Advances in Anthropology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21639353 / 21639361
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 191
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Bishnu Prasad Dahal
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 97-124; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.102007

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to explore the basic trend of dialectic in animal worshipping and sacrificing in Nepali cultural festivals; mainly worshipping and sacrificing dialectics, material and spiritual dialectics: from early date to the present day. This can never be denied that it is dialectics or contradictory approach which might be thought to be the basic tenet of its socio-scientific ameliorations. Dialectics, here, is used as to be synonymous with contradictions or debate, mainly in the behavioral pattern of people in specific culture. Dialectics is used as the gap between idea cultural beliefs and behavior of people in Hindu cultural context. From Hegalian dialectic perspective to Marxist dialectic perspective and even if Harris dialectic model of cultural materialism, it is found that Dashain and Tihar, what we are celebrating nowadays, are dialectic materialistic in nature. It has great significance ecological, economic and adaptive socio-culturally, bio-psychological, but still it is perceived as religiously. Religion provides societal glue, because it offers people meaning and purpose for their lives and it gives certain values and meanings. That’s why people believe in religion either for “hope” or by “fear”. In fact, religious rituals are practices required or expected of members of a faith. Rituals usually honor the divine power (or powers) worshipped by believers; the) also remind adherents of their religious duties and responsibilities. Both worshipping and sacrificing animals or cattle in cultural context are determined by their dialectism in it.
Ehteshami Azin, Soltaninejad Mehdi, Azin Ehteshami, Mehdi Soltaninejad
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 81-96; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.102006

Abstract:
It has been acknowledged that non-physical forms have a prominent role in the creating and maintenance of architectural heritage; therefore, it is vital to recognize these forms. Today, much attention has been focused on architectural topics such as sustainable architecture and utilizing passive energy. This has resulted in extensive developments in that field. However, the importance of concepts and values with crucial roles in representing the authenticity of a heritage should also be a matter of concern. Investigating these concepts could reveal a great deal about the vital role of non-physical form aspects of originality. Moreover, regarding the values, the subject of authenticity is the main emphasis of the global community in maintenance and restoration of historical places that can be interpreted according to different times, locations, conditions, and specifications. In order to achieve this goal, Athens Charter in 1931 started an international movement to prepare the required international documents. Subsequently, the International Center for Study, Care, and Restoration of Cultural Assets was founded by UNESCO. Later, in a statement that became known as Venice Charter, the Second International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings in 1964 determined the required solutions for restoration of historic monuments and sites. Nara Document on Authenticity (1994) introduced a widely accepted concept of the authenticity to the community of architects. The diversity and locality of values in the other charters with spiritual, cultural, social, economic, aesthetic, historical or scientific nature have also been considered (Bora 1996; St. Antonio 1996, the Charter of the architectural heritage of Europe Congress of Amsterdam 1975). On one hand, the former documents investigate the role of monitoring and controlling, and the preservation of cultural heritage’s treatment on the other hand. Some criteria are introduced in this study for both monitoring and the restoration of cultural heritage. Then, by separating qualitative and quantitative variables and weighting the criteria, the impacts of these two factors are examined for further discussion of the results.
Ricardo Alvarez Sevilla, Nelson Eduardo Alvarez Licona, María De La Luz Sevilla González
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 33-47; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101003

Abstract:
The Nahua population from the “Sierra Zongolica” in Veracruz, Mexico, has built a type of communication with a supra-human deity with capacities, which from its majesty can give, remove, help, harm, create or destroy, the Mother Earth entity to whom it’s spoken through the worship ritual known as Xochitlalli (from xochitl “flower” and tlalli “earth”). Xochitlalli is a ritual practice that involves a series of steps through which a space is sacralized to establish communication between the man and the earth goddess, and although no Xochitlalli is equal to another, all meet a series of regular events: 1) Demarcation of place and space; 2) Petition, gratitude and apologies; 3) Dialogue from prayers and to give drinks and food to Mother Earth. In this context the research question was: what is the explanatory mechanism that allows us to understand the validity of the Xochitlalli ritual practice among the Nahua communities from the Zongolica mountain range in Veracruz, Mexico? The phenomenon has been observed as a system, in which the Xochitlalli System, understood as a generative mechanism, is distinguished invariable elements that give organization and class identity to it, based on the cultural references that the Nahuas from the montauin range have. The invariable elements present in all the rituals are: to give food and, in the case of drinks, sharing them with the deity; performing the Xochitlalli, using ritual objects; and offering apologies, thanks and petitions through prayers in the Nahuatl language.
Shlomo Hareli, Gadi Katzir, Simcha Lev-Yadun
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 48-60; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101004

Abstract:
We examined the geography of top achievements in weightlifting in the Olympic Games for men (1992-2016), and women (2000-2016). Geographic origins of men are restricted to countries with a salient center around the Balkan and the Caucasus areas. This is especially evident for weightlifters in the upper body weight categories. Top achievements of women are more widely spread geographically, yet with clustering in the south-eastern part of Asia. Data on participation in the Olympic Games suggest that this unbalanced geographical spread of men is unlikely to be explained by cultural preferences but rather by specific physical adaptations. This conclusion receives further support from considering weight to height ratio of athletes winning gold medals relative to the average in the general population.
Peter Frost
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 214-234; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.103012

Abstract:
Kinship was the organizing principle of early societies, defining how people should behave toward each other. Social and economic activity was thus organized mostly among closely related individuals, a limitation that would keep societies from realizing their full potential as they grew larger. The “large society problem” has not been fully solved anywhere, but Northwest Europeans and East Asians have gone the farthest toward a solution. In general, the solution has been to weaken the relative importance of kinship and strengthen forms of sociality that can include everyone, and not just close kin. In particular, one must think and feel in certain ways, i.e., be susceptible to social norms that are absolute, universal, and independent of kinship; feel guilty after breaking social norms; feel empathy for non-kin; and orient oneself toward society. This mindset shows similarities and differences between Northwest Europeans and East Asians. Both groups adapted to a larger social environment by becoming more empathetic toward non-kin and more susceptible to universal social norms. Northwest Europeans became more individualistic while acquiring stronger internal controls of behavior (affective empathy, guilt proneness). East Asians became more collectivistic while acquiring stronger internal controls (cognitive empathy) and stronger external controls (shaming, family-community surveillance, inculcation of normative behavior).
Salen Marchesi De Almeida, Marcus Vitor Diniz De Carvalho, Maria Carolina Tavares De Lyra Menezes, Gabriela Granja Porto Petraki, Eugénia Cunha, Evelyne Pessoa Soriano
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 169-180; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.102010

Abstract:
The Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v.2 (DSP2) is an accurate tool used for estimating the sex of an individual through the os coxae. The goal of this study was to verify the applicability of the DSP2 tool in a skeletal sample from Northeastern Brazil and to attest for its precision, accuracy, and reliability. The sample was composed of 301 os coxae from the Center for Studies in Forensic Anthropology of the College of Odontology from the University of Pernambuco, in Pernambuco, Brazil. The results reveal that it was possible to correctly estimate the sex of 83.7% of the total sample. The error rate was 0.4%, and the percentage of undetermined individuals varied according to the combination of measurements used. The results demonstrated a high index of accuracy and a low error rate, indicating that DSP2 is a reliable tool for sex estimation applied to this studied Brazilian population.
Bishnu Prasad Dahal
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 147-168; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.102009

Abstract:
A cultural ecological perspective is valuable in identifying the complex relationship among ecology, culture, society, economy, demography and preference of particular gender especially male preferences. An evolutionary psychology explanation of female infanticide should take into account the role of cultural practices and ecological pressures in shaping psychological antecedents to treating differently even for own genes i.e. male preference and female neglect. In this regards, the relationship between ecology and culture is dynamic, and that macro interventions, such as building of cities, urbanization, development of highways, constructions of high dams in a physical development and advancement of socio-economic parameters associated with human development including leadership development, sustainability, sustainable use of resources, maintain equilibrium among population and resources and opportunities including empowerment of women, ultimately resulting in tightening the screw of social control of women’s sexuality. There should be maintained delicate balance between the relationship between women-men, women-women, and men-men, economically, demographically, socially, physically ecologically biologically or say culturally symbiotic in various forms as a husband or a son or a brother. From the study, it is concluded that, though society and culture are modern, heterogeneous, complex, advancing the conservative or traditional practices of son preference or discrimination based on gender are still practiced and are prevalent in our society and continue to define gender roles and practices especially among the middle-classes that found in Kathmandu. Therefore, son preference, for the middle-class women in Kathmandu, should not be understood superficially. It is a complex whole and it should be studied critically in detail.
Mitsuhiro Denda, Shinobu Nakanishi, Denda Mitsuhiro, Nakanishi Shinobu
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 17-32; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101002

Abstract:
Among terrestrial mammals, Homo sapiens has evolved a very specific anatomical feature—very little body hair—thus, the skin surface is exposed directly to the environment. We and others have demonstrated that skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes, express not only functional sensory systems for a variety of environmental responses, but also a series of neurotransmitter receptors that play key roles in information processing in the brain. Furthermore, the brain cortex is particularly large in Homo sapiens, which has a higher ratio of brain to whole-body weight than any other mammalian species. Here we propose that the evolutionary success and global spread of Homo sapiens are due at least in part to the existence and interaction of these two systems; i.e. the epidermis and brain cortex. First, we discuss the role of the epidermis as a sophisticated organ with multiple sensory inputs and information-processing capabilities, and then we consider the putative requirement for a large brain to carry out simulations and predictions based on input from multiple epidermal systems. We also present some other examples where a functionally sophisticated epidermis is associated with a large brain size. Finally, we discuss possible reasons why Homo sapiens has emerged as the sole surviving human subspecies.
Zaenal Siradjuddin, Siradjuddin Zaenal
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101001

Abstract:
In Indonesia, there are many unique settlement patterns, which reflect the customs and wisdom of indigenous tribes. The “Kaili” tribe in Central Sulawesi (To Kaili) is one of the many tribes in Indonesia who have their own principles in shaping their homes and natural environment. Some principles that become a benchmark in his life are: 1) “Hintuvu” (regulating human-human relations), 2) “Katuvua” (human-natural relationship), 3) “Pehakovia” (guardian of humans and nature or spirit). The question of his research is: How does “Pehakovia” become the foundation of spirituality to build the house and environment of the Natural “To Kaili”? This study aims to observe the role of “Pehakovia” in relation to procedures for building houses and the natural environment of To Kaili from time to time. Phenomenology methods are used to answer questions and goals. The results revealed the role of “Pekahovia” in the “To Kaili” community, ranging from the uniqueness of the settlement to the lifestyle of the “Tokaili”. Phenomenological methods are also used to measure the role of Pehakovia in planning and designing homes and the surrounding natural environment. The core role of “Pekahovia” in the life of “To Kaili” is to find a balance of life in the To Kaili community. The concept of macrocosm into the concept of a microcosm concept is reflected in the application of local wisdom strategies in the home and settlement. The process of Internalization cosmological concepts in the home and environment aims to create a sense of security and avoid the possibility of disaster. The harmonious relationship between humans and spiritual guardians (“Pehakovia”) is manifested by various traditional ceremonies that fill the lives of the “To Kaili” Society; this process shows the balance has occurred in the home and the surrounding natural environment.
Diego Santos Vieira De Jesus
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 125-146; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.102008

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to analyze the motivation of a group of Rio de Janeiro’s men to engage in gay sex tourism, as well as the reasons for a group of Brazilian and foreign male tourists to search for sex with other men in the city. Following mainly Carrier-Moisan (2015), McKercher and Bauer (2003) and Mendoza (2013, 2014), I argue that sex encounters between local men and gay tourists may involve money and perspectives of a better life for local men, especially sex workers, as well as the pleasure of the tourists. The results indicate that gay sex tourism in Rio de Janeiro also involves the negotiation and redefinition of values, stereotypes and expectations, which do not always include money. The study concludes that gay sex tourism in Rio de Janeiro may bring different types of personal involvement among the parts.
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