Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2155-9600 / 2155-9600
Published by: OMICS Publishing Group (10.4172)
Total articles ≅ 846
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Yochai Levy, Ronit Anbar, Avraham Weiss, Tamar Koren Hakim, Yulia Bugaevsky, Adaya Nissenholtz, Lisa Cooper, Zecharia Madar, Pierre Singer, Yichayaou Beloosesky
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000747

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Background: Adipokines such as ghrelin, leptin, resistin and adiponectin have been proposed as being involved in energetic balance and bone turnover. There is scarce knowledge as to adipokine activity in hip fractured elderly patients in acute settings. We evaluated whether active nutritional support may reflect on adipokines levels and affect outcomes.Methods: A randomized controlled study measuring adipokine (ghrelin, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) levels in hip fractured geriatric patients receiving active nutritional support was conducted in the Ortho-Geriatric Unit Rabin Medical Center, Israel. The intervention group’s energy goal was calculated by repeated resting energy requirements whereas the control group received only standard nutritional support. Measurements were taken pre-operation, 48 h post-operative and on day 7 post-op.Results: Ghrelin and adiponectin levels showed significant changes in both study groups with no significant change between groups. Ghrelin levels were also significantly higher on day 7 in patients without complications (p=0.035). Leptin levels differed between groups (p=0.038). In the intervention group, leptin levels decreased initially, then sharply increased, whereas the control group’s levels consistently decreased in all 3 measurements. Resistin levels did not change significantly over time.Conclusion: Ghrelin and adiponectin may play a role in hip fractured patients irrespective of nutritional status whereas, ghrelin levels may also indicate post-operative complications. Leptin may be affected by energetic balance.
Jean-Marie Poffe
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600-c1-089

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, Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh, Norhayati Mustafa Khalid, Rusidah Selamat, Aswir Abd Rashed
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000746

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Background: The major strategy for prevention and treatment of diet-related disease is lifestyle modification, including controlled diet and physical activities. Since bread had been listed as one of the top ten foods consumed by Malaysian, the information of nutrient content in buns is needed for consumer to be aware of the nutrient intake from their food choices. The main objective of this study is to determine the nutritional composition of varieties of sweet buns sold in Malaysia.Method: A total of three to six brands from each type of bun (chocolate, coconut, kaya, potato and red bean) were sampled from local supermarkets in the Klang Valley, Malaysia using stratified sampling. The proximate composition, minerals, vitamins C, fatty acids, trans fatty acids and cholesterol were analysed using standard methods with the application of internal quality controls.Results: Carbohydrate was the major macronutrient in commercial buns ranging from 46.93 ± 3.72 to 54.73 ± 2.46 g/100 g. The highest protein content was found in the potato bun (9.15 ± 0.56 g/100 g) and the lowest protein content was in the kaya bun (7.13 ± 0.32 g/100 g). Fat content was in the range of 2.90 ± 1.37 to 8.98 ± 1.61 g/100 g. Major minerals content detected in buns were sodium, followed by potassium and calcium. Chocolate buns showed higher content of vitamin C (p<0.05) compared to kaya bun. Trans fatty acids were at trace level in all buns.Conclusion: These findings indicate that Malaysian commercial buns are good source of carbohydrates and with negligible level of trans fatty acids.
Chiara Sironi, , Luciano Zocchi, Cristina Porta
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000745

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The protective effect of creatine supplementation on the jejunal epithelium of rats under conditions of oxidative stress induced by chronic acidosis was investigated. In particular, we measured the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase), the level of lipid peroxidation, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP70), and the expression of the major carriers of the cells (Na+/K+-ATPase, SGLT1 and GLUT2) in control and chronic acidosis conditions. Creatine did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes, nor in control, neither in acidosis, except for catalase, which activity was reduced in both conditions. Creatine did not change the level of lipid peroxidation and the expression of HSP70. Finally, creatine stimulated the expression of (Na+/K+)-ATPase both in control and in chronic acidosis. Chronic acidosis caused a reduction in the expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1. GLUT2 reduction was abolished by creatine, while the presence of creatine did not induce any strengthening effect on the expression of SGLT1, neither in control nor in chronic acidosis. These results indicate that creatine has antioxidant properties that would be realized through direct interaction of the molecule with reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the administration of creatine seems to determine a functional strengthening of the tissue making the tissue more resistant to acidosis.
Jyoti D Vora
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600-c2-092

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Khalid Nm, Faridus N, Razak L. Abd, Sukardi Na, Rashed Aa, Selamat R, Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.35248/2155-9600.19.9.764

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Background: Iodine is an essential mineral that is important for human nutrition. Iodine content was determined in 138 Malaysian food samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Method: The samples include 31 cereal products, 9 starchy root and tuber products, 4 legume products, 11 nut and seed products, 4 vegetables, 5 fruits, 22 sugar and syrup products, 3 meat products, 3 eggs, 7 fishes, 14 milk products, 11 oil and fat products, 1 beverage and 13 other food products. Up to six different brands were sampled from local supermarkets in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Results: The results showed that the concentration of iodine in the Malaysian food samples varied according to food groups. The iodine values were found to be in range of 3.71-100.64 μg/100 g for cereal products, 8.78-53.50 μg/100 g for starchy root and tuber products, 6.72-30.19 μg/100 g for legume products, 8.16-35.98 μg/100 g for nut and seed products, 1.57-2.44 μg/100 g for vegetables, 1.56-2.20 μg/100 g for fruits, 0.06-23.90 μg/100 g for sugar and syrups products, 5.79-24.36 μg/100 g for meat products, 16.88-158.70 μg/100 g for eggs, 25.21-53.27 μg/100 g for fish, 8.57-61.63 μg/100 g for milk products, 3.58-160.00 μg/100 g for oil and fat products and 2.84-56.72 μg/100 g for other food products. Conclusion: In conclusion, Malaysian foods showed large variation in iodine content with main iodine food source from the marine environment, iodized salt and fortified animal feeds.
Noriyuki Kanzaki, Daisuke Takemoto, Yoshiko Ono, Takayuki Izumo, Hiroshi Shibata, Xin Ye, , Jianping Ye
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.35248/2155-9600.19.9.760

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Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice aged 24 weeks were provided two concentrations (1.5 or 3.0 g/L) of quercetin glycosides (QG) in drinking water over the subsequent 24 weeks. The objective was to determine if QG could improve motor function during early stages of aging. No sustained significant differences in body composition or food intake were noted to confirm the safety of QG treatment. Treated mice had significantly improved performance in grip strength and rotarod tests but not in treadmill performance. The functional benefits were reflected in muscle morphology with increased wet weights of a selected group of muscles (quadratus femoris, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and soleus) in treated mice. Thus, it would appear that long-term oral treatment with QG can safely and effectively improve selected elements of motor performance and increase muscle mass during the early stages of aging.
Reyna Maria Cruz-Bojorquez, Fibi Yenisie Coop-Gamas, Sergio Cardenas-Garcia, Maria Luisa Avila-Escalante
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.35248/2155-9600.19.9.756

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Body image is formed in childhood and adolescence and is influenced by socio-cultural situations and interpersonal relationships during life. When the characteristics of a subject's body do not correspond with the social models of beauty promoted by the media, body dissatisfaction (BD) appears, which is the set of negative emotions, thoughts, and attitudes towards the size and shape of one’s body. The objective of the present study is to know the body image perception (BIP) of Mayan adolescents and their relationship with body dissatisfaction and its nutritional status through the Body Mass Index (BMI) indicator. The population was of 292 students of the three grades of four secondary schools of the Municipality of Abalá, Yucatán, between the ages of 12 and 17, from which 50.7% were men. The Body Image Perception analysis, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the BMI were used. It was found that 38.9% of the population had BIP in disagreement with their BMI, with a higher prevalence in under-estimation in the overweight and obese population, even though 16.7% of the population had body mass index in obesity. Only 18.2% had BD being higher in women (11.7%) between the ages 13 and 14, with a higher prevalence in those with normal BMI and BIP, which shows that the influence of social pressure towards body figure does not necessarily affect people who are overweight.
Kristy Du, Edward Markus, Mariel Fecych, Lee Beverly J, Justin S Rhodes,
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.35248/2155-9600.19.9.761

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High-protein diets are popular for weight management because of their ability to enhance satiety but not all protein sources are similarly anorexigenic. We recently reported that egg white protein is more satiating than wheat gluten in Sprague Dawley rats. The goal of this study was to identify physiological correlates of the satiety differences and to test long-term consequences on metabolism, body composition and body weight. At both 20% and 35% levels, egg white increased total plasma amino acids relative to wheat gluten. Insulin levels were unaffected but respiratory exchange ratio was reduced for several hours following 35% egg white relative to the other diets. No chronic effects on body weight, body composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure were observed. Results suggest that increased satiety-signaling amino acids may underlie greater short-term satiety from egg white, but when consumed only once per day, produces no long term consequences for body composition.
Yu Yan
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600-c1-090

Abstract:
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