World Journal of Neuroscience

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2000 / 2162-2019
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 321
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Latest articles in this journal

David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 8-14; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.101002

Abstract:
This article describes the prototypical clinical presentation, electrodiagnostic and neuropathological findings and treatment of a patient with painful peripheral neuropathy due to disulfiram toxicity. Although a review of the literature fails to reveal cases of painful peripheral neuropathy due to disulfiram toxicity, there has been heightened publicity of its risk in the treatment of persistent symptoms of Lyme disease following a standard of care course of antibiotics known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis and diagnosis of predominant small fiber neuropathy resulting from disulfiram neurotoxicity, and offers recommendations for its use in Lyme disease and alcoholism.
Paul Macaire Ossou-Nguiet, Ghislain Armel Mpandzou, Dinah Happhia Motoula Latou, Josué Euberma Diatewa, Karen Lise Charmel Obondzo Aloba, Prince Eliot Sounga Bandzouzi, Bertrand Fikahem Ellenga Mbolla
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 37-41; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.101006

Abstract:
Introduction: Palliative care, firstly used for chronic diseases, is currently indicated for some acute pathology such as Stroke. Its implementation improves the quality of care for end-of-life patients. The aim of our study is to report a series of patients who died in the intensive care stroke unit of Brazzaville. Method: It was a descriptive study of a series of 13 cases of severe stroke, admitted to the intensive care unit of the university hospital of Brazzaville, between January 2015 and December 2017. Sociodemographic, clinical, paraclinical and prognostic variables were studied. Result: The mean age of the patients was 46 ± 11.5 years with a male predominance in 69.2% (n = 9). They were all hypertensive. The motor deficit and consciousness disorder association was the reason for admission in 84.6% (n = 11) and an epileptic seizure of 15.4% (n = 2). The mean NIHSS at admission was 21 ± 5, that of Glasgow 6 ± 3. Stroke was hemorrhagic in 84.6% (n = 11) and malignant infarction in 15.4% (n = 2). All of these patients received invasive resuscitation with assisted ventilation and all died within 8 days of admission. Conclusion: The issue of limitation of care deserves to be debated, and is proposed on a case-by-case basis, in the face of a serious stroke. Therapeutic relentlessness is not only expensive, but also raises the problem of suffering of the individual at the end of life.
Bogdan-Ioan Nicula
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 166-190; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.104018

Abstract:
According to the proposed hypothesis, graphic characters trigger the subcortical visual route. The reaction discussed is very weak. Yet, its very existence has an unusual importance: characters and (occluded) venomous snakeskin patterns reveal themselves as conflatable. Furthermore, following tractogra- phic research, a functional segregation of the subcortical pathway is to be presupposed. Thus, there can’t be a later dissociation of two stimuli previously associated. The outcomes of lecture will gradually appear probabilistically (much) more peaceful than encountering a venomous snake, though, and thus a continuous lessening of the reaction is expectable. Here, on one hand, it is relevant that the subcortical visual pathway goes to the amygdala. The reactions we describe tap into goal-oriented processes, and they will do that unfettered. On the other hand, in the case of characters, since the beginning, fear has been converted into appetition to a great degree. This process should be fostered in the presence of light. In this way, luminosity might become a conditioned stimulus for attraction. In this case, a Pavlovian addiction for light will foster, yet also—from the point of view of reward feeling—counterbalance the lessening of the stimulation elicited by characters. The addiction we refer to is one towards light accompanied by graphic signs. Yet, as opposed to the case of the luminous medium, the attention captured by the later ones taken for themselves is continuously reduced.
Jamylly Ferreira Targino Silva, Mayara Leite Alves Da Silva, Maykon Wanderley Leite Alves-Da-Silva, Douglas Nijenhuis De Castro, Euclides Maurício Trindade Filho, Janise Dal Pai, Lysien Ivania Zambrano, Valtuir Barbosa Felix, Elionai Dias Soares, Camila Conceição Luz Soares, et al.
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 155-165; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.104017

Abstract:
Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deterioration of brain functions. Psychosocial interventions such as music and photographic stimuli may contribute to cognitive and sensory exercise or rehabilitation. Objective: Evaluate musical and photographic stimuli in elderly people with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: It is an uncontrolled clinical trial, before-after type, eleven subjects composing the sample. Participants were submitted to Katz Index, Autobiographical Memory Test, GDS-15, Mini-Mental State Examination. The collection instruments were used on the first and last day of intervention, individually. There were 2 sessions in the week with duration of 50 minutes totaling 20 sessions. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics and as variables expressed as mean standard deviation. Results: There was a significant effect of cognitive activity (P , it was observed that a small advance (P = 0.05) of the daily life activities. With the analysis of GDS-15, it is verified that they are more effective for the increase of the previous self-estimation of the therapy (P = 0.94). In the application of the AMT, it is observed that there was a better recruitment of the memory for the neutral words. Conclusion: Musical and photographic stimuli had a positive effect on the cognitive level, daily life activities and autobiographical memory in seniors with Alzheimer’s disease.
Huang Tao, Chunru Wang, Juncheng Guo, Min Guo
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 135-140; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.103015

Abstract:
Comorbidity with PTSD has been studied at home and abroad in follow-up studies following major traumatic events, indexing patients diagnosed with PTSD and investigating rates of comorbidity and other psychiatric disorders. In practical clinical practice, the majority of patients with PTSD are diagnosed with neurosis and depression, but the clinical manifestations and treatment of some of these patients are more complicated and difficult, and it is clinically found that these patients may have comorbidities and other mental disorders. This study in hospitalized patients with neurosis and depression as the main research object, through the investigation found that some patients (36.4%) of comorbid PTSD, just, this part of the patients reported by a traumatic event is not CCMD-3 defined in the “unusual” traumatic event. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that attention should be paid to the collection of patients’ medical history, especially the inquiry of traumatic experiences. This study is only a preliminary study with a small sample size, and the conclusions obtained need to be further confirmed in future studies.
Lan Bai, Qinqin Zhao, Chunju Xiao, Zhihuan Zhou
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 206-215; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.104020

Abstract:
Background: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors among children. Due to the severity of the tumors and the complexity of therapeutic regimes, it is very important to examine whether parents of the children with CNS tumors have positive coping methods against the disease. This study aims to analyze the coping methods of the parents and the factors influencing the methods. Methods: A total of 108 parents of brain cancer children admitted from January 2019 to September 2020 were selected as subjects. After collecting the general information of the parents, they were studied using the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP, Chinese version). Additionally, their coping pattern and the influencing factors were analyzed. Results: The average scores of the three subscales of the CHIP were (4.25 ± 0.939), (3.11 ± 1.205) and (3.60 ± 1.187), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that parents’ education, medical payment methods, places of residence and economic concerns were the main factors influencing the coping methods (all P Conclusions: Healthcare staff should fully evaluate the coping methods adopted by the parents having children with CNS tumors, take targeted nursing measures accordingly, and assist the parents in seeking social support and learning disease-related knowledge. In addition, public education on disease is equally important.
Yannick Canton Kessely, Felicien G. Toudjingar, Loobé Regis Mwabanyol, Mahamat Ali Bolti, Aboubakar Aouami, Kader Ndiaye, Olivier Ouambi, Yusra Aboulbachar Ali, Momar Code Ba
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 101-106; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.102011

Abstract:
Frontal sinus aspergillosis is a rare infection that can be usually associated with immunocompromised states and life-threatening with high mortality rate. The authors report in a developing country a case of immunocompetent patient with left unilateral frontal headache, associated with left eye ptosis. The Brain CT Scan revealed frontal sinus aspergillosis. She underwent surgery followed by itraconazole cure. The outcome is successful after a period of 14 months with resolution of symptomatology. Anatomopathological examination confirmed aspergillosis. They share their experience of management of this disease in a country where neurosurgery is very young specialty and where molecules against aspergillosis are not available.
Liu Zhuo, Guo Min, Gao Yunsuo, Jiang Xiangling, Zhuo Liu, Min Guo, Yunsuo Gao, Xiangling Jiang
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 107-116; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.102012

Abstract:
Studies have shown that the expression level of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (also known as BDNF) is of great significance on neutron activity, which has a close relationship with the improvement of the learning and memory ability; it has effect on the physical growth and development of an individual as well. On the other hand, childhood autism is a group of serious neurodevelopmental disorders. Some literature has pointed out that the BDNF plays a tremendously important role in the pathogenesis and the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. In recent years, many scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of research and found that there is a close relationship between BDNF and autism. This paper therefore will give an introduction on and an analysis of the relationship between BDNF, the polymorphysis of its gene, and childhood autism based on the previous domestic and overseas literature.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 117-120; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.102013

Abstract:
The SARS-CoV-2 2019 pandemic is creating challenges to the management of post-infectious autoimmunity in childhood and adult Covid-19 cases due to its high case fatality. Nearly all of the agents envisioned to treat Covid-19 illness, including the newly recognized pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome, impact post-infectious mechanisms in keeping with the multiplier effect of infection, immunity and inflammation, known as I-Cubed (I3).
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp 29-36; doi:10.4236/wjns.2020.101005

Abstract:
The Autoimmune Brain1 explains I-Cubed, a shorthand for post-infectious autoimmunity that results from the multiplier effect of infection, immunity and inflammation, when protective immunity becomes the source of autoimmunity, conditioned by applicable environmental and genetic predisposing factors. In keeping with the post-infectious autoimmune nature of I-Cubed, neurologic and psychiatric symptoms evolve beyond a standard of care course of antibiotic therapy. Extensive serologic, electrophysiological and neuroradiographic diagnostic testing provides clues to areas of central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system, and systemic involvement that guide therapy. A multimodality therapeutic approach employing immune modulatory (Ig) therapy that addresses the underlying mechanisms and not just the symptoms of Cubed disorders is most effective. Representative cases of post-infectious autoimmunity associated with Lyme disease and PANDAS are presented.
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