Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-5999 / 2162-6006
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 145
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Peace O. Ali, Maureen E. Wyse, Kayode O. Odeniyi, Olusanya E. Oludele, Erhuen Ejomafuvwe, Andrew John, Oluwaseun B. Faremi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.122003

Abstract:
This study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of safety management system (SMS) in a liquefied natural gas company. A 5-point Likert questionnaire ranging from “strongly disagree to strongly agree” questions was used to evaluate workers’ perception of the implication of safety management system in the organisation. The OHSAS 18001 internal audit checklist was also used to measure the level of compliance with the requirements of the SMS. Secondary data was obtained from document and safety report of the case study. The data was collated and subjected to descriptive statistics, t-test and row and column contingency (R & C) table to evaluate the relationship between safety performance and compliance. For compliance to SMS: General requirements, 91%; Health and Safety Policy, 95%; Planning, 93%, Implementation and Operation, 98%; Audit, 98%; and Management Review, 93%. The overall average level of compliance was 95%. 100 respondents participated in the questionnaire, 64 males and 36 females; 68 technical personnel and 32 nontechnical respondents. Descriptive analysis of employees’ perception resulted in: Safety satisfaction and feedback, 4.113; Training and competence, 4.182; Safety reporting and investigation, 4.212; Work Duties/Pressure, 3.989; Management commitment, 4.098; Safety communication, 4.171; and Emergency response and planning, 4.126. t-test indicated that there was no significant difference in perception between males and females, and the perception of technical and non-technical employees with p > 0.05. R & C contingency table was used to evaluate the relationship between safety performance and safety compliance. The result showed that there was a significant difference between safety compliance and safety performance since . Therefore, safety management system will continuously improve safety performance. Hence, the effectiveness of safety management system cannot be overemphasized. The practice of health and safety has evolved over time, as a matter of common sense in several industries. However, this study opines that the implementation of safety management system requirements is instrumental to a sustainable continuous improvement in safety performance. The study, therefore, encourages organisation to consider the safety management system certification.
Eric Krebs, Nathan Huysman, Jill M. Voorhees, Michael E. Barnes
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 65-71; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.123006

Abstract:
Fish transport tank lids are frequently supported by folding lid stay hinges. While these hinges are safer than no supports, stay hinge failure has resulted in several injuries to aquaculture workers. This article describes the replacement of folding lid stay hinges with pneumatic struts. These commonly-available and relatively-inexpensive struts greatly reduce the risk of occupational injury. In South Dakota, USA, head, back, arm, and serious hand injuries have all occurred because of folding lid stay hinge failure. Since replacement of the stay hinges with pneumatic struts, no further injuries have occurred.
Godwin J. Birma, Silas A. Agaja, Joyce C. Ndu
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 17-29; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.121002

Abstract:
This study was aimed at evaluating safety culture in 20 chemical analytical laboratories in Oghara and Warri, Delta state. This was achieved through a determination of the safety performance between tertiary education chemical laboratories and industrial laboratories, private and government-owned laboratories, and technical and non-technical labs. The method employed in carrying out this study was the use of a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire and a standard checklist. Comparison done between private and government-owned laboratories using t-test showed that safety culture of private-owned laboratories, irrespective of whether industrial or tertiary education, were more significant (P 0.05), with a mean value of 3.69798 for tertiary education laboratories and 3.62842 for industrial laboratories. Analysis of t-test also indicated P < 0.05 for technical (M = 75.00) and non-technical (M = 56.11) tertiary education laboratories. However, further t-test analysis indicated that there is a significant difference between safety performance in tertiary education laboratories and industrial laboratories (P < 0.05). The conclusion is that tertiary education chemical analytical laboratories have a high level of safety culture with an overall mean of 67.90 than industrial chemical analytical laboratories with an overall mean of 54.50. It is recommended that laboratories should establish an internal review process of incidents and corrective actions with the departmental safety committee and provide periodic safety seminars on lessons learned from incidents. A strong and effective safety management system should also be implemented in all analytical laboratories.
Abdoul Fayçal Baguian, Salifou Koucka Ouiminga, Sampawinde Augustin Zongo, Ibrahim Harouna Gado
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.121001

Abstract:
The fire behaviour of five types of wood was studied on a microscale. Some thermophysical parameters such as thermal conductivity, effusivity and diffusivity were also evaluated. The microscale analysis is based on the analysis of several parameters such as the assessment of heat released rates (HRR), peak heat released rates (pHRR), total heat released (THR), enthalpy variation (Δh) and residue rates with the combustion microcalorimeter (PCFC). The PF2C device was used to measure the conductivity, effusivity and diffusivity of wood, while the PCFC for the microscale study of wood behaviour in combustive situations. In terms of thermal conductivity, wood conducts heat with difficulty, while the other types, namely frake, bete, tek and red wood, more easily conduct heat and therefore cannot be considered as thermal insulators. For results, in terms of measuring effusivity, white wood has the smallest value, which means that it exchanges less thermal energy with its environment. Red and tek woods exchange much more energy with the environment compared to other types of wood. We observe that tek wood has the highest diffusivity, which means that it is the wood that reacts as quickly as possible to the change in temperature. White and frake woods have the same value of thermal diffusivity as red and bete wood which have the lowest thermal diffusivities. The fire behaviour of these materials is a very little variable on the microscale and we can conclude that at this level there is no major difference for our different types of wood. Hence, there is no influence of density on the microscale. We can say that for the white and tek wood the complete combustion begins at 700°C. By this same method of analysis, we come to the conclusion that the frake, bete and red woods tend towards a complete combustion at 675°C. At 675°C the bete and frake woods have the best combustive yields, to a lesser extent than the red and tek woods. The bete wood has the highest activation energy and the white wood the lowest.
Sandra Mónica da Silva Santos
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 51-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.123005

Abstract:
Goals: Over time, tattooing has been better accepted and is now more prevalent. Consequently, the number of establishments and professionals increased. Methodology: This is an Exploratory/Observational/Analytical/Cross-sectional study. An online voluntary questionnaire was prepared on the Google Forms tool and made available between April 2020/March 2021, with single/multiple choice/short answer questions. Responses from individuals who practiced Tattooing in Portugal and who mastered the Portuguese language were considered. For the statistical analysis, non-parametric tests were predominantly used. The research project was approved by an Ethics Committee and informed consent was obtained. Results and Discussion: 207 questionnaires were processed (26% of the population of Tattoo Artists registered in Portugal); the female represented one third of the answers. 42.0% of Tattoo Artists didn’t undergo training before exercising. Most work exclusively (60.9%) and have their own establishment (72%); those who work for others are more likely to have a second professional activity (p = 0.046). All that work at home reported having another professional activity (p p = 0.042). Everyone recognizes the risks; the most valued were Forced/Maintained Postures/Repetitive Movements; but also Noise, old machinery and/or Monotonous/Isolated Work. No published articles were found with data regarding the correlation between socio-professional characteristics and self-perception of Occupational Risk, that allowed a formal discussion. Conclusions: The perception of professional risks increases with Professional Experience, especially when semiology arises. It would be important to have an entity that determines what training is necessary to exercise and to create Norms, and with the capacity to allow access to the labour market. If we explore how each Tattoo Artist perceives risk, it is likely that the Occupational Physician and Safety Technician will be more effective.
Owino A. Otieno, Paul M. Njogu, Dennis Magu
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2022.122004

Abstract:
Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates a consistent association of severe health effects with ambient particulate matter. Reduced life expectancy, as well as hospitalization for cardiorespiratory effects, and exacerbation of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Export processing zones (EPZ) employ large number of workers who engage in manufacturing of goods. Apparel processing is a key economic activity in EPZ. Garment cutting and stitching contribute to release of fine particles. This study aimed at assessing exposure to PM2.5 among workers in apparel processing companies in EPZ, Machakos County Kenya. The study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. Four apparel manufacturing factories were selected. Concentrations of PM2.5 were measured using a potable real time PM detector model, Turnkey Osiris Airborne Particulate Monitor with an accuracy of 0.1 μg/m3. The mean value for PM2.5 was 65.61 ± 31.5 with a range of 59.08 - 72.14 μg/m3. Main PM2.5 sources were found to be from Sewing/Embroidery > Cutting/Fusing/pres- sing > Fabric/relaxing/spreading > Packaging > Office departments respectively. The mean concentrations were above the WHO acceptable levels of 15 μg·m-3 for 24-hour exposure. The study reveals that there are significant PM2.5particles in apparel processing companies EPZ, Machakos County. The management should explore engineering control measures, occupational safety practices, and administrative controls to reduce respirable dust exposure.
Kazuma Nogi, Yoshihiko Kuwahara, Takuji Ushimoto
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 12-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.111002

Abstract:
At a substation, the condition of an applied voltage is checked using a bulky contact-type electroscope. Although it is important to secure a safe working environment, it is a burden to workers. In addition, in an emergency investigation or at the time of an accident, an operator may erroneously recognize a power interruption and cause an electric shock. Therefore, it is desirable to develop technology that can easily distinguish the charged condition from a distance. In this research, the focus was on the slight vibration of the conductor owing to the Coulomb force generated when a high voltage was applied. A system for visualizing the charging state by detecting the vibration with radar and combining it with a stereo camera was developed. Its performance was then confirmed at an experimental site and substation. In addition, the effectiveness of a method that used independent component analysis to identify the harmonics of the power supply frequency and vibration resulting from the applied voltage was demonstrated.
Carolyne Kebut, Charles Mburu, Robert Kinyua
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112005

Abstract:
Fire safety is an essential aspect in each workplace; its efforts are geared to the preservation of life and protection of property. Petroleum dispensing stations handle highly flammable and combustible materials that ignite at any given time at a conducive condition. The government of Kenya has instituted various laws and legislation to alleviate the fire safety status of such workplaces which should be adhered to. The study aimed to assess the implementation of Fire Risk Reduction Rules in Kisumu County which will provide bases for the improvement of the available fire risk reduction rules and gauge the Fire safety status in petroleum dispensing stations. Research methods employed involved physical observation, interviews, and measurements. The study established that 27(90.3%) Branded petroleum dispensing stations and 11 (68.8%) of independent petroleum stations had implemented safe storage and handling of highly flammable petroleum products, none of the stations had fully implemented the provisions in the Fire risk reduction rules, however, branded petroleum dispensing had better performance in the implementation than the Independent Petroleum dispensing stations. In view of the findings, the study recommends beef up of capacity in the directorate of occupation safety and health personnel to enable workplace inspections and awareness creation and enforcement on implementation of the Fire risk reduction rules as well as improvement of the available rules to be more specific on nature of works in petroleum dispensing stations.
Changwen Li, Huabin Gao, Zhaoming Xu, Yan Huang
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 89-103; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.113007

Abstract:
The dam break pattern of rock-fill dams is normally gradual failure. This kind of dam failure is caused by seepage piping or overtopping, in which dam crest overflow is more common. The dam breach expansion process shall depend comprehensively on the structure pattern, material property of dam, and damsite cross sectional topography. And the break duration has a significant impact on the magnitude of break flood and the counter-measures for excess-standard flood. Take the Karot Hydropower Project constructed on the Jhelum River in Pakistan as an example, the dam break mathematical model is set up to analyze the sensitivity of damsite discharge process, downstream highest flood water surface profile and flood peak appearance time to dam break duration. The results show that: with the increase of dam break duration, damsite peak discharge is decreased sharply, flood peak appearance time extends, on-way highest water levels below Karot dam are lowered significantly, and some settlement places below Karot dam can avoid being inundated until the break duration reaches a critical value. If encountering probable maximum flood, the dam break occurs when the reservoir water level reaches dam top EL, some measures can be taken to extend the break duration, so as to effectively reduce the loss of downstream flood. The research results will help to understand the relationship mechanism between rock-fill dam break flood and break duration and provide a scientific basis or some solutions for optimization design of dam and counter-measures of dam break flood.
Frank R. Tangherlini
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2021.112003

Abstract:
It is proposed that in addition to the current method of fighting wildfires that are based on firefighters on the ground, and airdrops, there is the need for a supplemental approach based on using catapults to hurl containers of water at the fires. This additional source of water would serve to extinguish wildfires more rapidly, and thereby reduce the devastation and loss of life they cause, and also reduce the huge amounts of CO2 they pour into the atmosphere that contributes significantly to global warming. Importantly, the use of catapults would result in much greater safety for firefighters on the ground, as well as those serving in the air.
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