World Journal of Neuroscience

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2000 / 2162-2019
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 354
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Josué Euberma Diatewa, Ghislain Armel Mpandzou, Patrice Bruno Mokoko, Dinah Happhia Boubayi Motoula-Latou, Eliot Prince Galiéni Sounga-Banzouzi, Paul Macaire Ossou-Nguiet
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 82-92; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.122009

Abstract:
Background: Among the main challenges of healthcare system throughout the world, there is stroke management. It is important to have data on the in-hospital costs of stroke care to help decision-makers to implement a health insurance system. Objectives: To evaluate the in-hospital costs of stroke care in Brazzaville; to determine the factors influencing the total mean in-hospital cost of stroke care; to identify third parties contributing to stroke care expenditure. Methods: This was a cross-sectional prospective and analytical study. It was carried out at 4 public hospitals in Brazzaville (University Hospital Center, Chinese and Congolese Friendship Hospital, Talangaï Hospital and Makélékélé Hospital), from May to August 2019 (4 months). It focused on patients who had a first episode of stroke confirmed by brain imaging and were at least 18 years old. The bottom-up approach was used to determine the in-hospital costs of stroke care. Results: This study included 109 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 59.2 ± 13.7 years old, with limits of 35 and 90 years old. The total direct in-hospital cost of stroke care was 47,308,330 francs CFA (72,122 euro). The total mean in-hospital cost of stroke care was 1,389,590 francs CFA (2118 euro). The mean cost of intracerebral hemorrhage care was 510,988 francs CFA (779 euro) versus 373,457 francs CFA (569 euro) for cerebral arterial infarction care. The following factors affected the total mean cost of stroke care: type of hospital (p Conclusion: In Congo, the mean in-hospital cost of stroke care is elevated considering the guaranteed minimum wage of 70,000 francs CFA (107 euro). Five factors affect the total mean cost of stroke care. Patient families are the main financial assistance system for stroke care expenditure. To minimize the heavy financial burden induced by stroke on patients, households and families, it is important to implement a health insurance system and strengthen the stroke prevention program.
Haiwen Qi
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 93-104; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.122010

Abstract:
After 300 - 500 ms of various movements, a significant rebound in beta rhythm power is observed. This phenomenon is called Post-Movement Beta Rebound (PMBR). Previous studies have been carried out in a single movement context in the exploration of its functional significance, and few studies have been conducted in connected movements. Therefore, this study used the cue-induced delayed task paradigm to examine the PMBR change in the motor cortex of the 20 adults when they were moving under the single or connected movements condition. It was found on right-hand movements that the PMBR of the first movement in a connected condition was stronger than that of a single movement, and it was also observed on both left- and right-hand movements that the PMBR of the first movement was stronger than that of the last movement in a connected condition. The results show that the PMBR after the connected movement was stronger than the no movement connection, reflecting that PMBR plays an important role in the preparation of subsequent movements.
Prince Eliot Galieni Sounga Bandzouzi, Ghislain Armel Mpandzou, Josué Euberma Diatewa, Dina Happia Motoula-Latou, Charles Godefroy Koubemba, Paul Macaire Ossou-Nguiet, Donatien Moukassa
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.121001

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the onset of stroke in people living with HIV. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study from January to July 2019, in the neurology department of loandjili general hospital, including any patient hospitalized for a first episode of stroke confirmed by brain scan. The study variables were: age, sex, CRP value, serum T cell CD4+, CD8+. The statistical analysis was carried out using the EPI info 7 software. Results: Twenty stroke patients were included. The relative frequency of HIV was 20%. The risk factors were potentiated by immunosuppression of CD4+ T cells. Sixty percent (60%) of the patients had a CD4+ count 3 and the mean CD4+ count was ±191/mm3. Stroke was the predominant mechanism of injury with a frequency of 70%, the only injury mechanism of stroke in patients with CD8+ T cell count > 800/mm3 (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Risk factors are potentiated by TCD4+ lymphocyte immunosupression, also CD8+ lymphocytes of immune system activation marker are a cardiovascular risk factor for living people with HIV.
Eric Bond
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 8-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.121002

Abstract:
Neuroscience and physics have progressed far enough that the explanatory gap between models of matter and the substance of perceptual experience is tantalizingly close to being bridged, at least insofar as consciousness is produced by the brain. This paper aims to describe the basics of how signals are transmitted within neurons via electromagnetic energy fluctuations, how EM fields emergent from these energy flows manifest as the subconscious and an experience of willed agency, as well as how the quantum principles which both EM radiation and atomic structure abide combine them to form percepts from electromagnetic matter. This might be the most promising option yet for fashioning a physical paradigm that theorizes consciousness.
Raphael Marie Kabore, Habib A. K. Ouiminga, Jean Kabore, Jean-Michel Vallat
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.121003

Abstract:
Introduction: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive bilateral occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) and its main branches, associated with the development of fine collateral networks, especially adjacent to the site of occlusion in the deep areas of the brain. MMD frequently occurs in East Asian populations, including pediatric and adult patients, and may lead to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, headache, epilepsy or transient ischemic attack. The majority is presumed to be of genetic origin and few cases of thrombophilia have been reported in MMD. We report a case of MMD in a young sub-Saharan African woman associated with Hyperhomocysteninemia (HHCys). Observation: A 33-year-old female was seen for aphasia, which had suddenly appeared fourteen days before, and was associated with memory impairment. She mentioned chronic headaches during the 10 previous years, of frontal seat, without migraine criteria. She had no history of hypertension, no obesity, no known dyslipidemia, and there was no family history of stroke. Neurological examination noted Wernicke’s aphasia, with discreet right central facial palsy, associated with memory impairment. The brain MRI revealed semi recent infarct in the left parietal lobe, sequelae in the left temporo-occipital and right frontal with lacunar ischemic lesions, associated with several foci of sub- cortical demyelination. MRA showed stenosis of the supraclinoid carotid arteries and their division branches. In addition, there was a stenosis of the posterior cerebral arteries, with a network of anastomosis at the level of the base of the skull. An investigation of thrombophilia showed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCys). The diagnosis of moyamoya disease associated with hyperhomocysteinemia was mentioned. She was treated by Aspirin combined to folic acid. After a 3-year setback the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: MMD is a rare cause of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. MRA should be performed whenever possible, as well as investigation for thrombophilia when it’s available. Combined antiplatelet agent with folic acid for ischemic stroke prevention is effective.
Chukwuemeka O. Eze, Olaronke F. Afolabi, Chioma Nwigbakpo, Chukwunonso Uche Ndulue
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.122005

Abstract:
Background: Post stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication following stroke. There has not been any study to demonstrate its burden in Abakaliki, Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that we embarked on this study of the frequency and pattern of PSD in Abakaliki Nigeria. Method: This is a cross-sectional observational hospital based study undertaken at the Adult Neurology Outpatient Clinics of Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria from February 2021 to July 2021 (6 months period). Results: Amongst the 110 stroke survivors enrolled in the study, 36 (32.7%) had Post Stroke Depression (PSD) with preponderance of mild type. Female gender and young age were associated with the presence of PSD. Conclusion: Post stroke depression is prevalent amongst stroke survivors in Abakaliki, Nigeria and more preponderant in women and young individuals.
Mirza Khinikadze, Vladimer Tsikarishvili, Koka Gogichashvili, Lana Bokuchava
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.122004

Abstract:
Introduction: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm is an urgent diagnostic and therapeutic condition. Occlusion with coils is the first line treatment for ruptured aneurysms and also should be used to prevent re-rupture, potentially causing severe brain damage. Most aneurysms are subject to this type of treatment. The risk of intraoperative thromboembolic and haemorrhagic complications during treatment with coils is very low. Endovascular treatment with coils is therefore a safe and effective method that can prevent short and long-term haemorrhage. Short and long-term haemorrhage is achieved by early recanalization of cases with neuro-visualisation. Methods: In this article we present a retrospective analysis of the results of endovascular embolization of 137 patients, from 2017 to the present time, in three hospitals of Georgia country (Evex hospitals, New hospitals, New-vision University Hospital) with a diagnosis of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage. Results: In our study, overall postoperative mortality was reported to be 29.9% (41/137 patients). In 45 patients presenting with Hunt-Hess IV-V, the mortality rate was 51.1% (23/45). According to Raymond-Roy Scale, complete occlusion of aneurysm occurs in 66% of cases, residual occlusion of neck in 26%, and partial occlusion in 6%. Conclusion: Aneurysm rupture is an urgent clinical condition requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment. To prevent aneurysm re-rupture, operative intervention should be performed quickly. The recommended time interval is within 72 hours, and, if possible, within 24 hours after aneurysm rupture. Given the spasms typical of subarachnoid haemorraghe endovascular coiling of ruptured aneurysms is a first-line treatment that depends on the angioarchitecture and localization of the aneurysm. The main technique of endovascular treatment is occlusion by coils with or without remodeling balloon assistance. Generally, in acute periods, only aneurysms with coils are associated with relatively high rates of recanalization, so further observation and possible surgical treatment are recommended.
Kevin Patrick Barman
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.122006

Abstract:
This paper aims to examine theories that attempt to explain biochemical changes in the brain as well as the metabolism of individuals who experience symptoms and conditions related to neurological disorders like depression. A systematic literature search was performed on NCBI and PubMed. The search included the keywords neurological disorders, monoamine hypothesis, metabolic syndrome, oxytocin receptor, dietary health, and magnesium intake. Twenty-five research articles met the criteria for the literature review of this examination. In particular, this paper will review multiple studies that investigate the monoamine (MAO) hypothesis of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a risk factor for neurological disorders. While studies that evaluate additional risk factors for neurological disorders, such as autoimmunity and rheumatic diseases, oxytocin receptor (OXTR) DNA methylation in postpartum depression, dietary health in children and their psychological health, and dietary magnesium and cardiovascular disease, will be reviewed as well.
Gang Yang
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 118-124; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.123013

Abstract:
At present, there are some concerns and problems to treat neurointensive care patients by using analgesics and sedatives. Conditions of neurointensive care patients change quickly. For neurointensive care patients who cannot have auxiliary examination timely, clinicians judge intracranial conditions mainly through relevant monitoring devices and consciousness and pupil changes of patients. The use of analgesics and sedatives is limited due to worry about influences on consciousness evaluation and judgment and different degrees of inhibition on cardiovascular system and respiratory system. Common sedatives (e.g. benzodiazepines) and common analgesics (e.g. morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil) both may inhibit respiration. The specification often provides taboos for the use of drugs by patients with increase intracranial pressure (ICP) and craniocerebral injuries. Through literature review, the author analyzed influences of analgesics and sedatives on ICP of neurointensive care patients comprehensively.
Mahamadou Dama, Oumar Diallo, Oumar Coulibaly, Daouda Sissoko, Theodore H. M. Coulibaly, Aliou Maiga, Youssouf Sogoba
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp 112-117; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2022.123012

Abstract:
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common entities seen in neurosurgery. We report a case of infracallosal aneurysm revealed by CSDH in a 52 years old woman. She presented 3 days alteration of consciousness in 2019 and repeated in September 2020 a severe headache and dizziness. There was no history of others symptoms, nor head trauma. Routine blood examination and coagulation profile were normal. Emergency computed tomography (TC) showed a left temporoparietal-occipital CSDH. Cerebral Angio CT found a bilobated of A2 aneurysm. The precallosal interhemispheric approach was made and clipping the aneurysm after evacuation of CSDH without complication. CSDH is one of the revealed features of intracerebral aneurysm rupture.
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