Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2395-1443 / 2395-1451
Published by: IP Innovative Publication Pvt Ltd (10.18231)
Total articles ≅ 631
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Deepika Joshi, Sourav Shristi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 655-658; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.131

Abstract:
To determine whether patients with Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) benefit from cataract surgery in terms of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and to assess impact of surgery on progression of ARMD.: A prospective study was carried out of patients with and without ARMD undergoing cataract surgery at our department. Patients were divided into two groups- Group A (cases) with ARMD and Group B (controls) without ARMD and other retinal pathology. BCVA of cases was recorded on day 1, day 14, 1 month and 1/month and compared to that of controls.: BCVA significantly improved but markedly less than that experienced by control eyes. No increased incidence in progression to wet form of ARMD. Cataract surgery is safe in ARMD patients with no evidence of increased complications or rates of disease advancement.
Maya Sharma, Seema Rajvanshi, Sunita Khurana, Rajkumar Arora
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 624-629; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.125

Abstract:
During the second wave of covid 19[SARS- Co V-] pandemic, there is a sudden increase in number of mucormycosis infection cases in India. The present study is an attempt to understand the presentation, course and outcome of rhinoorbital mucormycosis in a group of patients who reported to Ophtalmology and Otorhinolaryngology department of our Govt. District Hospital (secondary referral centre) for enhancing measures for prevention and management. Patients who reported to our Government district hospital with signs or symptoms suggestive of rhino orbital mucormycosis during May-June 2021 were included in the study with consent of ethical committee, patients and patient’s relatives. Total 17 cases were reported and followed. Clinical examination was done for all the patients. History of the presenting complaints and underlying illness with COVID -19 was elicited. Underlying comorbid status was recorded. Patients were followed as all of them were referred to higher centre for further management as per the guidelines issued by directorate medical and health services, rajasthan, Jaipur.13(76.4%) patients were from rural and 4 (23.5%) were from urban area. 11(64.7%) patients had RT-PCR +ve, 6 had RT-PCR _ve, 2 did not have RT-PCR report. 15(88.7%) patients had high blood sugar at presentation mean being 315.7mg%. 9 (52.9%) developed mucormycosis during their treatment for COVID in hospital. 8(47.05%) presented in OPD. 9 patients had treatment with inhalational Owhile 8 patients did not have treatment with O Death rate was high (70.5%) among our patients. Patients who survived (29.4%) had only initial symptoms and signs at presentation therefore could be managed earlier. None of our patient had vaccination for COVID. Our study was done at secondary referral centre, all the previous studies were done at tertiary referral centres; therefore it shows the course of disease mainly among rural population ; most of them presented very late and had poor outcomes. It shows the need of more awareness about COVID and mucormycosis among people especially in rural areas. High blood sugar either due to treatment with steroids or pre existing is a major risk factor for Rhino orbital mucormycosis. Being RT- PCR negative for COVID 19 does not rule out the associated possible complication of Rhino orbital mucormycosis. Early diagnosis and management remains the key factor for managing Rhino orbital mucormycosis.
A B Biradar, Arun Das, Adeeb A
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 648-654; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.130

Abstract:
Evidence based scientific studies has weightage, when they are presented with quantitative data analysis. Documentation and parametric analysis has become an integral part of present day research. Any publications or write-ups without explanation through standard parameters are not appreciated by the research society. In Ophthalmology assessment of various parameters through photography is a debatable issue. Affordability for higher end diagnostic / OPD instruments may not be feasible for all. In such a scenario, here is an attempt made to standardize the slit lamp photography with a smart phone and its scientific analysis for evaluating clinical conditions like sub-conjunctival hemorrhage, etc. This technique can become a tool for assessment and response of the therapies as well as an important tool to seek help from higher centers. Various add-on benefits in research, limitation and scope for further evaluation also being discussed.
Keerti S Sulakod, Srinivasa K H, Vandana Maganty
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 681-686; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.137

Abstract:
The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes, patients and surgeon’s satisfaction following topical versus peribulbar anesthesia in phacoemulsification surgery. A hospital based Randomized Prospective interventional Comparative Study done between November 2017 to May 2019. A total of 200 patients included in the study, ocular examination, biometry were done. Patients were randomly distributed into group1 TA (topical anesthesia) and group 2 PA (Peribulbar anesthesia), they underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, postoperative visual outcome and inflammation on day1 and after 1 week, VAS (Visual Analogue scale) pain scale used to analyse patients comfort and pain postoperatively. The Statistical analysis was performed by STATA 11.2 (College Station TX USA). In our study 200 participated, it was found in PA group, 60.47 ± 11.86 yrs and in TA group 59.01 ± 11.29yrs as mean age, majority were male. PA group had few complications during anesthesia and in both groups majority had no intraoperative complications. Log Mar visual acuity postoperative day 1, PA group was 0.65±0.40 and in TA was 0.49±0.32, post operative visual recovery was better in TA group patients and had less pain and more comfortable than PA. Surgeon had difficulty more with TA group patients. It was found, postoperative visual recovery was faster and better in patients with topical group with less postoperative inflammation and complications. Topical anesthesia being a non invasive procedure can be considered better than peribulbar when compared in terms of patients comfort and postoperative recovery.
Kiran Kumar L, M S Smitha Gowda
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 630-633; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.126

Abstract:
The most common atopic ocular condition in clinical practice is allergic conjunctivitis. One of the preferred treatment options for allergic Conjunctivitis is anti histamines eye drops. The study purpose is to compare the clinical efficacy between topical alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in allergic conjunctivitis patients.A prospective, randomized, open label, parallel group, comparative study was conducted on 60 Patients with bilateral allergic conjunctivitis (30 in each group) after taking an informed written consentand was evaluated from May 2018 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 each, group A received topical Alcaftadine 0.25% twice daily and patients in Group B received topical olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% twice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated on first visit (baseline) followed by 7 and 14 day after starting the treatment. At each visit signs and symptoms were evaluated and rated using a scale from 0-3(0-Absent, 1- mild, 2 moderate and 3- severe). The change from baseline in the mean scores of itching, hyperemia, photophobia and tearing on day 14 is the primary outcome variable.: The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis were reduced by 2 weeks from baseline after using both the drugs. Relative significant efficacy was achieved in alcaftadine group for Itching, hyperemia and photophobia, but not for tearing (p=0.3). When compared to 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride, 0.25% alcaftadine is more effective in reducing the symptoms of all types of allergic conjunctivitis except those mentioned in exclusion criteria.
Poorva Shrivastava, Lalit Shrivastava
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 672-675; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.135

Abstract:
The present study aimed to study the effectiveness of B scan in assessing the posterior segment in patients with ocular trauma, so that further treatment plan can be decided and prognosis can be improved. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study at tertiary care centre during the study period of 1 year on 42 patients presenting with history of ocular trauma. Patients were subjected to detailed history and ocular examination followed by B scan ultrasonography for ruling out posterior segment pathology. Mean age of 42.7±20.2 years and 45.2% patients belonged to 41 to 60 years of age. About 54.8% cases were females. About 50% cases had one or the other posterior segment finding. Retinal detachment followed by vitreous hemorrhage were the most common findings, observed in 19% and 11.9% cases respectively. Avulsion of optic nerve was the least common finding (2.4%). B scan ultrasonography plays an important role in management of patients with ocular trauma for the detection of hidden posterior segment lesions. B scan must be performed routinely in all the cases of ocular trauma for early diagnosis and appropriate management of each case and to reduce the ocular morbidities.
Spoorthy S, Chandana S
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 691-694; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.139

Abstract:
The incidence of hypercholesterolemia is ever increasing as the co morbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stressful life is on a rise. Ocular conditions associated with hypercholesterolemia are issues which are minimally discussed. : This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019. Complete eye examination was performed including visual acuity examination, refraction, tear film evaluation, slit lamp examination, measurement of intraocular pressure using rebound tonometer, gonioscopy, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy Total of 81 patients were examined, out of which males were 55, females were 26. Most common ocular finding was Xanthoma and Xanthelasma in 61(70%) patients. Arcus juvenalis was noted in 12 (14.63%), Lipid keratopathy in 23(29.26%). Other comorbidities associated were Hypertensive Retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, Pre senile cataract, Primary open angle Glaucoma, Branch retinal vein occlusion which has indirect causal relationship. Along with systemic workup, Hypercholesterolemia also warrants a routine detailed ocular examination even if the patient is asymptomatic. This aids in early diagnosis and management of the co-existing ocular morbidities.
Sunil Ganekal, Syril Dorairaj, Varun Ganekal
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 699-702; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.141

Abstract:
To evaluate the effect of use of ringer lactate solution supplemented with heparin sodium in patients undergoing cataract surgery.In a prospective, double-blind, interventional study, 200 patients were included and were randomized to undergo cataract surgery using ringer lactate solution with or without 10 IU/ml heparin. All patients underwent phacoemulsification with hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The severity of anterior chamber inflammation and amount of pigment deposition of IOL was assessed by slit lamp biomicroscopy on day 1, 7, 28 and after 8 weeks postoperatively. Mean age in treatment and control group was 63.0± 11.5 years and 65.1±12.7 years respectively. A significant reduction in the severity of inflammatory cellular activity (p=0.001), flare (p=0.001) and pigment deposition on IOL (p=0.001) was noted on day 1 in the heparin treated group compared to the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in the amount of inflammatory activity as well as IOL pigment deposition beyond 1 week postoperatively. The inflammatory activity resolved almost completely in both the groups by the end of 8 weeks postoperatively. : Our study showed the beneficial effect of addition of heparin to irrigating solution during cataract surgery. Heparin treated eyes demonstrated a reduction in the early postoperative inflammation and IOL pigment deposition. The anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the early postoperative period.
Poorva Shrivastava, Sheetal Morskole, Lalit Shrivastava
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 717-722; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.145

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the visual field changes in tubercular patients on anti-tubercular therapy and to assess the reversibility of these changes after the discontinuation therapy. This study was conducted as a prospective analytical study at tertiary care centres in Bhopal and Jabalpur on all newly detected tuberculosis patients. Ocular history, relevant history was recorded and detailed ocular examination was done at the time of presentation, before initiating ATT. All the patients were followed up periodically till the cessation of treatment and three months thereafter. A total of 40 cases of newly diagnosed tuberculosis were registered with mean age of 38.4±13.99 years. We documented significant deterioration in visual acuity after 3 months of initiation of therapy. Once the ATT was stopped, the improvement in visual acuity was statistically significant 3 months after the cessation of ATT as compared to visual acuity 3 months after initiation of ATT (p<0.05). But residual visual impairment even after stoppage of ATT was observed. Color vison and visual field defects were observed in higher proportions of eyes following initiation of ethambutol which improved significantly after 3 months of cessation of ATT (p<0.05). Ethambutol, even in recommended dose according to DOTS, has been associated with ocular toxicity which manifests in the form of painless progressive loss of vision, color vision defects and visual field defects. Though these changes are usually reversible, few patients have irreversible damage. Thus, patients receiving ethambutol must be explained regarding these effects and followed up periodically.
Akansha Gupta, Ritesh Kumar Chaurasiya
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 7, pp 659-662; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijceo.2021.132

Abstract:
: In normal population and patient, the significant increase in dry eyes manifestations have been observed. Similarly, aggravated symptoms and complaints of dryness have also been observed in clinical and hospital staff by using a face mask for an extended time period. The purpose of the study was to observe the association between symptoms of dry eyes and the duration of using masks in health professionals.: An unspecified questionnaire was distributed using Google Forms through different social media platforms, asking each respondent to contribute to the survey. Data were collected from December 2021 to January 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was considered if p-value was less than 0.05. A total of 39 responses was included for analysis in the study. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of the symptoms of dryness and the duration of using the mask. Similarly, the severity of the symptoms for dry eyes was strongly correlated with an increase in the frequency of symptoms for dry eyes.The finding reflects that the frequency of the dryness along with the severity will increase with the increase in the duration of wearing a mask. Moreover, it also suggests that cloth mask is the probable predisposing factor for the increase in the dry eye symptoms in this study.
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