Head and Neck Tumors (HNT)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 22221468 / 24114634
Current Publisher: Publishing House ABV Press (10.17650)
Total articles ≅ 217
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G. A. Tkachenko, Sergey O. Podvyaznikov, Ali M. Mudunov, Е. V. Gusakova
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-101-106

The study objective is to assess the effectiveness of psychological support to patients with laryngeal cancer after laryngectomy. Materials and methods.This study included 36 male patients aged between 45 and 62 years with morphologically verified stage II–IV (Т3–4N0–2М0) laryngeal cancer treated in the Department of Head and Neck Tumors, N. N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology in 2011–2016. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group 1 included 14 patients who received antitumor therapy alone. Group 2 comprised 22 patients who additionally received psychological support. Patients’ mental state was assessed before treatment and 6 months after its completion using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Symptom Check List-90 Revised. Two patients from Group 1 and 1 patient from Group 2 were excluded from the study at the first stage. Results. We found that patients in both groups had severe psychopathological symptoms (including depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and severe distress) six month after treatment completion (according to the Symptom Check List-90 Revised). Patients who received psychological support demonstrated higher level of depression than healthy controls, but it was still significantly lower than that in patients who received no psychological assistance. Similar results were obtained by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: patients who received psychological support had significantly lower level of depression than patients who had no psychological support (8.3 ± 0.9 vs 10.2 ± 0.6 points respectively). Conclusion. Patients with laryngeal cancer who received psychological assistance (including cognitive behavioral psychotherapy) demonstrated significantly lower level of depression 6 months after treatment completion compared to those who received no psychological support.
Yu. V. Alymov, A. M. Mudunov, S. O. Podvyaznikov, G. Margolin
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-47-54

Introduction. Patients with head and neck tumors are often require tracheostomy. This procedure represents complex surgical manipulation and is associated with risk of certain complications, including life-threatening. The study objective is to essess the results of percutaneous tracheostomy with the new SafeTrach technique. Materials and methods. The study included 21 patients. All patients had a tracheostomy performed using the SafeTrach technique. Results. Mean duration of tracheostomy with SafeTrach technique was 11.8 ± 3.4 minutes independently of patients’ body mass index or previous treatment (correlation coefficients r = 0.08, p = 0.7 and r = 0.08, p = 0.73, respectively). Among all possible complications of tracheostomy only 1 (4.7 %) case of bleeding in postoperative period was noted in our study. Conclusion. The SafeTrach technique combines all the benefits of open and percutaneous tracheostomy. It is characterized by simplicity, it does not require endoscopic control, that indicates the feasibility of its widespread implementation.
D. V. Sikorsky, S. O. Podvyaznikov, N. V. Kanishcheva, M. V. Kuligin, D. V. Skamnitsky
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-38-46

The study objective is to analyze the results of combined antitumor therapy, which included glossectomy, to treat locally advanced and recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer.Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of multimodal antitumor therapy of 19 patients, who were treated in the Nizhny Novgorod Regional Clinical Oncologic Dispensary within 2009–2019. All patients underwent segmental resection of the mandible due to massive tumor invasion into the periosteum. After total glossectomy the defect was filled using pectoralis musculocutaneous flap. Due to the wide local tumor spread, a neck dissection (n = 7) or radical cervical lymphadenectomy (n = 12) were performed. During preventive surgery, metastases that were not detected before surgery were revealed in 2 patients in 1 neck lymph node. Results. Eleven patients had local purulent-necrotic postoperative complications. It was noted that after surgery but without radiation therapy complications developed in fewer patients (n = 4) and were less severe: of I degree – in 3 patients, of III degree – in 1 patient. Radiation therapy before surgery resulted in more severe purulent-necrotic complications in 7 patients: of I degree – in 2 patients, of II degree – in 1, of III degree – in 4. Mortality rates: 30-day, 60-day and 90-day – 10.5 %, 21 % and 37 %, respectively. The causes of death were complications of gastrostomy: profuse bleeding from the stomach wall (n = 1), acute psychosis complicated by cerebral edema (n = 1), increased heart failure (n = 1), necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall and cachexia, developed after gastrostomy (n = 1), continued tumor growth between chemotherapy courses (n = 3). Twelve patients survived more than 90 days after surgery, 3 patients – more than 2 years. As most of the patients could not swallow, they were administered a nasogastric tube, since a simultaneous gastrostomy increases the duration of a traumatic operation and aggravates the postoperative period.Conclusion. Multicomponent surgery after radiation therapy results in more often local purulent-necrotic postoperative complications than if the surgery is performed before radiation therapy. High mortality in the first 90 days after surgery (n = 7) due to local cancer spread is generally determined by the severe condition of patients with advanced cancer and the concomitant diseases. However, rejection of gastrostomy in favor of nasogastric tube seems reasonable, since several deaths in the early postoperative period may be occurred due to complications associated with gastrostomy.
M. A. Kutin, D. V. Fomichev, A. N. Shkarubo, I. V. Chernov, O. I. Sharipov, D. N. Andreev, D. B. Ismailov, N. I. Mikhaylov, G. L. Kobyakov, Yu. Yu. Trunin, et al.
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-29-37

Introduction. According to the recommendations of Russian and international professional associations, treatment of germinomas can be initiated without histological verification of the diagnosis, since it can be based on biochemical tumor markers. However, patients with brain germinomas usually have normal levels of these markers; therefore, histological verification is required. Stereotactic biopsy and transcranial biopsy are sometimes associated with a risk of damage to crucial anatomical structures. Currently, both biopsy and total removal of sellar and parasellar tumors can be performed via endoscopic endonasal approach. The study objective is to demonstrate the possibility of using endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for biopsy and total removal of chiasmosellar germinomas. Materials and methods. Thirteen patients with primary chiasmosellar germinomas underwent endoscopic endonasal interventions in N. N. Burdenko National Medical Research Center for Neurosurgery between 2010 and 2017. The “Germinoma-2008” protocol was used in the subsequent treatment of these patients. The male to female ratio was 2.25 : 1; mean age was 21.1 years (6–38 years).Results. The surgery volume varied between biopsy (n = 4) and partial (n = 5) or complete (n = 4) tumor removal. The diagnosis was histologically verified in all patients. None of the patients developed liquorrhea and / or meningitis in the postoperative period, which suggests that the surgery was effective and safe. Conclusion. The endoscopic endonasal approach for histological verification of the diagnosis and removal of chiasmosellar germinomas is safe and effective.
H. Chen, A. M. Mudunov, R. I. Azizian, I. N. Pustynskiy, O. A. Saprina, M. V. Bolotin
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-55-64

The study objective is to assess immediate and long-term results of replacing complex defects with a free radial forearm flap in the multimodal treatment of patients with locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods. Twenty eight patients (20 women and 8 men aged 23 to 71 years) with locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (including 10 buccal cancers, 8 carcinomas of tongue, 6 carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, 2 retromolar area carcinomas, 1 carcinoma of the hard palate and 1 carcinoma of alveolar region of the lower jaw) underwent tumor surgery with simultaneous plastic reconstruction of the defect using radial forearm free flap at the department of head and neck tumors of N. N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology within 2010–2018. Primary tumors were detected in 2 patients and 11 patients had residual (n = 7) or recurrent (n = 4) tumors after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Results. An overall success rate was 96.4 %. Postoperative histology revealed that there were no tumor cells at the resection edges. Postoperative complications included: complete flap necrosis in 1 patient with severe concomitant diseases, marginal flap necrosis in 2 patients (in both cases after the necrotic tissue had rejected, wounds were healed by secondary intention), sural veins thrombosis in 1 patient, acute peptic ulcer bleeding on the 6th day after surgery in 1 patient treated with emergency endoscopic hemostasis. No lethal outcomes were reported. Postoperative period lasted in average 14 days. Upon subsequent observation tumor relapse in the oral cavity occurred in 4 (14.3 %) patients, relapses of regional metastases – in 2 (7.1 %). Good aesthetic and functional results were noted. Adequate restoration of breathing, chewing, swallowing and speaking resulted in a full patients’ rehabilitation. In all cases, the radial flap adapted well to the oral cavity organs and corresponded to the surrounding tissues in thickness and consistency. Conclusion. Use of a radial forearm free flap makes it possible to successfully reconstruct extensive and complex defects after surgery of locally advanced primary and recurrent forms of oral cavity squamous cell cancer of various locations. Due to flap’s high regenerative capabilities, preoperative radiation therapy does not affect the frequency of local complications. It allows restoring vital functions of the oral cavity and achieving good aesthetic and functional results.
S. A. Lukyanov, S. V. Sergiyko, Sergei E. Titov, I. V. Reshetov, Yu. A. Veryaskina, A. V. Vazhenin, A. V. Gostimsky, L. I. Ippolitov, M. O. Rogova
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-93-100

Introduction. Post-transcriptional mechanisms play a crucial role in the biological course and clinical manifestations of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Recent studies show that an increased content of oncogenic or reduced content of oncosuppressive microRNAs increases the aggressiveness of the tumor and correlates with an unfavorable prognosis of treatment, which allows them to be used in personalizing the treatment tactics of patients with PTC. The study objective is to compare the level of expression of 12 PTC-specific microRNAs and the frequency of V600E mutation of the BRAF gene in patients with different risk of relapse. Materials and methods. The study included 175 patients with PTC. For quantitative analysis of microRNA expression, a reverse transcription reaction followed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed paraffin blocks was used. Correlations between 12 microRNA expression and BRAF mutation with different clinical and anatomical features of PTC the risk of relapse according to the American Thyroid Association Risk Stratification System (2009) were analyzed. Results. We demonstrated that miR-146b, miR-221, miR-144, miR-451a, and miR-7 expression correlated with features such as extrathyroid tumor growth, larger size, multifocus, lymph node metastasis, and the presence of distant metastases of the PTC. Most importantly, miR-221, miR-144, miR-451a, and miR-7 expression correlated with risk levels, suggesting their potential significance in stratifying the risk of relapsing PTC. The dependence of the clinical behavior of PTC on the BRAF mutation has not been established.Conclusion. The result of the study will contribute to the individual choice of preoperative treatment tactics for patients with PTC.
A. L. Pylev, A. A. Zhandarova, K. S. Petrov, D. S. Romanov, V. A. Lisovoy, S. V. Golub
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-10-19

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most prognostically unfavorable tumors. This disadvantage traditionally consisted of a rapid increase in the size of the primary tumor with a tendency to the development of asphyxia and the rapid appearance of distant metastases, as well as a poor response to the recommended treatment methods. The result of many years of efforts by oncologists around the world were several treatment regimens, including an ideal amount of surgical intervention, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the effectiveness of this treatment, as well as the patient’s life expectancy after it, could not be called satisfactory. Improving the understanding of the molecular genetic characteristics of tumors, including anaplastic thyroid cancer, provided us with information on two possible features of the genetic apparatus of tumor cells that can have clinical significance: V600E mutations in the BRAF gene and fusion of NTRK genes. The clinical example described in this article is probably the first Russian illustration of the effectiveness of anti-BRAF therapy in a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer. From our point of view, the benefit of this example is not only to demonstrate the effectiveness of modern targeted therapy, but also the need not to abandon other treatment methods, in this case, radiation therapy to the area of the primary tumor (and by analogy with this, surgical removal of the thyroid tumor glands in case of its resectability).
E. V. Borodavina, P. A. Isaev, A. Yu. Shurinov, Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev, V. V. Krylov, K. M. Petrosyan, A. D. Kaprin, S. A. Ivanov, S. O. Podvyaznikov, I. S. Romanov, et al.
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-65-72

Background. The implementation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors into clinical practice improved treatment outcomes in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). Lenvatinib is recommended as a first-line drug for these patients. The study objective is to analyze clinical experience with lenvatinib in patients with RR-DTC in the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The data from 18 clinical sites in Russia was analyzed for the period December 2015 and September 2019. Seventyseven patients with histologically verified DTC, proven resistance to radioactive iodine therapy, and tumor progression (according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors 1.1 criteria) were included in the study. Results.Median progression-free survival in patients included into analysis (n = 72) was 26.1 months. In patients who responded to therapy (including those with partial and complete response), median progression-free survival reached 36.2 months, which is higher than that reported in the updated results of the SELECT study (33.1 months). Lenvatinib-associated adverse events (AEs) were observed in 87 % of patients. Severe AEs were registered in 18.2 % of participants. In 6.5 % of cases, AEs lead to lenvatinib cessation; in 74 % of cases, AEs required dose reduction.Conclusion. Our findings suggest high efficacy and good tolerability of lenvatinib in patients with RR-DTC in routine clinical practice in the Russian Federation.
M. A. Kotov, Z. A.‑G. Radzhabova, S. N. Novikov, P. I. Krzhivitsky, O. I. Ponomareva, E. V. Kostromina, V. А. Kushnarev, M. A. Radzhabova
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-84-92

The study objective is to evaluate the informativeness of the biopsy technique of the signal lymph node (LN) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cT1–2N0.Materials and methods. A prospective, single-center study included 26 patients with morphologically verified squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cT1–2 and the lack of clinical and radiological data for metastatic damage to the LNs of the neck. All patients underwent a radioisotope study of the lymphatic flow from the primary tumor and the topography of the signal LNs. The informativeness of the biopsy of the signal LNs was evaluated in accordance with 2 diagnostic models. When using the first diagnostic model, all LNs accumulating colloids labeled with the 99mTc isotope were considered signal LNs. In the second model, only nodes accumulating radiocolloids and located in the immediate vicinity of the primary tumor of the tongue and / or connected with the primary tumor by the “pathway” of the lymphatic vessels were considered as signal LNs. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy, according to the 1st diagnostic model, were 66.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 9.43–99.16), 100 % (95 % CI 85.18–100 %), 100 %, 95.83 % (95 % CI 82.28–99.13 %), 96.15 % (95 % CI 80.36–99.90 %), and when all LNs located along with the signal LNs were removed at the same levels as regional LNs, the sensitivity increased to 100 %. In the second model, the diagnostic values were: 33.3 % (95 % CI 0.84–90.57), 100 % (95 % CI 85.18– 100.00), 100 %, 92 % (95 % CI 83.78–96.24), 92.31 % (95 % CI 74.87–99.05 %). Conclusion. Evaluation of lymphatic outflow from the primary tumor and assessment of sentinel lymph node location in patients with stage cT1–2N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue allow a doctor to determine the volume of lymph node dissection for each patient individually. Unilateral lymph node dissection is acceptable in patients with unilateral lymphatic outflow, whereas in patients with bilateral lymphatic outflow, it is associated with a quite high (up to 10 %) risk of metastatic lesions in the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck. It is necessary to excise all lymph nodes accumulating radiocontrast agent and regional lymph nodes located at the same levels.
R. Yu. Karabut, A. V. Vazhenin, E. Y. Mozerova, T. M. Sharabura, M. M. Sarycheva, А. О. Гузь, A. S. Zakharov
Head and Neck Tumors (HNT), Volume 10; doi:10.17650/2222-1468-2020-10-1-20-28

Introduction. There is no treatment for recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, which significantly increases the overall survival (OS) of patients.The study objective is to analyze the results of treatment of patients with recurrences of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to assess the impact of risk factors for relapse, as well as different treatment options for relapse on OS. Materials and methods. In the period from 2012 to 2016, 182 patients with relapses of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, oral cavity and tongue received treatment in the Chelyabinsk regional clinical center of Oncology and nuclear medicine. The group 1 included 66 patients with resectable relapse who were operated. The group 2 consisted of 25 patients who received a course of radiation therapy. The group 3 consisted of 46 patients who underwent chemotherapeutic treatment of relapse. The group 4 was represented by combined treatment (surgery + radiation therapy), this group included 9 people. The group 5 consisted of those of patients who were not specifically treated for relapse because of the low Karnofsky index in patients ( Results. OS among patients who received special treatment was significantly higher compared with the group of symptomatic therapy. The median OS in the special treatment group was 40 months, and without it – 18 months. Comparing all types for treating relapse, the highest rates of OS were in the surgical treatment group. OS rates in combined therapy group and radiotherapy group were comparable rate in the radiotherapy. The lowest OS rate was after chemotherapy (only 21 months).Conclusion. Surgery is the optimal method for treating recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, if it is resectable. If surgical treatment is not possible, no other method significantly increases the OS. If the overall status of the patient is normal, re-radiation or polychemotherapy may be performed. A limited category of patients can be subjected to combined treatment for relapse.
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