IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2089-4856 / 2089-4856
Total articles ≅ 306
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Latest articles in this journal

Xiem Hoang Van, Nam Do
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp111-121

Machine vision or robot vision plays is playing an important role in many industrial systems and has a lot of potential applications in the future of automation tasks such as in-house robot managing, swarm robotics controlling, product line observing, and robot grasping. One of the most common yet challenging tasks in machine vision is 3D object localization. Although several works have been introduced and achieved good results for object localization, there is still room to further improve the object location determination. In this paper, we introduce a novel 3D object localization algorithm in which a checkerboard pattern-based method is used to initialize the object location and followed by a regression model to regularize the object location. The proposed object localization is employed in a low-cost robot grasping system where only one simple 2D camera is used. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of the object localization when compared to the relevant works.
, Karen Lizbeth Flores-Rodrıguez, , , Erick Alejandro Gonzalez-Barbosa, Juan B. Hurtado-Ramos
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp89-110

Despite autonomous navigation is one of the most proliferate applications of three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and imagery both techniques can potentially have many other applications. This work explores urban digitization tools applied to 3D geometry to perform urban tasks. We focus exclusively on compiling scientific research that merges mobile laser scanning (MLS) and imagery from vision systems. The major contribution of this review is to show the evolution of MLS combined with imagery in urban applications. We review systems used by public and private organizations to handle urban tasks such as historic preservation, roadside assistance, road infrastructure inventory, and public space study. The work pinpoints the potential and accuracy of data acquisition systems to handled both 3D point clouds and imagery data. We highlight potential future work regarding the detection of urban environment elements and to solve urban problems. This article concludes by discussing the major constraints and struggles of current systems that use MLS combined with imagery to perform urban tasks and to solve urban tasks.
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp132-140

This paper presents a new two-limb parallel Schonflies-motion generator, which adopts a pair of alternative spatial modules equivalent to the parallelogram structure. This modular architecture can ensure the enhanced stiffness of the manipulator normal to the motion of the planar parallelogram structure due to the trapezoidal architecture. The preliminary kinematic problems, namely, the mobility, forward/inverse geometry and singularity, are studied as well as the kinematic isotropy. A neutral isotropic configuration of the robot is identified for the structural design of the link lengths.
Ajayi Oluwaseun Kayode, Balogun Daud Ishola, , Adeyi Abiola John
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp122-131

Automation of agricultural and horticultural operations keeps received great attention for over a decade. The control parameters adopted depend on the location and characteristics of likely obstacles and navigation requirements. An automated lawnmower (ALM) with fuzzy logic control is presented in this study. Fuzzy logic was chosen to improve a previous work which was controlled via Bluetooth. Three ultrasonic sensors and two proximity sensors served as the eyes of the ALM for navigation and obstacle avoidance while the cutting blade was made of stainless steel and controlled by a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. A fuzzy algorithm was implemented on an Arduino controller with the inputs and outputs as directional instructions. Obstacle avoidance was achieved by setting a range of values for the sensors interpreted by the fuzzy logic for the corresponding output in the form of navigations. Three trials tests were conducted on the ALM on a 5 m2 portion of land with an average grass height of 0.09 m. The average cut area was 4.46 m2, therefore achieving an efficiency of 89.2%, which is highly productive. It was observed that the power consumption was minimal compared to the previous design because at the end of the three trials 46% of the battery was left after over 3 hours of operation.
Ankit Dixit, Vikash Kumar
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp161-167

Additive manufacturing more commonly known as 3D printing has been in the limelight of manufacturing research for a long. Many advances have been made in the past in elementary printing techniques, materials, and post-processing schemes. In this paper, a concept of a miniature pellet extruder is added at the end of the articulated robotic arm. The idea is to create a system that capable to print larger and more complex shapes of any parts with the help of a low payload capacity robotic arm and provide output as a single-piece structure. It also helps to print and handle objects with larger and more complex geometry with an optimized cycle time. Knowledge from this research work will also help to choose not only the right low payload capacity robotic arm, but also provides a logical approach for selecting a pellet extruder over a filament extruder.
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp168-180

This work suggests an optimized improved power rate sliding mode control (PRSMC) to control a 4-degrees of freedom (DOF) manipulator in joint space as well as workspace. The proposed sliding mode control (SMC) aims to improve the reaching mode and to employ an optimization method to tune the control parameters that operate the robotic manipulator adaptively. Inverse kinematics is used to obtain the joint desired angles from the end effector desired position, while forward kinematics is used to obtain the real Cartesian position and orientation of the end effector from the real joint angles. The proposed enhancements to the SMC involve the use of the hyperbolic tangent function in the control law to improve the reaching mode. Added to that, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of the improved SMC. Furthermore, the Lyapunov function is utilized to analyze the stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed enhanced sliding mode combined with the optimization method is applied experimentally on a 4-DOF manipulator to prove the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed controller. Finally, the performance of the suggested control scheme is compared with the conventional power rate SMC in order to demonstrate the enhanced performance of the suggested method.
Hans Paolo S. Alarde, Kiara Jenvy C. Bartolabac, Dharel P. Acut, Jas Felicisimo A. Cane, Joy R. Magsayo
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i2.pp141-160

Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising, and microalgae have been a primary focus for alleviating the negative impacts of increasing CO2 levels. CO2 sequestration is influenced by pH level, temperature, light, nutrient levels, and aeration. This study adapted a 2-chamber system with a 6-Liter vertical-column photobioreactor. It was constructed to remove CO2 from the air using microalgae. Arduino sensors, namely temperature, pH, and CO2 gas, were incorporated to monitor microalgal growth. Two 7-day trials, with an initial algae mass of 15 g, were implemented to investigate the growth and CO2 removal rates. The results showed that trial 1 yielded 21.5 g with a growth rate of 0.56 gxin-2 x day-1, and trial 2, a final sample of 19.7 g with a growth rate of 0.51 gxin-2 x day-1. The CO2 removal rate for trial 1 increased from 10.17% to 22.04%. However, the CO2 removal rate for trial 2 decreased from 15.66% to 3.55%. In terms of relative percent error, the Arduino sensors' accuracy was also determined to be low, ranging from 0.85 to 1.94. With accurate readings, the findings show that the CO2 removal efficiency rate and algae growth rate are directly proportional to each other.
Aswant Kumar Sharma, Dhanesh Kumar Sambariya
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i1.pp43-61

The balancing and control of bycycorobot is a challenging task. The pre - specified controller available in the literature for balancing has been reduced with novel optimization to improve the effectiveness of balancing, uncertainty, and the complexity of the complete system. The novel Harris hawk optimization (HHO) which is based on the hunting behavior of the h awk has been utilized to improve the balancing of the bycycorobot. The paper proposes the decreased order controller of a pre - specified controller for a bycycorobot. The obtained controller response with bycycorobot in the complete closed loop is analyzed, and the best performance is compared with the reduced order controller available in the literature. The comparison is based on the response indices and response characteristics.
Abdelhakim Deboucha
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i1.pp62-69

Exoskeleton robotic device (ERD) for rehabilitation purposes, physically interacts alongside with the user where high cognitive interaction and the safe human - machine system is required. To ensure safe interaction, there is a need to detect the user’s motion intention. One of the bio-signals that have been found to reflect directly the individual’s motion intention is surface electromyography (sEMG). However, sEMG signals are inevitably full of noises, not to mention the unwanted recordings and other artifact s between muscles where they cannot be freely used as a control signal for ERD. This paper presents the use of the Butterworth filter for noise suppression and the attenuation of unwanted recordings. Using classical Butterworth filter typically is unable to eliminate or attenuate the unwanted contamination on the signal of interest to its baseline level. Therefore, it is critical to modify the Butterworth filter at this stage. sEMG signals from the biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles of seven health y male young adults were recorded in this study. The onset/ offset technique is utilized to detect the presence of the additional signal contaminated on the signal of interest. If the onset/offset index points are not approximately correlated with the movement, this means there is a contaminated measurement on the signal of interest. At this interval, a filter with distributed cutoff frequency plays the role to have the already smoothed baseline signal. In summary, the modified Butterworth filter shows to have a good performance to suppress the noises and to attenuate the unwanted recordings adaptively which ensures a safe human-machine system.
Shinsuke Oh-Hara, Kaoru Saito, Atsushi Fujimori
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v11i1.pp33-42

In this paper, we present a method of person following control for a mobile robot using visual information. Color information is often used for object tracking. Color information of objects varies greatly under illumination changing environment. In such conditions , the robot controlled by visu al information may lose sight of a person. In this paper, we consider a robust person following method by color invariance and image - based control. Color invariance show s robust features of colored objects in terms of changing illumination conditions . At f irst, we estimate the lowest positions of both feet of a tracked person through particle filters based on color invariances . Then, we control the velocity of the robot to track the person by using the image - based controller. Experimental results using a n a ctual robot demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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