ISSN / EISSN : 1746-0794 / 1746-0808
Current Publisher: Future Medicine Ltd (10.2217)
Total articles ≅ 1,519
Latest articles in this journal
Future Virology; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0334
Introduction: Dry mouth has been reported as a symptom of COVID-19. In this study, xerostomia (dry mouth) was reported in patients with COVID-19. Materials & methods: Dry mouth was assessed in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 daily until all of the dry mouth symptoms resolved. Results: Dry mouth appeared in 60% of cases 3–4 days before as prodromal symptom and in others, simultaneously or 1–2 days after the onset of other symptoms. In most cases, with starting the treatment, dry mouth gradually disappeared. Conclusion: Xerostomia in COVID-19 could occur before the common symptoms. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that it could be used for early diagnosis, quarantine and treatment. As a result, disease transmission might be prevented and the best treatment outcomes could be achieved.
Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 277-291; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0342
Aim: COVID-19 is currently the biggest threat to mankind. Recently, ivermectin (a US FDA-approved antiparasitic drug) has been explored as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. Herein, we have studied the possible mechanism of action of ivermectin using in silico approaches. Materials & methods: Interaction of ivermectin against the key proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis were investigated through molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation. Results: Ivermectin was found as a blocker of viral replicase, protease and human TMPRSS2, which could be the biophysical basis behind its antiviral efficiency. The antiviral action and ADMET profile of ivermectin was on par with the currently used anticorona drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir. Conclusion: Our study enlightens the candidature of ivermectin as an effective drug for treating COVID-19.
Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 301-306; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0389
Nowadays, the SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is recognized as the primary cause of mortality in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted through human-to-human contact and is asymptomatic in most patients. In addition to approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection, miRNAs may also be promising options against this new virus. miRNAs are small and noncoding RNAs 18–25 nucleotides in length that target the mRNAs to degrade them or obstruct their translation miRNAs act as an observer in cells. This study reviewed the literature on the potential role of cellular miRNAs in the SARS-CoV-2-host interplay as a therapeutic option in COVID-19 patients.
Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 265-276; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0304
Objective: Researching the prognostic value of myocardial enzymes in COVID-19 patients. Materials & methods: We collected 113 confirmed COVID-19 patients. The dynamic changes of CK, LDH and α-HBDH in patients were studied retrospectively, the correlation between myocardial enzyme index, clinical classification and outcome of patients and its significance to prognosis. Results: There are significant statistical differences between LDH, α-HBDH, CK and the clinical classification, and patient’s outcome. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, LDH, α-HBDH and CK have a good diagnostic value for the death outcome of patients. Conclusion: LDH, α-HBDH and CK were the components of myocardial enzyme profiles, and our results found that they were significantly positively correlated with clinical classification and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The values of LDH, α-HBDH and CK increased with the increase of the severity of admission clinical classification and the deterioration of outcome. Therefore, we propose that continuous monitoring of LDH, α-HBDH and CK indicators can warn the deterioration of COVID-19 to a certain extent, regardless of whether patients with cardiovascular diseases are combined or not, and prompt early intervention.
Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 259-264; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0360
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Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 293-300; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0398
Aim: The present study was performed to determine the inhibitory interaction of fever-relieving medicines with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) essential proteins. Materials & methods: Structure-based drug repositioning was performed using PYRX 0.9 and these drugs were directed toward the predicted active site of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain, main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Results: Results showed that acetaminophen and naproxen have considerable inhibitory activity and show a high affinity for active residues of these proteins. The prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) studies showed that these drugs are anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunostimulant. Conclusion: Hence, it is proven that these drugs have antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and can stimulate the immune and anti-inflammatory response against this disease.
Future Virology, Volume 16, pp 255-276; doi:10.2217/fvl-2021-0029
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Future Virology; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0333
Background: SARS-CoV-2, is followed by several manifestations, such as fever, cough, respiratory distress syndrome and mucocutaneous lesions such as papules, urticaria, vasculitic purpura and erythema multiform. Case: A 22-year old woman was diagnosed with COVID-19. Considering the skin and oral lesions, erythema multiform was suggested as the most likely diagnosis. Oral valaciclovir was administered. Discussion: Erythema multiforme were reported in some patients with COVID-19. Its pathophysiology is not yet completely understood, but it seems there is a lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to SARS-CoV-2 antigens presenting in the skin. Conclusion: Mucocutaneous and oral lesions might be the first manifestations of COVID-19. Therefore, during the pandemic, it is prudent to consider this virus as a differential diagnosis once we encounter oral ulceration.
Future Virology; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0204
Aim: Because the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 is newly introduced to humans, we aimed to understand the unique features of its genome and proteins, crucial for high transmissibility and disease severity. Materials & methods: The available genome and protein sequences of SARS-CoV-2 with known human and nonhuman CoV were analyzed using multiple sequence alignment programs. Results: Our analysis revealed some unique mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike, ORF1a/b, ORF3a/3b and ORF8. The most interesting ones were in the spike angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding-motif and generation of a furin-like cleavage site as well as deletions of ORF3a ‘diacidic motif’ and the entire ORF3b. Conclusion: Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 has diverged from SARS-CoV-1 but is most close to bat-SL-CoV. Unique mutations in spike and ORF3a/b proteins strongly endorse its adaptive evolution, enhanced infectivity and severe pathogenesis in humans.
Future Virology; doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0403
Background: In the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, drug repositioning emerges as a promising approach to develop efficient therapeutics in comparison to de novo drug development. The present investigation screened 130 US FDA-approved drugs including hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract infections (RTI), antibiotics and antiviral drugs for their inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: The molecular drug targets against SARS-CoV-2 proteins were determined by the iGEMDOCK computational docking tool. The protein homology models were generated through SWISS Model workspace. The pharmacokinetics of all the ligands was determined by ADMET analysis. Results: The study identified 15 potent drugs exhibiting significant inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Our investigation has identified possible repurposed drug candidates to improve the current modus operandi of the treatment given to COVID-19 patients.