Acetic Acid Bacteria

Journal Information
EISSN : 2240-2845
Published by: PAGEPress Publications (10.4081)
Total articles ≅ 20
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, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Mohamed Afechtal, , Mustapha Ismaili Alaoui,
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2018.7312

Abstract:
In this study, new thermotolerant Acetobacter pasteurianus CV01 strain recently isolated from local product of Morocco has been investigated for its ability to perform efficient acetous fermentation at a large-scale. Firstly, the thermotolerance basis bioconversion of CV01 strain was compared to other mesophilic and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria. Subsequently, CV01 strain was assessed for its ability to produce and tolerate high amount of acetic acid at optimal and thermal stress conditions in lab-scale bioreactor. It was found that the studied strain exhibited thermotolerant properties compared to reference strains and could withstand the increase in temperature during acetous fermentation in fermenter. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used on the samples prepared with solid phase microextraction (SPME) to determine the volatile compounds of the pilot plant produced apple vinegar based on developed start-up and semi-continuous fermentation protocol. The operation strategy in the 500-L pilot plant scale acetator allowed achieving 7.3% (w/v) of final acetic acid concentration recording high yield and acetification rate. The aroma profile of experimentally produced vinegar was found different from that of the commercial reference one. According to the literature, the results obtained show that major volatile compounds found in pilot-plant produced apple vinegar are related to good aromatic note descriptors which could have a positive impact on the organoleptic quality of industrial vinegar. Consequently, it can be concluded that CV01 Acetobacter strain is well suited for large-scale production of high quality fruit vinegar.
, Ana M. Cañete-Rodríguez, , , Armin Ehrenreich, Wolfgang Liebl, Teresa García-Martínez,
Published: 15 February 2017
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2017.6458

Abstract:
The many uses of gluconic acid and some of its salts are arousing increasing interest in these compounds and in their production levels. Although gluconic acid and gluconates can be obtained chemically, they are currently almost exclusively biotechnologically produced, mostly by fungus based methods. There is, however, an ongoing search for alternative microorganisms to avoid the problems of using fungi for this purpose and to improve the productivity of the process. Especially promising in this respect are acetic acid bacteria, particularly Gluconobacter strains. This paper discusses the main variables and operating conditions to be considered in optimizing gluconic acid production by Gluconobacter.
, Giuseppe Corradini, Tommaso Bonciani, Jiajia Wu, Fusheng Chen, Federico Lemmetti
Published: 15 February 2017
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2017.6370

Abstract:
A lexicon for describing Chinese cereal vinegars (CCVs) was developed using trained panels of tasters that defined and referenced 23 significant olfactory descriptors, in concert with taste and trigeminal sensation. The sensory analysis was performed on 27 samples, representative of the five well-known Chinese provinces producing vinegar: Shanxi, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Fujian and Tianjin. Several aromatic descriptors define the sensory lexicon, e.g.: licorice, chocolate, meat broth, toasted, walnut, yogurt, coffee; together with five basic tastes, such as acid, sweet, salty, umami and bitter; and four for trigeminal sensations, astringent, pungent, metallic, and piquant (spicy). This preliminary study will be useful to CCVs producers because this lexicon reliably differentiates and characterizes this kind of vinegar.
Published: 25 November 2016
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2016.6067

Abstract:
Gluconic acid is a non-volatile acid that has many applications in food, pharmaceutical and cleaning fields. Gluconic acid has been detected as main oxidation product of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter strains growing on grape must, and it plays an important role in Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. Commonly, high gluconate vinegars have a greater physical stability and a greater preference by consumers because are perceived less pungent. In fact, gluconic acid reduces the pH and increases fixed acidity of the vinegar without increasing the sensation of pungency typical of acetic acid. Its taste is acid but mild sweet and, therefore, gluconic acid has influence on the sensory complexity of the vinegar. The aim of this work is to set up a fermentation procedure that improves the quality of balsamic vinegar by using selected yeasts and acetic acid bacteria strains able to oxidize glucose in grape must-based media having a different sugars concentration. In particular, Saccharomycodes ludwigii UMCC 297 and Acetobacter pasteurianus UMCC 1754 strains were chosen as selected starter cultures for small-scale fermentation of cooked grape must, to evaluate the physical-chemical parameters affecting gluconic acid production in the obtained vinegar. The strains used and the control of all production process have been fundamental for obtaining the vinegar with the desired characteristics.
Fusheng Chen,
Published: 14 September 2015
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2015.5518

Abstract:
This Book contains oral and poster presentations from the 4th International Conference on Acetic Acid Bacteria - Vinegar and other products (AAB 2015), held in Taiyuan, P. R. China, 15-19 September 2015.
, Maria Papadopoulou, Sofia Lalou, Maria Z. Tsimidou
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2015.5070

Abstract:
Contribution to the discussion of current state and future perspectives of sensory analysis of balsamic vinegars
Federico Lemmetti, , , Gabriele Zanichelli,
Published: 7 November 2014
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2014.4619

Abstract:
Quality evaluation of traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) is primarily based on sensory analysis. For every TBV batch, official sensory panels give a final score, which determines its assessment into quality and price categories. Therefore, an effective and objective sensory analysis is a core aspect in TBV production and marketing and it should fulfill at least two conditions: i) the panelists have been properly trained on the TBV features; ii) the panelists have to be free from any psychological and physical conditions which might affect human judgments. Traditionally, a panel of trained members assesses the TBV sensory attributes evaluating visual, olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal features at the same time. The result is that visual appearance significantly affects the subsequent stages of the sensory analysis, and even the olfactory and gustatory sensations will greatly affect each other. The aim of this work was to review the procedures for the sensory analysis of TBV and to define a set of TBV attributes. A new assessment questionnaire has been proposed to establish the appropriate sensory vocabulary for a complete description of TBV sensory properties.
, , Phillipe Thonart
Published: 26 February 2013
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2013.s1.e10

Abstract:
Downstream processes have great influences on bacterial starter production. Different modifications occur to cellular compounds during freeze-drying process and storage of bacterial starters. Consequently, viability and culturability (multiplication capacity) undergo some changes. In this study, the effects of freeze-drying process and storage conditions were examined on cell envelope integrity, respiration and culturability of Acetobacter senegalensis. Freezing of cells protected with mannitol (20% w/w) did not affect cell multiplication and respiration considerably; however, 19% of cells showed compromised cell envelope after freezing. After drying, 1.96×1011 CFU/g were enumerated, indicating that about 34% of the cells could survive and keep their culturability. Drying of the cells induced further leakage in cell envelope and finally 81% of cells appeared as injured ones; however, 87% of the dried cells maintained their respiration capacity. Storage temperature had significant effect on cell multiplication ability; higher storage temperature (35°C) caused 8.59-log reduction in cell culturability after nine-month period of storage. Collapse of cell envelop integrity and respiration was observed at 35°C. At lower storage temperature (4°C), the culturability decreased about one-log reduction after nine months. Cell envelope integrity was subjected to minor changes during a period of nine month-storage at 4°C whereas a heterogeneous population of cells with different respiration capacity emerged at 4°C. These results indicate that a major part of cells undergone drying process and storage entered into viable but non-culturable state. In addition, usage of different culture media didn’t improve resuscitation. Besides, it seems that sub-lethal damages to cell envelope caused uptake of propidium iodide, however these kinds of injuries could not impress cell multiplications and respiration.
, Cristina Algarra, Javier Butrón, Carlos J. Gonzalez-Navarro, Raquel Virto, Maribel Martínez
Published: 26 February 2013
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2013.s1.e5

Abstract:
This paper evaluates the use of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) technology for the discrimination of genetic differences in the 16S rRNA and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) genes among bacterial species based on its efficiency and sensitivity to enable the detection and discrimination of different genetic sequences. In order to optimize DHPLC protocols for the analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from bacteria, DNA isolated from 22 different strains representing main bacterial groups of interest in food microbiology was analyzed. While the use of 16S rRNA gene did not allow to difference two wild strains of Acetobacter malorum, this region revealed as useful to differentiate them from some pathogenic bacteria as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Clostridium perfringens or Sthapylococcus aureus, from spoilage microorganisms as Xantomonas vesicatoria and Alicyclobacillus spp., and also from lactic acid bacteria as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis that may suppose technological risk during vinegar production. The results demonstrate that 16S rRNA gene region is not adequate for the discrimination of the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) strains, so AdhA gene was selected to identify the two wild strains of Acetobacter malorum. Also 6 different reference strains of AAB were separated based on differences in AdhA gene region. DHPLC technology is able to discriminate between these two wild strains of A. malorum based on differences existing in the AdhA gene region. The data obtained indicate that the technique is capable of identifying most bacteria at species level and even at strain level with optimization of the protocols. This is of particular relevance in the case of AAB due to their poor recovery on culture media and difficulties in detection of viable but non cultivable cells.
Published: 26 February 2013
Acetic Acid Bacteria, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.4081/aab.2013.s1.e4

Abstract:
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have undergone continuous taxonomic revision, resulting in an increased number of genera and species ascribed to this group. Thus, the description of the most common AAB in grapes, must and wine has changed dramatically since the initial assessments, which were primarily based on physiological methods. In the present study, we identified the AAB isolated from different grape musts by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. We had previously performed studies from the same winery. However, in this study we now identified AAB species that have been recently described in wines, as well as others that were identified for first time in this niche. Gluconobacter cerinus, G. japonicus, G. thailandicus and G. oxydans were previously identified as G. oxydans. Kozakia baliensis was also within this group. Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. cerevisiae and A. malorum were formerly grouped as Acetobacter sp. Many isolates previously described as G. oxydans or A. aceti likely correspond to other, newly described species of the same genera.
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