Advances in Anthropology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21639353 / 21639361
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 182
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Latest articles in this journal

Zaenal Siradjuddin, Siradjuddin Zaenal
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101001

Abstract:In Indonesia, there are many unique settlement patterns, which reflect the customs and wisdom of indigenous tribes. The “Kaili” tribe in Central Sulawesi (To Kaili) is one of the many tribes in Indonesia who have their own principles in shaping their homes and natural environment. Some principles that become a benchmark in his life are: 1) “Hintuvu” (regulating human-human relations), 2) “Katuvua” (human-natural relationship), 3) “Pehakovia” (guardian of humans and nature or spirit). The question of his research is: How does “Pehakovia” become the foundation of spirituality to build the house and environment of the Natural “To Kaili”? This study aims to observe the role of “Pehakovia” in relation to procedures for building houses and the natural environment of To Kaili from time to time. Phenomenology methods are used to answer questions and goals. The results revealed the role of “Pekahovia” in the “To Kaili” community, ranging from the uniqueness of the settlement to the lifestyle of the “Tokaili”. Phenomenological methods are also used to measure the role of Pehakovia in planning and designing homes and the surrounding natural environment. The core role of “Pekahovia” in the life of “To Kaili” is to find a balance of life in the To Kaili community. The concept of macrocosm into the concept of a microcosm concept is reflected in the application of local wisdom strategies in the home and settlement. The process of Internalization cosmological concepts in the home and environment aims to create a sense of security and avoid the possibility of disaster. The harmonious relationship between humans and spiritual guardians (“Pehakovia”) is manifested by various traditional ceremonies that fill the lives of the “To Kaili” Society; this process shows the balance has occurred in the home and the surrounding natural environment.
Shlomo Hareli, Gadi Katzir, Simcha Lev-Yadun
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 48-60; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101004

Abstract:We examined the geography of top achievements in weightlifting in the Olympic Games for men (1992-2016), and women (2000-2016). Geographic origins of men are restricted to countries with a salient center around the Balkan and the Caucasus areas. This is especially evident for weightlifters in the upper body weight categories. Top achievements of women are more widely spread geographically, yet with clustering in the south-eastern part of Asia. Data on participation in the Olympic Games suggest that this unbalanced geographical spread of men is unlikely to be explained by cultural preferences but rather by specific physical adaptations. This conclusion receives further support from considering weight to height ratio of athletes winning gold medals relative to the average in the general population.
Ricardo Alvarez Sevilla, Nelson Eduardo Alvarez Licona, María De La Luz Sevilla González
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 33-47; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101003

Abstract:The Nahua population from the “Sierra Zongolica” in Veracruz, Mexico, has built a type of communication with a supra-human deity with capacities, which from its majesty can give, remove, help, harm, create or destroy, the Mother Earth entity to whom it’s spoken through the worship ritual known as Xochitlalli (from xochitl “flower” and tlalli “earth”). Xochitlalli is a ritual practice that involves a series of steps through which a space is sacralized to establish communication between the man and the earth goddess, and although no Xochitlalli is equal to another, all meet a series of regular events: 1) Demarcation of place and space; 2) Petition, gratitude and apologies; 3) Dialogue from prayers and to give drinks and food to Mother Earth. In this context the research question was: what is the explanatory mechanism that allows us to understand the validity of the Xochitlalli ritual practice among the Nahua communities from the Zongolica mountain range in Veracruz, Mexico? The phenomenon has been observed as a system, in which the Xochitlalli System, understood as a generative mechanism, is distinguished invariable elements that give organization and class identity to it, based on the cultural references that the Nahuas from the montauin range have. The invariable elements present in all the rituals are: to give food and, in the case of drinks, sharing them with the deity; performing the Xochitlalli, using ritual objects; and offering apologies, thanks and petitions through prayers in the Nahuatl language.
Mitsuhiro Denda, Shinobu Nakanishi, Denda Mitsuhiro, Nakanishi Shinobu
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 10, pp 17-32; doi:10.4236/aa.2020.101002

Abstract:Among terrestrial mammals, Homo sapiens has evolved a very specific anatomical feature—very little body hair—thus, the skin surface is exposed directly to the environment. We and others have demonstrated that skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes, express not only functional sensory systems for a variety of environmental responses, but also a series of neurotransmitter receptors that play key roles in information processing in the brain. Furthermore, the brain cortex is particularly large in Homo sapiens, which has a higher ratio of brain to whole-body weight than any other mammalian species. Here we propose that the evolutionary success and global spread of Homo sapiens are due at least in part to the existence and interaction of these two systems; i.e. the epidermis and brain cortex. First, we discuss the role of the epidermis as a sophisticated organ with multiple sensory inputs and information-processing capabilities, and then we consider the putative requirement for a large brain to carry out simulations and predictions based on input from multiple epidermal systems. We also present some other examples where a functionally sophisticated epidermis is associated with a large brain size. Finally, we discuss possible reasons why Homo sapiens has emerged as the sole surviving human subspecies.
Rachel Sharaby
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 9, pp 169-189; doi:10.4236/aa.2019.94012

Abstract:Incest was and is a universal taboo in human society. It is stigmatized as a deviation and leads to sanctions, in particular when minors are involved. Oral and written stories and narratives are stories that interpret and shape reality through the prism of power relations in society. In the present study, I carried out narrative analysis of incest stories in Hebrew Bible texts, those primordial stories and myths that shaped human society today. The article shows that incest was taboo from the onset, and is one of the seven Noahide laws. However, the social order was undermined already after the story of Creation: consanguineous marriages; sexual relations between a son and his stepmother, between a father and his daughters, and between a father and his daughter-in-law. The analysis shows that the brevity and ambiguity that characterize the Hebrew Bible “invited” interpretations and legends which biblical sages wrote over the generations. As a result, the text became part of a dynamic unit that forms new creations out of dialogue with the Book. Furthermore, the text is expropriated from the time axis and also serves as a relevant cultural work today. The feminist interpretation that attributes an important position to the reader enables reading that serves the feminist ideology and turns attention to subversive possibilities.
Terkula Kpela, Barnabas Danborno, Sunday Samuel Adebisi
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 9, pp 103-110; doi:10.4236/aa.2019.92008

Abstract:Nasalanthropometry measures nasal parameters for ethnic morphological nasal classification and categorization. This study was carried out to determine the nasal index in the target population and compare it in both sexes and with the result of other similar studies. The sample consisted of 600 youths aged 18 - 32 years. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire to establish ethnic background. Nasal length and nasal breadth were measured using vernier calipers and the nasal index calculated according to standard formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS for windows version 20 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA). Statistical significance was considered at p ≤ 0.05. The mean nasal length of Tiv was 4.4 ± 0.63 cm and the mean nasal breadth was 4.2 ± 0.59 cm. The mean nasal length of Idoma was 4.3 ± 0.67 cm and the mean nasal breadth was 3.9 ± 0.61 cm. There was a statistically significant mean difference in nasal breadth between the two ethnic groups (p = 0.001) with higher mean value in Tiv relative to Idoma. Both ethnic groups exhibited sexual dimorphism of nasal length, nasal breadth and nasal index with males having significantly higher mean values than females (p Tiv was 95.7 ± 10.97 while that of Idoma was 92.3 ± 11.03. Based on nasal index, it was concluded that the nose type in the two ethnic groups was platyrrhine.
RamanDeep Bawa, Anil Kishore Sinha, Rita Kant, Bawa Ramandeep, Kishore Sinha Anil, Kant Rita
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 9, pp 125-150; doi:10.4236/aa.2019.93010

Abstract:Malls are attracting the young shoppers and mall culture is new to the society. Mall retailers are making efforts to satisfy the young consumers. However, the younger segment is growing in terms of population and wealth. It has become increasingly important and necessary to understand and meet their demands. The study employed 160 in-depth interviews to understand the young consumers’ mall experiences. Overall, the respondents in the study have favourable perception of the mall in terms of convenience, variety offered by malls, awareness of brands, aesthetics and hedonic factors. The researcher found eight elements that are important for young consumers to form impression of the shopping malls: convenience, choice, awareness, crowded/congested, ambience, parking, hedonic shopping and mall culture. Further the respondent studied the total number of hours on shopping, preference of shopping day and shopping time by young consumers. It was found that maximum number that respondents spend is up to 3 hrs on shopping, however weekends were preferred in comparison to weekdays. Maximum respondents preferred shopping at any suitable timing. The researcher also investigated specific mall attributes. Respondents also suggested that various attributes are considered important by the respondents. They highlighted various attributes—sitting arrangement, water dispensers, E-mapping, plain ramps, book browsing section and further expressed their concern regarding parking, security and customer service. The results can help mall retailers in capitalizing the consumers by meeting their needs.
Ali Sadraei, Mehdi Fallah Mehneh, Mohammad Sheikh, Bahram Anani, Zahra Hedayati Minaei
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 9, pp 111-123; doi:10.4236/aa.2019.92009

Abstract:The eastern part of Iran, especially Khorasan, has remained in a completely unclear and vague state in spite of the fact that Paleolithic studies have been the pioneer of archeological research. In the meanwhile, the condition of the lower Paleolithic period is wretchedly worse, so that the only evidence of this period is that obtained of two widely-cited sites, namely Kashfroud and Daroungar River (Artian); while in other parts of Khorasan no evidence indicating the presence of Pleistocene hominin populations has been published to this date, which is largely questionable and requires a revise on the archaeology of the Paleolithic era in this part of Iran. Kaftar Kkouh site of Ferdous is among the latest Paleolithic evidence found in southern Khorasan, located in the southeastern part of Ferdous, 2 km from the city of Ferdous, on the hills overlooking Ferdous Plain. From among the Lithic artifact obtained from these two sites, Bifacial chopper-core, Unifacial chopper-core, radial cores, crude flakes, and Levallois that according to the knapping type and technique used are likely to be attributed to the late lower Paleolithic era and the early Middle Paleolithic period. In the present paper, the authors seek to provide a relative chronology for these devices in addition to their morphology, and compare them with the surrounding Paleolithic sites such as Kashfroud, Daroungar, etc.
Xiao Han, Yinhe Wang, Wenjin Yan, Jin Dai, Qing Jiang
Advances in Anthropology, Volume 9, pp 95-102; doi:10.4236/aa.2019.91007

Abstract:Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH; MIM 177170) is a rare disease which was characterized by disproportionate short stature, deformity of the lower limbs, brachydactyly, loose joints, and ligamentous laxity. It is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia presented in childhood, and usually resolved with age, but osteoarthritis is progressive and severe. Genetic testing using the whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing was performed for the patients, a 30-year-old woman and her affected son, who is only 8 years old. A heterozygous mutationin exon 15 of COMP (c.1675G > A, p.Glu559Lys, NM 000095.2) was identified. The Polyphen-2 predicted that the mutation may damage the COMP protein function. This study suggested that the heterozygous mutations in COMP were responsible for PSACH and demonstrated the genotype-phenotype relationship between mutations in COMP and clinical characteristics of PSACH.