Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-5999 / 2162-6006
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 130
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Kenn Beer, Tom Bowrey, Tom Beer
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.111001

Abstract:
The health community uses a harm reduction model that deals with harm reduction at four levels: conceptual, practical, policy, and programmatic. The road safety community has adopted the Safe System as their harm reduction model. The Safe System is underpinned by the key principles: people make mistakes, the human body has limited biomechanical tolerance, there is a shared responsibility for creating a safer system and we aspire for zero death and serious injury in transport. The interacting elements/levers to achieve these principles are road and roadsides (infrastructure), safe people, safe vehicles, and safe speeds. Using on-road collectors as a specific example, the relationship between the health-based harm reduction model and the Safe System reveals that the Safe System assumes the conceptual, practical and policy levels to be pre-determined, and thus restricts itself to the programmatic level of the health-based harm reduction model.
Frank R. Tangherlini
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 27-33; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.112003

Abstract:
It is proposed that in addition to the current method of fighting wildfires that are based on firefighters on the ground, and airdrops, there is the need for a supplemental approach based on using catapults to hurl containers of water at the fires. This additional source of water would serve to extinguish wildfires more rapidly, and thereby reduce the devastation and loss of life they cause, and also reduce the huge amounts of CO2 they pour into the atmosphere that contributes significantly to global warming. Importantly, the use of catapults would result in much greater safety for firefighters on the ground, as well as those serving in the air.
Kazuma Nogi, Yoshihiko Kuwahara, Takuji Ushimoto
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 12-26; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.111002

Abstract:
At a substation, the condition of an applied voltage is checked using a bulky contact-type electroscope. Although it is important to secure a safe working environment, it is a burden to workers. In addition, in an emergency investigation or at the time of an accident, an operator may erroneously recognize a power interruption and cause an electric shock. Therefore, it is desirable to develop technology that can easily distinguish the charged condition from a distance. In this research, the focus was on the slight vibration of the conductor owing to the Coulomb force generated when a high voltage was applied. A system for visualizing the charging state by detecting the vibration with radar and combining it with a stereo camera was developed. Its performance was then confirmed at an experimental site and substation. In addition, the effectiveness of a method that used independent component analysis to identify the harmonics of the power supply frequency and vibration resulting from the applied voltage was demonstrated.
Takanori Ayabe, Masaki Tomita, Ichiro Takajo, Yuki Nakayama, Ryo Maeda, Manabu Okumura, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 1-23; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.101001

Abstract:
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in longer hospitalization, increased expenses, and poorer patient prognosis. The aim of this study is 1) to investigate the short-term outcome of MRSA outbreak and the prevention in our surgical ward, and 2) to evaluate the long-term outcome of a 7-year experience of infection control, and 3) to report the effectiveness of intervention of quality improvement by industry problem-solving method for the eradication of a new occurrence of MRSA patients. Methods: Between April 2009 and October 2019, we retrospectively studied the improvement activity for infection control and preventative measures in our surgical ward. The daily alcohol use for hand hygiene was measured (ml/patient/day) and the monthly number of occurrences of new MRAS patients was investigated. We used the industry problem-solving method as the Kaizen of infection control for the eradication of a new Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurrence in the surgical ward. Results: There was an inverse correlation between the increased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the decreased number of new MRSA patients. In the long-term outcome, the amount of alcohol use has gradually decreased and the MRSA patients have been occasionally observed; these facts should display the difficulty to maintain a strict infection control. By the use of the problem-solving method, there continued for 7 months no new MRSA patients between June 2018 and December 2018. However, once the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene decreased below 40 ml/patient/day, three new MRSA patients were detected. It displayed an inverse correlation between the decreased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the increased number of new MRSA patients. Conclusion: The daily monitoring and measuring of the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and to know the current number of new occurrence of MRSA patients will become a meaningful tool. By performing the Kaizen with a problem-solving method, it will contribute to the multi-professional team to visualize the process of quality improvement for infection control.
Besim Türker Özalp
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 53-67; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102005

Abstract:
Objective: The paper aimed to present a layout of the kitchen for elderly Turkish women to assure their safety and comfort while executing their tasks in their kitchen. Background: It is appropriate to regard the domestic kitchen used by an elderly woman as her workplace, requiring application of the ergonomics principles such as environmental conditions, equipment design and workplace layout on the kitchen floor. The purpose is to enable them to perform activities in the kitchen comfortably, safely and without assistance. Ergonomic design takes into account the abilities and limitations due to aging and helps to create the best person-environment fit. Proper design can help all people in all age groups but is particularly important for elderly individuals. Safety, physical and social health must be taken into consideration to increase the quality of elderly Turkish women’s lives. Method: The general layout of the kitchen was designed considering the work triangle, to minimize the walking distance in regard of the work sequence. The required functional anthropometric data for elderly Turkish women were obtained by ratio scaling method using the raw data from previous work. Results: The design of cabinets, worktops, base units, storage areas and their lay-out with kitchen appliances were realized to ensure comfort and safety for the elderly Turkish women. A U-shaped kitchen is found appropriate allowing the elderly woman and her company working together. For the counter, the height of the worktop is found as 860 mm from the floor and a 20 mm thick and 620 mm wide granite block is chosen. Placement of wall cupboards is achieved by considering the vertical grip reach of elderly Turkish women (5%) and the height of each shelf from the floor is determined. Conclusion: The absence of housing standard definitions addressing accessibility of the elderly is an ongoing problem in Turkey. This work presents potential solutions to improve the living standards of the elderly Turkish women.
Wedad H. Al-Dahhan, Zeyad Fadhil, Muna Bufaroosha, Salam Mohammed, Ali Abd Ali, Emad Yousif
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 33-41; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102003

Abstract:
The occurrence of accidents can be only being restricted to workplaces as they can occur at homes. Therefore, people should be aware of potential risks at home so that accidents can be avoided. This article deeply touches some of the realistic home accidents by explaining and analyzing them to be as beacon for others to avoid their occurrence. This has a paramount importance to alert people to be careful and take proper actions to avoid accidents. In this research, we discussed the issue of flammable gases, their severity and the need for careful handling of them, especially in hot climates, in addition to the fire hazards resulting from them. And due to the importance of accidents resulting from high electrical loads and fires that can happen as a result of this, this topic was covered by reviewing household accidents resulting from poor wiring, additional loads and poor connections.
Shi Xiong
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 24-31; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.101002

Abstract:
This paper analyses the existing literature, and considered the new problems caused by the burning accident of thermal insulation materials attached to the steel structure in recent years. In the process of combustion, thermal insulation materials will drip and melt, producing a large amount of liquid fuel. The combustion of thermal insulation materials attached to steel (diameter longer than 0.2 m) can be regarded as large pool fire combustion, and a mathematical model is established to study the reverse thermal conduction behavior of the combustion of combustible materials attached to steel.
Richard Skiba
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 42-52; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102004

Abstract:
As hydrogen use as a fuel gains momentum and becomes a component of many nation’s economies, there is a growing need for identification of the skills and knowledge required by workers undertaking hydrogen related activities. This paper considers the activities in the industry and qualifies some of the core competencies required for the emerging workforce. The core competencies are considered specifically from the perspective of working with hydrogen rather than other gases, which in most cases have well developed competency standards, many of which can be applied to the hydrogen industry. The paper focuses on training as it is applicable at a vocational education and training sector level, such as technicians, trade workers and transportation workers, rather than the job roles that require degree or above level qualifications. For many decades, hydrogen has been used extensively in the process industries (e.g. refineries and ammonia synthesis) and experience has shown that it can be handled safely in industrial applications as long as appropriate standards, regulations and best practices are being followed [1]. Relevant training will contribute to the safe handling and use of hydrogen in its new applications. A number of general competency standards for work in hydrogen related activities are presented and these can be used to be integrated into existing vocational education and training frameworks.
David Nkurunziza
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 81-90; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.103007

Abstract:
Rwanda is undergoing rapid development in transportation through constructing new roads and upgrading existing ones. During implementation of these projects, many accidents for road workers, road users and environment issues are raised due to unsafe road construction management techniques. This existing problem was carried out within the City of Kigali for three ongoing road construction projects namely road Ruliba-Karama-Nyamirambo, Kigali Urban Road Upgrading Projects of Agatare and the Sonatube-Gahanga- Akagera road, in order to investigate about the road construction safety management techniques. From the findings, 64.28% results showed that the maintaining of health and safety policy in the road construction sites is applied and there exist different means of maintaining safety, such as the provision of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to the workers at the level of 57.14% as per the project managers; but from the field observations, it is alarming, and many workers do not wear as required. It was also found that 50% of accidents occurring in excavation works among all work performed during road construction are due to lack of adequate safety measures. The paper indicated that 85.71% of the concerned workers do conduct training and induction in their road safety construction sites, but on the other hand the level of accidents due to lack of safety recorded in the road construction sites is still high at the level of 78.57%. The mostly affected are unskilled laborers and this observation begs the question about the training and induction of workers in road safety and its effectiveness of on the concerned workers. The paper suggests some different safety measures to apply for providing safe road working environment according to the standard and gives some key recommendations for Rwanda.
Nathaniel Stephens, Clint Pinion
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 69-80; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.103006

Abstract:
Background: Job demands, or time-based restraints perceived by employees, can have a direct impact on an employee’s level of safety citizenship and safety compliance. However, job control, or the perceived autonomy over the timing and methods of an employee’s work, can help employees manage those job demands. Objective: To assess the relationship between self-reported job control and self-reported safety citizenship. Method: A 34-item survey was used in a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between self-reported job control scores (JCS) and self-reported safety citizenship (SCS) among employees working at a construction company and distillery/bottling facility in the Midwestern region of the United States. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and an ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) were performed on a saturated model. Results: The study had a 77% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant association between JCS and SC exists when controlling for job position and sex [F (6, 145) = 40.03, p < 0.00001, adjusted R-square = 0.61]. Conclusion: Employees with low job control have lower levels of self-reported safety citizenship.
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