai yra vertėjo. Versta iš:VU bibliotekos Rankraščių skyriujeVosyliaus Sezemano fonde saugomo rankraščioF122-102 „Самопознание, самосознание и объективация“
Juozas Kasputis
Published: 15 October 2021
Problemos, Volume 100, pp 87-99; https://doi.org/10.15388/problemos.100.7

Abstract:
The practice of social studies continues to be a complicated scientific endeavor. From an epistemological point of view, the social sciences, unlike the natural sciences, do not conform to the predominant definition of science. The existing differences among expositions of “science,” “inquiry,” and “studies” lie with the contested role of the intellectual who is embarked on understanding the social realm. The “maturity” of the social sciences is usually discussed in the context of objectivity and rationality. But continuing epistemological debates would be insufficient without reference to the scholar as a human studying humans. The philosophy of science has focused mainly on the procedures of knowledge accumulation, neglecting social context and its implications for inquiry. To address this neglect, this essay sets out first to retrace doubts about the role of the scholar that emerged with the institutionalization of the social sciences at the outset of the twentieth century and then to rethink these issues in terms of recent scientific developments. What surfaces is a new, participatory role for scholars that demands responsible contextualization and a broader conception of causal stories.
Back to Top Top