Journal of Environmental Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 0733-9372 / 1943-7870
Total articles ≅ 6,069
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Yanling Guo, Yanan Cheng, BingLi Wang, Xueke Li, Wanfeng Wang
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001892

Abstract:
Nitrosamines have become a focus of considerable research because of their carcinogenicity and environmental universality. In this study, to effectively remove nitrosamines, biological activated carbon (BAC) was acclimatized by a nitrosamine-reducing bacterial strain, and zero-valent iron (Fe0)-assisted BAC was used to degrade nitrosamines from aqueous solution. The influencing factors and degradation mechanism were investigated. Compared with activated carbon (AC), the removal efficiency of more strongly polar nitrosamines by BAC and BAC_Fe0 increased prominently (21.0%–32.3%), yet there was no change between BAC and BAC_Fe0. The highest ratios of nitrosamine degradation by BAC_Fe0 were 49.8%–99.0%, and degradation reaction kinetics conformed best to a pseudo-second-order model (R2>0.9269). The rate constants kobs for six nitrosamines ranged from 3.4×103 to 6.9 × 105 (M · s)−1. Additionally, the removal ratios and k2 of the linear nitrosamines partially scaled with their molecular weight, LogKH, and LogKow (R2=0.5661−0.952). All nitrosamines were degraded within 30 min under strong acidic conditions; the removal ratios increased by 11.2%−23.1% under anaerobic conditions, but were decreased by ∼10% in the presence of humic acid. The primary degradation products were secondary amines, methylamine, formic acid, nitrate, and nitrite resulting from the reduction of Fe0 and biodegradation by the nitrosamine-reducing bacteria.
, Avi Ostfeld
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001918

Abstract:
A mechanistic simulation model predicting the response of water distribution systems (WDSs) operated with or without disinfectant residual toward accidental arsenic contamination is developed in this paper. The impacts of chlorination, chloramination, and organic loading to control the oxidation of arsenous acid [As(III)] and the adsorption/desorption of arsenic acid [As(V)] on/from iron pipe walls were simulated by applying the model to two real-world WDSs. The model predicted that during any As(III) contamination event, the arsenic spread in WDSs would engage conservatively in the absence of a residual disinfectant. Due to the swift reactions between chlorine and As(III), maintaining residual chlorine was recognized as an effective strategy to control the soluble As(III) levels. Chloramine was predicted to be less effective than chlorine in causing As(III) oxidation and subsequent As(V) adsorption onto the pipe wall. Besides, under the test conditions considered, the required chloramine dose in the source water had to be 10 times higher to produce equivalent effects in terms of As(III) depletion as the chlorine dose of 1 mg/L. The results presented that chlorine formation in chloraminated WDSs via the monochloramine hydrolysis mechanism contributes to >99% As(III) depletion inside the distribution pipes. Therefore, the paper recommends maintaining additional chloramine residual in chlorinated WDSs to control the As(III) spread during arsenic contamination events in the downstream sections.
Taegyu Kim, Sebastian Behrens,
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001905

Abstract:
The goal of this research was to use and to validate different quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to quantify the pertinent microbial populations in full-scale anaerobic digesters at municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Methanomicrobiales (∼40% of Archaea) and Methanosarcinales (∼35% of Archaea) were the most dominant methanogenic orders in the mesophilic anaerobic digesters, whereas the Methanobacteriales (∼40% of Archaea) were the most common in the thermophilic anaerobic digester. qPCR results were validated via comparisons with profiles of microbial community composition obtained by PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. Exceptionally strong linear correlations (P<10−10) were observed when comparing the microbiome profile with the qPCR results for Archaea, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanosarcinacea. In addition, core communities of both Bacteria and Archaea were observed in the mesophilic anaerobic digesters. This research demonstrates that monitoring microbial groups in full-scale anaerobic digesters is feasible via qPCR, providing the prerequisite tools needed to track and to understand microbial population dynamics in anaerobic digesters.
, Hui Li, Ning Dong, Shien Hui
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001914

Abstract:
Calcination conditions in the catalyst preparation process have a significant influence on catalyst performance. To explore the optimal calcination condition of MnOx/Al2O3 catalysts for NO oxidation, a series of samples was prepared using the same support and active compound but under different calcination conditions. The catalytic efficiency of the catalyst was tested, and through characterization [X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis (BET), and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda analysis (BJH)], the effect of calcination conditions on the catalytic performance was analyzed and discussed. The results showed that the samples calcined at 600°C for 5 h had the best catalytic performance. At a reaction temperature of 450°C, the molar ratio of NO2/NO conversion was as much as 1.65. The high surface area, crystal phase, and crystallinity (the relative content of Mn2O3 is about 50%); the high content of lattice oxygen Oβ (about 20.4%); and high dispersion of active sites on the MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst calcined at 600°C for 5 h led to its relatively high catalytic activity. Compared with traditional noble metal catalysts, the MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the impregnation method has good application prospects because of its low material cost, simple preparation process, and superior catalytic performance.
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001880

Abstract:
At the interface of environmental health science and engineering with policy, programming, and practice, multiple actors and social processes support communication and decisions. Understanding this interface would help accelerate public health improvements and the effectiveness of interventions, especially in managing the contextual factors that lead to disparities in service provision, resource use, and health. Misconceptions about the uptake of evidence in decision-making often limit fault to the overly technical nature of research findings or the competing and frequently shifting priorities of policy makers. The most effective means to enhance the flow of evidence, however, is regular, structured, and inclusive two-way communication, where knowledge brokers (individuals or institutions) link scientists, engineers, practitioners, policy makers, and the public. Good practices for enhancing science application should be recognized and tailored for environmental health science and engineering. We recommend that (1) science application and interprofessional engagement be incorporated into higher education, (2) funding mechanisms ensure stakeholder engagement beyond the project cycle, (3) evidence synthesis be collectively supported, (4) common rigor and study quality measures be adopted for diverse study types, and (5) research into effective science brokering practices and outcomes be encouraged.
Zhipeng Li, Yongbing Huang, Yanzheng Li, Yao Xiao, Dongmei Tang, Jiefei Xu
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001904

Abstract:
This study involves a comprehensive rectification project for the aquatic environment of a black odorous river in Dongguan City, China. It employs a combined process treatment technology of pollution source control, in situ remediation of sediments, biological contact oxidation, forced aeration–biological agent combination, flowing water circulation, and landscape greening to remediate a heavily polluted river. The project has improved the traditional biological contact oxidation process and built a pond with a daily treatment capacity of 1,200 m3 inside the river to perform in situ repair of the polluted water body. The results show that the pond can efficiently degrade ammonia nitrogen (NH3─ N) and has a strong resistance to the impact loads of black odorous water. After the in situ remediation of the sediments, the pollutants were greatly reduced, and the average removal rate reached 56.03%. The tracking and monitoring of the combined process showed that the water quality index chemical oxygen demand in the later stage of the project was reduced from 187 to 25 mg/L, NH3─ N was reduced from 19.46 to 1.67 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) was reduced from 2.51 to 0.32 mg/L. Simultaneously, the dissolved oxygen increased from 0.12 to 6.34 mg/L, and the transparency increased from 4 to 55 cm. This shows that the combined process is practical and effective and can efficiently remove pollutants such as organic matter, NH3─ N, and TP from water, providing a reference basis for the in situ treatment of urban black odorous waterbodies.
Tianglong Liu, Anupama Vijaya Nadaraja, Jiaming Shi,
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001921

Abstract:
The seasonality of wastewater production is a challenge for biological treatment systems due to the seasonal variation of wastewater volume and contaminant concentration. This study assessed the performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) during changes in feed from winery wastewater (vintage season) to dog food (idle season). The 100-mL lab-scale MFCs exhibited slightly different output power performance (410 versus 290 mW/m3) with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 84%±10% and 88%±1% with winery wastewater and dog food, respectively. COD removal occurred prior to a decline in voltage production. The COD removal and total electrical energy recovered per cycle were both linearly proportional to the initial COD of each batch when the COD was increased from 1,000 to 10,000 mg/L. An increase in COD increased the duration of power output but not the maximum output power. The energy recovery per kilogram COD improved with increasing COD concentration in the wastewater up to 0.042 kW·h/kg COD removed. This study demonstrated the efficacy of MFCs to treat agricultural wastewater and how dog food could be used as an ideal alternative feed to maintain effective reactor performance during the idle season of a seasonal agricultural wastewater system.
Jenny L. Olmsted, Atiye Ahmadireskety, Bianca Ferreira Da Silva, Nicole Robey, Juan J. Aristizabal-Henao, Jean-Claude J. Bonzongo, John A. Bowden
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001906

Abstract:
Current research on the fate and transport of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has primarily focused on point-source releases, with less focus on nonpoint-source releases, such as stormwater runoff. In this study, 51 PFAS were investigated in sediment collected from two locations at nine stormwater ponds classified by different land-use types. PFAS concentrations were then related to two different land-use disturbance indicators, the Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) index and the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) road type functional classification, to discern a potential metric for estimating PFAS burden by using the proximity to and different types of anthropogenic activity. Of the 51 compounds analyzed, 28 in total were quantified with concentrations ranging from 7.2 to 4,800 ng kg−1. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were the most commonly identified class of PFAS, as perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were all found at eight out of nine sites, as well as perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), a perfluorinated sulfonic acid. Within the framework of this study, the LDI index did not appear to be significantly correlated to PFAS burden, whereby only the 0.4 km radius of the LDI weighted average resulted in a potential metric for the lowest PFAS contaminated sites (which had correspondingly low LDI weighted means). The FDOT functional classification was a better predictor across all sites for PFAS burden, in which a significant difference was found between the number of PFAS detected at rural and urban sites. Most notably, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) concentrations were found to be significantly different between rural and urban sites. Moving forward, the potential of utilizing road type functional classification should be explored as a predictive tool to help better prioritize stormwater pond monitoring for PFAS.
Taegyu Kim, Emma O’ Leary, Sebastian Behrens,
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001919

Abstract:
This study evaluated the efficacy of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to monitor several pertinent bacterial populations in 25 different full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactors across 9 different system designs. All the bioreactors contained a substantial quantity of total bacterial biomass and denitrifying bacteria, independent of system design. In contrast, the quantities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) measured by qPCR targeting the amoA gene and the 16S rRNA genes, respectively, from the Candidatus Accumulibacter lineage significantly correlated with system design. Bioreactors with short mean cell residence time (<2 days) had significantly lower AOB abundance than most of the other bioreactors (all pairwise comparisons P<0.0001, except for a membrane-coupled bioreactor). Similarly, bioreactors designed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal had significantly higher relative quantities of PAOs than did conventional systems (P<10−18). In conclusion, these qPCR assays should be practically useful for monitoring full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactors, thereby helping to improve process performance.
Rakesh Bahadur, Mike C. Monteith, William B. Samuels
Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 147; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001901

Abstract:
This paper presents analysis and estimation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, a key hydrologic parameter for transport of contaminants in rivers and streams. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient varies spatially in streams with changes in the hydrologic parameters, e.g., the cross-sectional width, depth, sinuosity, and velocity of flow. Many theoretical and empirical equations are reported in the literature. After a comprehensive review, 30 equations for prediction of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient were selected from published research. These equations were used in this analysis. Hydrologic data from 59 river reaches were used for estimation of the dispersion coefficient. The estimated values of the dispersion coefficient were compared statistically and graphically with the observed values. Results showed that sinuosity significantly impacts estimation of the dispersion coefficient. Computations that include sinuosity improve the performance of the dispersion equation. Observed and estimated values were compared, and the equations were ranked based on the accuracy of estimation. The nine top-ranked equations were used for field validation using the ICWater model. The Sahay equation provides the best results when used in the calculation of concentration in the advection dispersion equation.
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