Brain Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 0006-8993 / 1872-6240
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
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Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(21)00343-7

Xiaqing Guo, Yabo Wang, Donglin Zheng, Xiangshu Cheng,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147436

Abstract:
Ischemic stroke (IS) accounts for 80% of stroke incidence, which has an impact on the life quality of patients. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA), a class of non-coding transcripts greater than 200 nucleotidesin length, has been extensively studied in cerebrovascular diseases. Myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT) is highly expressed in nervous system. Therefore this study aims to explore the role of LncRNA MIAT in IS and to clarify its underlying mechanism, providing therapeutic value for the treatment of IS. The neurological function of rats was evaluated by neurological deficit score. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to detect infarct area in brain tissues. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression of MIAT. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of REDD1, p-mTOR, autophagy-related proteins LC3 and p62, and apoptotic-related proteins Bax, cleaved-caspase3, Bcl-2. Flow cytometry was applied to examine neuronal cell apoptosis. RNA pull-down and RIP assay was used to verify the binding of MIAT and REDD1. The level of REDD1 ubiquitination was detected by ubiquitination and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay. The expressions of MIAT and REDD1 were increased in IS rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced PC12 cell injury. After interference with si-MIAT, the results of flow cytometry showed that the rate of apoptosis was reduced. Western blotting results showed that the expression of LC3II/LC3I, Bax, and cleaved-caspase3 was decreased, while the expression of p-mTOR, p62, and Bcl-2 was increased. RNA pull-down and RIP assay found the binding relationship between MIAT and REDD1, and interference with si-MIAT down-regulated the expression of REDD1. The level of REDD1 ubiquitination was increased and the expression of REDD1 was decreased after interference with si-MIAT in PC12 cells. Co-IP results showed that interference with si-MIAT enhanced the binding ability of CUL4A-DDB1 and REDD1. Altogether, MIAT promotes autophagy and apoptosis of neural cells and aggravates IS by up-regulating the expression of REDD1.
Sichao Guo, Eric Cosky, Fengwu Li, Longfei Guan, Yu Ji, Wenjing Wei, Changya Peng, ,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147463

Abstract:
After ischemic stroke, the increased catabolism of glucose (hyperglycolysis) results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX). A depressive or hibernation-like effect of C + P on brain activity was reported to induce neuroprotection. The current study assesses the effect of C + P on hyperglycolysis and NOX activation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 6 or 24 h of reperfusion. At the onset of reperfusion, rats received C + P with or without temperature control, or phloretin [glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 inhibitor], or cytochalasin B (GLUT-3 inhibitor). We detected brain ROS, apoptotic cell death, and ATP levels along with HIF-1α expression. Cerebral hyperglycolysis was measured by glucose, protein expression of GLUT-1/3, and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), as well as lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at 6 and 24 h of reperfusion. The enzymatic activity of NOX and protein expression of its subunits (gp91phox) were detected. Neural SHSY5Y cells were placed under 2 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation for 6 and 24 h with C + P treatment. Cell viability and protein levels of HIF-1α, GLUT-1/3, PFK-1, LDH, and gp91phox were measured. A HIF-1α overexpression vector was transfected into the cells, and then protein levels of HIF-1α, GLUT-1/3, PFK-1, and LDH were quantitated. In sham-operated rats and control cells, the protein levels of HIF-1α, GLUT-1/3, PFK-1, LDH, and gp91phox were measured at 6 and 24 h after C + P administration. C + P reduced the protein elevations after stroke in HIF-1α, glycolytic enzymes, as well as in ROS, cell death, glucose and lactate, but raised ATP levels in the brain. In ischemic rats exposed to GLUT-1/3 inhibitors, ROS, cell death, glucose, and lactate were all decreased, as well as GLUT-1, GLUT-3, LDH, and PFK-1 protein levels. C + P decreased ischemia-induced NOX activation by reducing the enzymatic activity and protein expression of the NOX subunit gp91phox, as was observed in the presence of GLUT-1/3 inhibitors. These markers were significantly decreased following C + P administration with the induced hypothermia, while C + P administration with temperature control at 37 °C induced lesser protection after ischemia stroke. In the OGD/reoxygenation model, C + P treatment increased cell viability and diminished protein levels of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, GLUT-3, PFK-1, LDH, and gp91phox. However, in OGD with HIF-1α overexpression, C + P was unable to effectively reduce the upregulated GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and LDH. In normal conditions, C + P reduced HIF-1α and the levels of key glycolytic enzymes depending on its pharmacological effect. C + P, partially depending on hypothermia, attenuates hyperglycolysis and NOX activation through HIF-1α regulation.
Pearl A. Sutter, Megan E. Rouillard, Sarah A. Alshawi,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147462

Abstract:
Astrocytic injury responses are known to be influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Astrocytes are also recognized as a source of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can impact the activity and function of other astrocytes and cell types. Whether the ECM influences the function of astrocytic EVs in the context of wound recovery has not been previously studied. We report EVs from astrocytes cultured on varied ECM substrates are sufficient to elicit distinct injury responses in naive astrocytes that recapitulate the effects of the ECM of origin. When compared with wound recovery on control substrates, EVs from ECM-exposed astrocytes elicited accelerated rates of wound recovery that varied based on each ECM. When EVs were collected from IL-1β treated and ECM-exposed astrocyte cultures, we found that IL-1β arrested wound recovery in naive astrocytes treated with EVs from astrocytes cultured on ECM but adding EVs from IL-1β treated Tenascin-c-cultured astrocytes increased wound recovery. To confirm that ECM was a primary influence on these astrocytic EV functions, we tested the contribution of β1-integrin, a major integrin receptor for the ECM molecules tested in this study. We found that the β1-integrin inhibitor Ha2/5, resulted in EVs that significantly attenuated the wound recovery of naive astrocytes. This provides new information on the importance of culture substrates on astrocytic responses, EV functions and injury responses that may impact the understanding of astroglial responses related to ECM compositional differences in diverse physiological states.
, , Zuri A. Tomeldan, , Bart Rypma
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147431

Abstract:
Aging entails a multifaceted complex of changes in macro- and micro-structural properties of human brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissues, as well as in intellectual abilities. To better capture tissue-specific brain aging, we combined volume and distribution properties of diffusivity indices to derive subject-specific age scores for each tissue. We compared age-related variance between younger and older adults for GM and WM age scores, and tested whether tissue-specific age scores could explain different effects of aging on fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence in younger and older adults. Chronological age was strongly associated with GM (R2 = 0.73) and WM (R2 = 0.57) age scores. The GM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in younger relative to older adults (p < 0.001), whereas the WM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in older compared to younger adults (p < 0.025). Consistent with existing literature, younger adults outperformed older adults in Gf while older adults outperformed younger adults in Gc. The GM age score was negatively associated with Gf in younger adults (p < 0.02), whereas the WM age score was negatively associated with Gc in older adults (p < 0.02). Our results provide evidence for differences in the effects of age on GM and WM in younger versus older adults that may contribute to age-related differences in Gf and Gc.
Ni Ye, Jennifer Cruz, Xiaoyan Peng, Jinyun Ma, Aiming Zhang,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147459

Abstract:
Demyelination is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Promoting remyelination is an important strategy to treat MS. Our previous study showed that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), the main bioactive component of Astragalus membranaceus, could prevent demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. To investigate the effects of APS on remyelination and the underlying mechanisms, in this study we set up a cuprizone-induced demyelination model in mice and treated them with APS. It was found that APS relieved the neurobehavioral dysfunctions caused by demyelination, and efficaciously facilitated remyelination in vivo. In order to determine whether the mechanism of enhancing remyelination was associated with the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs), biomarkers of NSCs, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons were measured in the corpus callosum tissues of mice through Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Data revealed that APS suppressed the stemness of NSCs, reduced the differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes, and promoted the differentiation into oligodendrocytes and neurons. This phenomenon was confirmed in the differentiation model of C17.2 NSCs cultured in vitro. Since Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway has been proven to be crucial to the differentiation of NSCs into oligodendrocytes, we examined expression levels of the key molecules in this pathway in vivo and in vitro, and eventually found APS activated this signaling pathway. Together, our results demonstrated that APS probably activated Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway first, then induced NSCs to differentiate into oligodendrocytes and promoted remyelination, which suggested that APS might be a potential candidate in treating MS.
Yu Izumisawa, Kenji Ito, Keisuke Sugita, Tazuyo Arai, Hina Kokudo, Naoki Kitamura,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147451

Abstract:
Neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) sense both neurotransmitters and circulating humoral factors such as angiotensin II (AII) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and regulate multiple physiological functions including drinking behavior. We recently reported that AII at nanomolar concentrations induced a persistent [Ca2+]i increase in acutely dissociated SFO neurons and that this effect of AII was reversibly inhibited by GABA. In the present study, we studied the inhibitory mechanism of GABA using Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The AII-induced persistent [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by GABA in more than 90% of AII-responsive neurons and by other two SFO inhibitory ligands, ANP and galanin, in about 60 and 30% of neurons respectively. The inhibition by GABA was mimicked by the GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. The involvement of both GABA receptor subtypes was confirmed by reversal of the GABA-mediated inhibition only when the GABAA and GABAB receptors antagonists bicuculline methiodide and CGP55845 were both present. The GABAB agonist baclofen rapidly and reversibly inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) currents recorded in response to depolarizing pulses in voltage-clamp electrophysiology using Ba2+ as a charge carrier (IBa). Baclofen inhibition of IBa was antagonized by CGP55845, confirming GABAB receptor involvement; was reduced by N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting downstream Gi-mediated actions; and was partially removed by a large prepulse, indicating voltage-dependency. The magnitude of IBa inhibition by baclofen was reduced by the application of selective blockers for N-, P/Q-, and L-type VGCCs (ω-conotoxin GVIA, ω-agatoxin IVA, and nifedipine respectively). Overall, our study indicates that GABA inhibition of the AII-induced [Ca2+]i increase is mediated by both GABAA and GABAB receptors, and that GABAB receptors associated with Gi proteins suppress Ca2+ entry through VGCCs in SFO neurons.
Kiera T. Blawn, Kathryn L. Kellohen, Emily A. Galloway, Jared Wahl, Anjali Vivek, Vani G. Verkhovsky, , Karissa E. Cottier, Tissiana G. Vallecillo, , et al.
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147448

Abstract:
Sex hormones have been implicated in pH regulation of numerous physiological systems. One consistent factor of these studies is the sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1). NHE1 has been associated with pH homeostasis at epithelial barriers. Hormone fluctuations have been implicated in protection and risk for breaches in blood brain barrier (BBB)/blood endothelial barrier (BEB) integrity. Few studies, however, have investigated BBB/BEB integrity in neurological disorders in the context of sex-hormone regulation of pH homeostasis. Physiologically relevant concentrations of 17-β-estradiol (E2, 294 pM), progesterone (P, 100 nM), and testosterone (T,3.12 nM) were independently applied to cultured immortalized bEnd.3 brain endothelial cells to study the BEB. Individual gonadal hormones showed preferential effects on extracellular pH (E2), 14C-sucrose uptake (T), stimulated paracellular breaches (P) with dependence on functional NHE1 expression without impacting transendothelial resistance (TEER) or total protein expression. While total NHE1 expression was not changed as determined via whole cell lysate and subcellular fractionation experiment, biotinylation of NHE1 for surface membrane expression showed E2 reduced functional expression. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed divergent effects of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone on changes in protein abundance in bEnd.3 endothelial cells as compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that circulating levels of sex hormones may independently control BEB integrity by 1) regulating pH homeostasis through NHE1 functional expression and 2) modifying the endothelial proteome.
Kenza Roosen, Miriam Scheld, Mariya Mandzhalova, Tim Clarner, Cordian Beyer,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147446

Abstract:
The activation of the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is implicated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and mobilization of bone marrow stem cells into the injured site. We have shown in a previous study that intrathecal administration of CXCL12 reduces spinal cord tissue damage and neuroinflammation and provides functional improvement by reducing inflammasome activity and local inflammatory processes in an experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) rat model. Here, we aimed at investigating whether these neuroprotective effects rely on the control of CXCL12 signaling on microglial activation as microglia cells are known to be the primary immune cells of the brain. LPS induced the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3, NLRC4 and ASC, the secretion of the cytokines IL-1b and IL-18 and the activation of caspase-1 protease in BV2 cells. Pre-treatment with CXCL12 significantly reduced LPS-induced IL-1b/IL-18 secretion and inflammasome induction. Our results also showed that CXCL12 can suppress caspase-1 activity, which leads to a decrease of SCI-related induction of active IL-1b.
Lu Wang, XiaoPei Xu, Kui Kai Lau, Leonard S.W. Li, Yuen Kwun Wong, Christina Yau, Henry K.F. Mak,
Published: 15 July 2021
Brain Research, Volume 1763; doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147441

Abstract:
Studies have shown the brain’s rich-club organization may underpin brain function and be associated with various brain disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between poststroke brain functions and functional recovery versus the rich-club organization of the structural brain network of patients after first-time acute ischemic stroke. A cohort of 16 acute ischemic stroke patients (11 males) was recruited. Structural brain networks were measured using diffusion tensor imaging within 1 week and at 1, 3 and 6 months after stroke. Motor impairment was assessed using the Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer motor scale and activities of daily living using the Barthel Index at the same time points as MRI. The rich-club regions that were stable over the course of stroke recovery included the bilateral dorsolateral superior frontal gyri, right supplementary motor area, and left median cingulate and paracingulate gyri. The network properties that correlated with poststroke brain functions were mainly the ratio between communication cost ratio and density ratio of rich-club, feeder and local connections. The recovery of both motor functions and activities of daily living were correlated with higher normalized rich club coefficients and a shorter length of local connections within a week after stroke. The communication cost ratio of feeder connections, the length of rich-club and local connections, and normalized rich club coefficients were found to be potential prognostic indicators of stroke recovery. Our results provide additional support to the notion that different types of network connections play different roles in brain functions as well as functional recovery.
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