Journal of Scientific Agriculture

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EISSN : 2184-0261
Published by: Phoenix Research Publishers (10.25081)
Total articles ≅ 111
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Emiru Chimdessa Gemechu
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.7126

Abstract:
Plants have been a source of medicine in Ethiopia from time immemorial to treat different human and livestock ailments. The purpose of this study was to identify the medicinal plant species and associated indigenous knowledge in livestock treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess indigenous knowledge of local people on medicinal plants used for livestock treatment in five selected kebeles of kersa district from March to June 2014. A total of 40 traditional healers (33 male and 7 male) 7-9 from each study sites were selected purpouvely with the help of knowledgeable elders, local authorities and kebele leaders. Ethno botanical data regarding plant species, plant parts used, livestock disease treated, and method of preparation and route of administration were collected through structured interview and field observation. A total of 33 plant species distributed in 24 families were identified in the study area. The majority of the medicinal plants 63.63% were collected from the wild and 33.33% from home garden. The major growth habit of the medicinal plants identified in the study area were herbs 39.39%, followed by shrubs 33.33%.The most frequently harvested plant parts were leaves and roots with proportion of 57.7% and 21.21%, respectively followed by seeds (9.09%) and fruits (6.06%). Pounding and crushing were the most commonly used method of remedies preparation whereas the widely used method of administration is oral. The study reveals that the local people of the study area harvest medicinal plants used to treat livestock health problem from the wild habitat. Therefore, awaring the local people of the study area to conserve medicinal plants in their home garden is recommended.
Majid Ali, Muhammad Alamgeer, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Khuram Zia, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Asad Saleem
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 36-43; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.5479

Abstract:
The research was conducted to determine Chromium (VI) toxicity in population Bombyx mori. The synthetic wastewater used to irrigate soil to evaluate the impact of pH (4 to 8) at 100 mg/L and initial Chromium (VI) concentrations (25 mg/L to 300 mg/L) at 5 pH in its bioaccumulation in B. mori foodchain. By using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis the amount of Chromium (VI) determined in soil, mulberry plants, B. mori larvae, silk glands and silkworm feces. The results showed that local cobalt pollution can be indicated by using B. mori as a template as its body length, body weight and the mortality rate were found to be strongly related to Chromium (VI) concentration. Higher the Chromium (VI) amount in mulberry leaves causes more toxicity to B. mori population. At 300 mg/L Cr (VI) concentration and pH 4 there was maximum deposition of Chromium (VI) in soil, mulberry plants, B. mori larvae, faeces and silk glands from the synthetic effluent. The maximum deposition was 123.5±0.03 mg/kg, 89.76±.031 mg/kg, 23.31±0.019 mg/kg, 41.32±0.069 mg/kg and 35.67±0.04 mg/kg observed respectively.
I. Guellaoui, F. Ben Amar, M. A. Triki, M. Ayadi, M. Boubaker
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 32-35; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.5481

Abstract:
The new olive cultivar ‘Chemlali Mhassen’ was derived from the autopollination of the Tunisian oil cultivar ‘Chemlali Sfax’. The main morphological differences between the two cultivars were observed on the endocarp (symmetry, position of maximum diameter, apex, base and surface). On the agronomic plan, this cultivar is distinguishable from the original cultivar due to its medium earliness of bearing (4 years), medium alternate bearing (0.44), early ripening, moderate sensitivity to verticillium and its high olive production per tree (7.7 kg). Concerning oil quality, ‘Chemlali Mhassen’ had higher performances than the original cultivar for oleic acid content (70 to 77 %) and lower contents for palmitic acid (9.2 to 11.5 %) and linoleic acid (9.3 to 14.7 %). Similar performances were recorded between the new and the original cultivars for rhizogenesis behavior and pollen compatibility.
Jenipher Bisikwa, Roger L. Becker, Vince A. Fritz, Kevin Natukunda, Martha I. Natukunda
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.6898

Abstract:
Light is an essential requirement for proper plant growth and development. Growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine whether artificial alteration of light quality (reducing the red to far-red ratio-R:FR) differentially affected the growth and development of giant foxtail and wild proso millet, two troublesome annual grass weeds in the United States. Growth phenotypes of both weeds were examined under two R:FR regimes (0.28-reduced R:FR and 1.12-unaltered R:FR) in the absence of competition (control conditions) and under intraspecific and interspecific competition. The reduced R:FR simulated shaded (below-canopy) R:FR conditions in the field while the unaltered R:FR treatment simulated direct sunlight (above-canopy) conditions. Averaged across weed species, reducing the R:FR increased plant height, but reduced tiller production and above-ground biomass under no plant competition (P<0.05). In the presence of competition, reducing the R:FR increased plant height and internode length but reduced the number of tillers and leaf area across weed species. No phenotypic differences were observed for weeds tested under intraspecific or interspecific competition. Our study has shown that the response of both weeds to artificial R:FR alteration is similar to that observed under shaded field conditions. Therefore, by replacing bordering plants with a crop, controlled experiments can be used to test the effect of crop canopies on weed suppression when selecting cultivars to be planted in areas where certain weed species are prevalent, minimizing weed-related yield losses.
Abdurahman Husien, Tilahun Firomsa, Tilahun Abera
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.6901

Abstract:
Nowadays, a balanced fertilizer recommendation is of paramount importance in order to confirm the security and sustainably increase crop productivity for farmers and other stakeholders. Soil test crop response based phosphorus calibration study in two years (2017 and 2018) was done for bread wheat in kofele district with objectives to assess and evaluate yield response of bread wheat to phosphorus-fertilizer applications in soils that have initial high/medium/low levels of phosphorus on Eutric Vertisols. A composite soil samples collection were made in zigzag method from farmer’s land and analyzed for available P in order to identify the level of the required parameters in the soil to select farmland for actual experiment. Accordingly, phosphorus calibration study treatments include application of 0, 10,20,30,40 and 50 kg P ha-1 with recommended nitrogen 69 kg N ha-1 with RCBD design was used with two replications. The plot size of 5mx4m with a seed rate of 150 kg ha-1 and Ogolcho variety which had been recommended for the area was used. So that the result showed that phosphorus fertilizer application significantly affects yield and yield components of bread wheat. Similarly, phosphorous fertilizer application at different rates increased grain yield of bread wheat by 28 to 44% compared to the control. Furthermore, the study was revealed that phosphorus critical (Pc) point for bread wheat was 19, and phosphorus requirement factor was also 3.30. Therefore, future research should focus on verification of the result on farmland before disseminating the technology to the end-user.
Gyue Gyue, Nang Kham Hline, Nan Thida Aye, Bo Hein, Myo Thet Naung, Myo Thura, Htun Myint, Soe Min Thein, Lwin Naing Oo, Moe Thida Htun, et al.
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 12-19; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.6647

Abstract:
The study was carried out to evaluate the forage yields, nutritive values and in vitro fermentation parameters of herbaceous legumes. Five varieties of introduced herbaceous legumes; Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Ubon stylo, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Centrosema brasilianum cv. Ooloo, Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Stylo 184 and Macroptilum bracteatum cv. Cadarga were evaluated at the research farm, University of Veterinary Science, Yezin, Myanmar. No fertilizer and no irrigation were applied for cultivation to test drought resistance. Dry forage yield, nutritive values and gas production at four harvesting times were measured with 4×5 factorial arrangement (5 legumes and 4 harvesting time) in randomized complete block design. There was no interaction between legumes and harvesting time on forage yield, nutritive values and fermentation parameters but they were affected by the main effects of legume types and harvesting time. Among the legume forages, the highest dry forage yields were found in Ooloo, Ubon stylo, and Stylo 184, and followed by the DM yield of Archer and Cadarga. The DM yield of the second harvest was significantly higher (p
Irene Mughi, M. Ochwo-Ssemakula, R. Edema, C. Mukankusi
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.6559

Abstract:
Prolonged cooking time leads to structural changes at the grain cellular level, resulting in loss of nutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) which are among the main nutrients important in addressing micronutrient malnutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of cooking time, Fe and Zn content in a total of 152 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes from around Eastern Africa, in order to identify short cooking genotypes with high Fe and Zn content. Field trials were conducted at CIAT-Uganda research station over two seasons in 2016. Cooking time was estimated using an automated Mattson cooker at CIAT-Uganda while Fe and Zn content was determined using XRF analysis at Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB) in Rubona. A wide variability was evident from the test genotypes both for cooking time and mineral concentration. Cooking time exhibited a continuous distribution ranging from 35-100 minutes for the first season and 43–122 minutes for the second season. Seventy-three percent of the test genotypes had Fe levels higher than the low Fe check, CAL 96 (55mg/kg) which is popularly known as ‘Nambale’ and a popular commercial variety in Uganda. A total of 15 genotypes (Amahunja, Awash melka, Bihogo, CAB 2, ECAPAN021, G858, Icaquimbaya, KK20, NABE12C, NABE4, NABE6, ROBA-1, RWR1873, RWV3006) were consistent in short cooking time for the two seasons and had a Fe content above the low Fe check (CAL96 – 55mg/kg). A high correlation (r = 0.71) was observed between Fe and Zn whereas a low correlation between cooking time and Fe (r = -0.04) and Zn (r = 0.04) was observed. Great variability was evident for both traits indicating possible improvement by breeding and thus the possibility of having short cooking common bean genotypes with high Fe and Zn content.
Javan Omondi Were, Julius Onyango Ochuodho, Nicholas Kipkemboi Rop, Sanjaya Gyawali
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.5752

Abstract:
Lack of genetically stable and durable drought tolerant winter and spring barley genotypes is one of the main contributing to low and unpredictable yields in Kenya and other parts of the world despite annual release of new and high yielding varieties. Therefore, the study was set to identify genotypes exhibiting tolerance to drought through physiological and phenotypic approaches. A total of 32 genotypes were planted in split-plot arrangement in completely randomized design replicated thrice. Genotypes were maintained under 20% and 80% field capacities. Phenotypic and physiological data were collected, converted to ratios then analyzed on Genstat version 14.1 VSN International Ltd at a 5% level of significance. Significant differences were observed in winter and spring barley in terms of growth, tillering ability, grains formed per spike, 1000 seed weight and MSI (p < 0.05). Spring barley expressed higher tolerance to drought than winter barley especially in terms of height, number of grains per spike and seed weight. Water deficiency in cells and tissues might have altered and inhibited physiological and biochemical processes. The phenotypic and physiological methods corresponded and confirmed tolerance to drought in most winter and spring genotypes grown in Kenya.
Chala Duguma
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 124-132; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2020.v4.6363

Abstract:
The study was undertaken from May up to July 2020 in Guder town of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to explore husbandry practices and egg production performance of indigenous chicken in the study area. A cross-sectional systematic random survey of 40 households was undertaken by using semi-structured and pre tested questionnaire. Information on management practices, production systems, egg production performances and constraints of indigenous chicken kept in Guder town was generated by semi-structured questionnaire. The primary data collected from house hold survey was processed and analyzed by using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20.0 software. Descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean, ranking, standard deviation, and cross tabulation were used to analyze the data quantitatively. Data gathered through key informant interviews, focus group discussion and personal observation was analyzed qualitatively to strengthen data obtained from the household survey. Due to its small space and lower capital requirement sample household’s ranked chicken as the first important animals kept in the study area. The main purposes of keeping indigenous chicken in the study area were for home consumption followed by generation of income. The most important feed resources of indigenous chicken kept in the study area were feed obtained from scavenging, house hold wastes, the market left over, and industrial by products. Majority of the households accommodated their indigenous chicken in a separate house constructed for the confinement of the chicken. The higher mortality rate of indigenous chicken in the study area was caused by disease and predator. The most commonly happening and economically important disease in the study area was Newcastle. The commonly observed predators in the study area were cat and dog. Health and feed problems were the first and the second constraint of indigenous chicken production in the study area respectively. Therefore area based development involvement could help to increase the productivity of indigenous chicken and thereby improve the income of small holders.
Jenipher Bisikwa, Martha I. Natukunda, Roger L Becker
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 113-123; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2020.v4.6457

Abstract:
European buckthorn is an exotic problematic invasive woody species that has displaced native plant species in Minnesota woodlands. Buckthorn is also an overwintering host for oat crown rust and soybean aphids, which can cause significant crop yield losses. The overall goal of this study was to test multiple buckthorn control methods and examine the establishment of native plant species in colonized areas. Specific objectives were to 1) determine the effectiveness of buckthorn control methods when applied in different seasons, 2) monitor seedling recruitment and resprouting ability of buckthorn saplings following treatment, 3) monitor recruitment and survival of native plant species following treatment, and 4) characterize buckthorn carbohydrate fluctuations and considerations for timely and effective buckthorn management. Field experiments conducted for two years in two locations (Eagle Lake Regional Park and Battle Creek Regional Park, Minnesota, U.S.A), tested four buckthorn control treatments: 1) cutting only; 2) cutting+stump treatment with herbicide (triclopyr); 3) cutting+stump treatment with herbicide+burning, and 4) cutting+burning. Untreated controls were included in each experiment. Across management seasons, the cutting+stump treatment with herbicide resulted in higher seedling densities for buckthorn and other species the next season compared to cutting only without herbicide application. Spring management resulted in the lowest seedling density the next season for both buckthorn and other plant species, and spring control treatments that included herbicide and burning resulted in higher buckthorn and native species seedling densities than treatments without burning. Because seasonal total nonstructural carbohydrate levels in buckthorn crowns were highest in the fall season, we recommend applying systemic herbicides in the fall when carbohydrates are translocated for storage to facilitate herbicide translocation and efficacy. Our study shows that integrating multiple buckthorn control methods reduces buckthorn populations and increases native species diversity. For long-term control of buckthorn seedling establishment, follow-up treatments like applying foliar herbicide sprays can be used in addition to prescribed burning.
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