Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-5999 / 2162-6006
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 135
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Kasra Karimi, Ardeshir Faghri
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 34-54; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112004

Abstract:
Farm vehicles (FVs) are not primarily designed for road transportation purposes, but often need to share the roads with other motorists. The interference of these large, slow-moving vehicles with the regular traffic can lead to hazardous situations and cause severe crashes. Farm Vehicle Crashes (FVCs) are rare compared to the total number of road crashes, and hence, have been neglected by many. This has been reflected in various aspects including data collection, education, legislation, and prevention. The number of FVCs in the U.S. has been steady over the last decade. This paper conducts a literature review to put forth a better understanding of this safety issue from a transportation standpoint. The main goal of this study is to identify the characteristics of FVCs, the unique contributing factors in FVCs, and possible strategies to mitigate the issues involved. It appears that despite their lower frequency, the rate of severe injuries and fatalities in FVCs is significantly higher than the average for all crashes. The percentage of fatal crashes in FVCs can be nearly five times higher than average for all road crashes. Further, it is estimated that FVs are overrepresented in road crashes considering their low exposure on the roads. The crash contributing factors including time- dependent variables, weather and road surface conditions, location, road classification, manner of collision, and driver’s characteristics are discussed based on the result of multiple studies in different states of the U.S. Several unique characteristics of FVCs distinct them from non-farm vehicle crashes which can result from the characteristics of FVs, rural roads, and the nature of farming tasks. Improvements in lighting and marking, equipping farm vehicles with Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) and seatbelts, educating the public and farmers, and roadway improvements are recommended as potential safety improvement strategies for mitigating the frequency and severity of FVCs.
Dickson Osei-Asibey, Joshua Ayarkwa, Alex Acheampong, Emmanuel Adinyira, Peter Amoah
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 66-88; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112006

Abstract:
This study aims to examine the causes of accidents and hazards in the Ghanaian construction industry (GCI) from the perspectives of key stakeholders, and also the available legal regulations and provisions regarding remedies for redress in case of accidents. A qualitative research strategy with in-depth face-to-face interviews was adopted. Participants for the interview were seven of which are Contractors, Consultants, Construction Workers, and Suppliers/ Manufacturers using data saturation principle. The selection of interview participants was based onpurposive sampling, while data was analyzed using the content analysis technique. Five major causes of accidents and hazards that are critical for remedying were identified, including common law liabilities of the Employer who is the Contractor, with a duty to ensure that adequate provisions are made for the works to be carried out safely. The findings of the study provide adequate knowledge to the contractor and other stakeholders of the roles, duties,and responsibilities to ensure improved implementation of CHS practices. The study examined the legal basis and consequences for causes of accidents and hazards in the Construction Industry. Since large construction firms were considered in the current study, it is recommended that similar studies be conducted involving small and medium enterprises.
Kenn Beer, Tom Bowrey, Tom Beer
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.111001

Abstract:
The health community uses a harm reduction model that deals with harm reduction at four levels: conceptual, practical, policy, and programmatic. The road safety community has adopted the Safe System as their harm reduction model. The Safe System is underpinned by the key principles: people make mistakes, the human body has limited biomechanical tolerance, there is a shared responsibility for creating a safer system and we aspire for zero death and serious injury in transport. The interacting elements/levers to achieve these principles are road and roadsides (infrastructure), safe people, safe vehicles, and safe speeds. Using on-road collectors as a specific example, the relationship between the health-based harm reduction model and the Safe System reveals that the Safe System assumes the conceptual, practical and policy levels to be pre-determined, and thus restricts itself to the programmatic level of the health-based harm reduction model.
Carolyne Kebut, Charles Mburu, Robert Kinyua
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112005

Abstract:
Fire safety is an essential aspect in each workplace; its efforts are geared to the preservation of life and protection of property. Petroleum dispensing stations handle highly flammable and combustible materials that ignite at any given time at a conducive condition. The government of Kenya has instituted various laws and legislation to alleviate the fire safety status of such workplaces which should be adhered to. The study aimed to assess the implementation of Fire Risk Reduction Rules in Kisumu County which will provide bases for the improvement of the available fire risk reduction rules and gauge the Fire safety status in petroleum dispensing stations. Research methods employed involved physical observation, interviews, and measurements. The study established that 27(90.3%) Branded petroleum dispensing stations and 11 (68.8%) of independent petroleum stations had implemented safe storage and handling of highly flammable petroleum products, none of the stations had fully implemented the provisions in the Fire risk reduction rules, however, branded petroleum dispensing had better performance in the implementation than the Independent Petroleum dispensing stations. In view of the findings, the study recommends beef up of capacity in the directorate of occupation safety and health personnel to enable workplace inspections and awareness creation and enforcement on implementation of the Fire risk reduction rules as well as improvement of the available rules to be more specific on nature of works in petroleum dispensing stations.
Kazuma Nogi, Yoshihiko Kuwahara, Takuji Ushimoto
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 12-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.111002

Abstract:
At a substation, the condition of an applied voltage is checked using a bulky contact-type electroscope. Although it is important to secure a safe working environment, it is a burden to workers. In addition, in an emergency investigation or at the time of an accident, an operator may erroneously recognize a power interruption and cause an electric shock. Therefore, it is desirable to develop technology that can easily distinguish the charged condition from a distance. In this research, the focus was on the slight vibration of the conductor owing to the Coulomb force generated when a high voltage was applied. A system for visualizing the charging state by detecting the vibration with radar and combining it with a stereo camera was developed. Its performance was then confirmed at an experimental site and substation. In addition, the effectiveness of a method that used independent component analysis to identify the harmonics of the power supply frequency and vibration resulting from the applied voltage was demonstrated.
Frank R. Tangherlini
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112003

Abstract:
It is proposed that in addition to the current method of fighting wildfires that are based on firefighters on the ground, and airdrops, there is the need for a supplemental approach based on using catapults to hurl containers of water at the fires. This additional source of water would serve to extinguish wildfires more rapidly, and thereby reduce the devastation and loss of life they cause, and also reduce the huge amounts of CO2 they pour into the atmosphere that contributes significantly to global warming. Importantly, the use of catapults would result in much greater safety for firefighters on the ground, as well as those serving in the air.
Changwen Li, Huabin Gao, Zhaoming Xu, Yan Huang
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 89-103; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.113007

Abstract:
The dam break pattern of rock-fill dams is normally gradual failure. This kind of dam failure is caused by seepage piping or overtopping, in which dam crest overflow is more common. The dam breach expansion process shall depend comprehensively on the structure pattern, material property of dam, and damsite cross sectional topography. And the break duration has a significant impact on the magnitude of break flood and the counter-measures for excess-standard flood. Take the Karot Hydropower Project constructed on the Jhelum River in Pakistan as an example, the dam break mathematical model is set up to analyze the sensitivity of damsite discharge process, downstream highest flood water surface profile and flood peak appearance time to dam break duration. The results show that: with the increase of dam break duration, damsite peak discharge is decreased sharply, flood peak appearance time extends, on-way highest water levels below Karot dam are lowered significantly, and some settlement places below Karot dam can avoid being inundated until the break duration reaches a critical value. If encountering probable maximum flood, the dam break occurs when the reservoir water level reaches dam top EL, some measures can be taken to extend the break duration, so as to effectively reduce the loss of downstream flood. The research results will help to understand the relationship mechanism between rock-fill dam break flood and break duration and provide a scientific basis or some solutions for optimization design of dam and counter-measures of dam break flood.
Kasra Karimi, Ardeshir Faghri
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 104-119; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.113008

Abstract:
The increasing number of traffic conflicts between farm vehicles (FVs) and other motorists on public roads has raised safety concerns for Delaware transportation authorities. Farm Vehicle Crashes (FVCs) are less frequent than passenger car, truck, and motorcycle crashes and therefore, have not received proper attention in the past. This study provides a descriptive statistical analysis of FVCs in Delaware between May 2005 and August 2020 to present a better understanding of the characteristics of these crashes. The crash data was extracted from the DelDOT crash database and the State Police Annual Reports. The statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB and crash mapping was performed using ArcGIS Pro. The results show that an average of 14 FVCs occurred each year in this period; however, the annual number of FVCs has been constantly increasing since 2016. The percentage of fatal crashes among FVCs was found to be 3.7 times the state’s average for all crashes. Sussex county accounted for nearly half of these crashes. About two-thirds of FVCs took place within the rural boundaries and the rest in urban zip codes. Two peaks were observed throughout the year, one from April to July and another from August to October. The majority of the FVCs occurred during daylight, in clear weather and on a dry surface; however, crashes during dark (not-lighted) conditions were nearly 2.5 times more likely to result in injury than in daylight. Major collectors were associated with the highest risk of FVCs among all function classes. Rollovers and head-on collisions were few in numbers but had the highest percentage of personal injuries. Rear-end collisions, the most common collision type, were found to be overrepresented among crashes under dark (not-lighted) conditions. In conclusion, this study shows that the severity of FVCs is higher than the average for all crashes. Further, the high percentage of rear-end FVCs under dark conditions implies the importance of improving the visibility, lighting, and marking of FVs.
Besim Türker Özalp
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 53-67; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2020.102005

Abstract:
Objective: The paper aimed to present a layout of the kitchen for elderly Turkish women to assure their safety and comfort while executing their tasks in their kitchen. Background: It is appropriate to regard the domestic kitchen used by an elderly woman as her workplace, requiring application of the ergonomics principles such as environmental conditions, equipment design and workplace layout on the kitchen floor. The purpose is to enable them to perform activities in the kitchen comfortably, safely and without assistance. Ergonomic design takes into account the abilities and limitations due to aging and helps to create the best person-environment fit. Proper design can help all people in all age groups but is particularly important for elderly individuals. Safety, physical and social health must be taken into consideration to increase the quality of elderly Turkish women’s lives. Method: The general layout of the kitchen was designed considering the work triangle, to minimize the walking distance in regard of the work sequence. The required functional anthropometric data for elderly Turkish women were obtained by ratio scaling method using the raw data from previous work. Results: The design of cabinets, worktops, base units, storage areas and their lay-out with kitchen appliances were realized to ensure comfort and safety for the elderly Turkish women. A U-shaped kitchen is found appropriate allowing the elderly woman and her company working together. For the counter, the height of the worktop is found as 860 mm from the floor and a 20 mm thick and 620 mm wide granite block is chosen. Placement of wall cupboards is achieved by considering the vertical grip reach of elderly Turkish women (5%) and the height of each shelf from the floor is determined. Conclusion: The absence of housing standard definitions addressing accessibility of the elderly is an ongoing problem in Turkey. This work presents potential solutions to improve the living standards of the elderly Turkish women.
Takanori Ayabe, Masaki Tomita, Ichiro Takajo, Yuki Nakayama, Ryo Maeda, Manabu Okumura, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2020.101001

Abstract:
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in longer hospitalization, increased expenses, and poorer patient prognosis. The aim of this study is 1) to investigate the short-term outcome of MRSA outbreak and the prevention in our surgical ward, and 2) to evaluate the long-term outcome of a 7-year experience of infection control, and 3) to report the effectiveness of intervention of quality improvement by industry problem-solving method for the eradication of a new occurrence of MRSA patients. Methods: Between April 2009 and October 2019, we retrospectively studied the improvement activity for infection control and preventative measures in our surgical ward. The daily alcohol use for hand hygiene was measured (ml/patient/day) and the monthly number of occurrences of new MRAS patients was investigated. We used the industry problem-solving method as the Kaizen of infection control for the eradication of a new Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurrence in the surgical ward. Results: There was an inverse correlation between the increased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the decreased number of new MRSA patients. In the long-term outcome, the amount of alcohol use has gradually decreased and the MRSA patients have been occasionally observed; these facts should display the difficulty to maintain a strict infection control. By the use of the problem-solving method, there continued for 7 months no new MRSA patients between June 2018 and December 2018. However, once the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene decreased below 40 ml/patient/day, three new MRSA patients were detected. It displayed an inverse correlation between the decreased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the increased number of new MRSA patients. Conclusion: The daily monitoring and measuring of the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and to know the current number of new occurrence of MRSA patients will become a meaningful tool. By performing the Kaizen with a problem-solving method, it will contribute to the multi-professional team to visualize the process of quality improvement for infection control.
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