BMJ Open Gastroenterology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2054-4774 / 2054-4774
Published by: BMJ (10.1136)
Total articles ≅ 371
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, Catherine Hsu, Mark P Lythgoe
Published: 21 October 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000739

Abstract:
Background COVID-19 continues to pose a significant healthcare challenge throughout the world. Comorbidities including diabetes and hypertension are associated with a significantly higher mortality risk. However, the effect of cirrhosis on COVID-19 outcomes has yet to be systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the reported clinical outcomes of patients with cirrhosis who develop COVID-19 infection. Design/Method PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for studies included up to 3 February 2021. All English language primary research articles that reported clinical outcomes in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19 were included. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed using the Quality In Prognostic Score (QUIPS) risk-of-bias assessment instrument for prognostic factor studies template. Meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane RevMan V.5.4 software using a random effects model. Results 63 studies were identified reporting clinical outcomes in patients with cirrhosis and concomitant COVID-19. Meta-analysis of cohort studies which report a non-cirrhotic comparator yielded a pooled mortality OR of 2.48 (95% CI: 2.02 to 3.04). Analysis of a subgroup of studies reporting OR for mortality in hospitalised patients adjusted for significant confounders found a pooled adjusted OR 1.81 (CI: 1.36 to 2.42). Conclusion Cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in COVID-19 infection compared to non-cirrhotic patients. Patients with cirrhosis should be considered for targeted public health interventions to prevent COVID-19 infection, such as shielding and prioritisation of vaccination.
Ibrahim Awwad, Selina Greuel, , Christian Fischer
Published: 18 October 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000757

Abstract:
We present a case of a male patient in his mid-30s with COVID-19-induced lung failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, who needed an emergency oesophagogastroduodenoscopy due to major upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy exposed severe ulcerative duodenitis with diffuse mucosal bleeding. While CT angiography did not show any signs of ischaemia, histopathology revealed duodenitis with substantial inflammatory cell infiltrates consisting of neutrophils and CD3+ T lymphocytes with equal CD4+/CD8+ distribution. Since the composition of cell infiltrates coincides with changes in inflammatory patterns of the respiratory mucosa from patients with COVID-19 and in COVID-19-associated enterocolitis, and systemic dexamethasone treatment became standard of care in ventilated intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 infection, we initiated an individualised therapeutic attempt to treat the duodenitis with topical enteral budesonide. Follow-up oesophagogastroduodenoscopies within 4 weeks of enteral budesonide administration revealed a full clinical and histological healing of the duodenal mucosa with marked reduction of neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrates. To our knowledge, the current report is the first description of enteral budesonide treatment of duodenitis in a patient with COVID-19 infection and warrants further investigation, whether budesonide might constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of COVID-19-related intestinal mucosal damage.
, Ahmad Reza Shirazi-Nejad, Ammar Al-Rifaie, Bernard M Corfe, Stuart Riley, Mo Thoufeeq
Published: 5 October 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000736

Abstract:
Introduction Adequate bowel preparation is a prerequisite for effective colonoscopy. Split bowel preparation results in optimal cleansing. This study assessed the bowel preparation regimes advised by endoscopy units across the UK, and correlated the differences with outcomes. Methods Trusts in the UK were surveyed, with data requested between January 2018 and January 2019, including: the type and timing of preparation, pre-endoscopy diet, adequacy rates and polyp detection. Trusts were grouped according to the timing of bowel preparation. χ2 test was used to assess for differences in bowel preparation adequacy. Results Moviprep was the first line bowel preparation in 79% of trusts. Only 7% of trusts advised splitting bowel preparation for all procedures, however, 91% used split bowel preparation for afternoon procedures. Trusts that split preparation for all procedures had an inadequacy rate of 6.7%, compared with 8.5% (p<0.001) for those that split preparation for PM procedures alone and 9.5% (p<0.001) for those that provided day before preparation for all procedures. Morning procedures with day-before preparation had a higher rate of inadequate cleansing than afternoon procedures that received split preparation (7.7% vs 6.5 %, p<0.001). The polyp detection rate for procedures with adequate preparation was 37.1%, compared with 26.4% for those that were inadequate. Conclusion Most trusts in the UK do not provide instructions optimising the timing of bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. This correlated with an increased rate of inadequate cleansing. Splitting bowel preparation is likely to reduce the impacts of poor cleansing: missed lesions, repeat colonoscopies and significant costs.
, Osama Hamdy, Megahed M Abuelmagd, Attia H Hassan, Naim Alkhouri, Marwa R Al-Badri, Hannah Gardner, Ahmed H Eldib, Elsayed A Eid
Published: 5 October 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000780

Abstract:
Objective Limited literature has examined the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and fibrosis among young adults in Egypt, a country with one of the highest obesity rates globally. We assessed the prevalence of steatosis and fibrosis among college students in Egypt. Design In this cross-sectional study, we recruited students unaware of having fatty liver via a call-for-participation at a private university in the Dakahlia governorate of Egypt. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of steatosis as determined by the controlled attenuation parameter component of transient elastography and fibrosis as determined by the liver stiffness measurement component of transient elastography. Secondary outcomes were clinical parameters and socioeconomic factors associated with the presence and severity of steatosis and fibrosis. Results Of 132 participants evaluated for the study, 120 (91%) were included (median (IQR) age, 20 (19–21) years; 65 (54.2%) female). A total of 38 participants (31.6%) had steatosis, among whom 22 (57.9%) had S3 (severe) steatosis. There was a higher risk for steatosis in persons with overweight (adjusted OR 9.67, 95% CI (2.94 to 31.7, p<0.0001) and obesity (adjusted OR 13.87, 95% CI 4.41 to 43.6, p<0.0001) compared with lean persons. Moreover, higher level of parental education was associated with progressing steatosis stages (S1–S3). Six (5%) participants had transient elastography values equivalent to F2–F3 fibrosis (four with F2 fibrosis (≥7.9 kPa), and two with F3 fibrosis (≥8.8 kPa)). Conclusion In this cohort of college students in Egypt, around 1 in 3 had steatosis, and 1 in 20 had moderate-to-advanced fibrosis, an established risk factor for hepatic and extrahepatic morbidity and mortality. These data underscore the urgency to address the silent epidemic of NAFLD among young adults in the Middle East-North Africa region.
Xinting Cai, Susanne Rospleszcz, Birger Mensel, Ulf Schminke, Jens-Peter Kühn, Ali Alexander Aghdassi, Corinna Storz, Roberto Lorbeer, Christopher L Schlett, Wolfgang Rathmann, et al.
Published: 30 September 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000709

Abstract:
Objective It is still controversial if increased hepatic fat independently contributes to cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the association between hepatic fat quantified by MRI and various subclinical vascular disease parameters. Design We included two cross-sectional investigations embedded in two independent population-based studies (Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): n=1341; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA): n=386). The participants underwent a whole-body MRI examination. Hepatic fat content was quantified by proton-density fat fraction (PDFF). Aortic diameters in both studies and carotid plaque-related parameters in KORA were measured with MRI. In SHIP, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque were assessed by ultrasound. We used (ordered) logistic or linear regression to assess associations between hepatic fat and subclinical vascular disease. Results The prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) (PDFF >5.6%) was 35% in SHIP and 43% in KORA. In SHIP, hepatic fat was positively associated with ascending (β, 95% CI 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08)), descending (0.05 (0.04 to 0.07)) and infrarenal (0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)) aortic diameters, as well as with higher odds of plaque presence (OR, 95% CI 1.22 (1.05 to 1.42)) and greater cIMT (β, 95% CI 0.01 (0.004 to 0.02)) in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model. However, further adjustment for additional cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly body mass index, attenuated these associations. In KORA, no significant associations were found. Conclusions The relation between hepatic fat and subclinical vascular disease was not independent of overall adiposity. Given the close relation of FLD with cardiometabolic risk factors, people with FLD should still be prioritised for cardiovascular disease screening.
, Radha Popuri,
Published: 29 September 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000770

Abstract:
A young adult male was referred for a second opinion of deranged liver biochemistry. He initially presented two years prior with abdominal pain, lethargy and fevers due to a segment two pyogenic liver abscess. He received empirical antibiotic therapy to resolution. Computed tomography for abscess follow-up revealed an intrahepatic inferior vena cava thrombus. He was anti-coagulated with warfarin. He was lupus anticoagulant positive and had a highly positive beta-2 glycoprotein antibody on serial measurement and was diagnosed with anti-phospholipid syndrome. On current review, the patient had no clinical stigmata of chronic liver disease. There were dilated veins on the supraumbilical abdominal and chest walls. There was mild hepatomegaly but no splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed mildly cholestatic liver function tests with hyperbilirubinaemia (40μmol/L) but no liver synthetic dysfunction. Serological screening did not reveal any cause of chronic liver disease. The patient underwent multiphase abdominal CT and formal hepatic venography. What is the diagnosis and describe the hepatic venous outflow?
, João Afonso, Tiago Ribeiro, João Ferreira, Helder Cardoso, Ana Patricia Andrade, Marco Parente, Renato Natal, Guilherme Macedo
Published: 27 September 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000753

Abstract:
Objective Capsule endoscopy (CE) is pivotal for evaluation of small bowel disease. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding most often originates from the small bowel. CE frequently identifies a wide range of lesions with different bleeding potentials in these patients. However, reading CE examinations is a time-consuming task. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are highly efficient artificial intelligence tools for image analysis. This study aims to develop a CNN-based model for identification and differentiation of multiple small bowel lesions with distinct haemorrhagic potential using CE images. Design We developed, trained, and validated a denary CNN based on CE images. Each frame was labelled according to the type of lesion (lymphangiectasia, xanthomas, ulcers, erosions, vascular lesions, protruding lesions, and blood). The haemorrhagic potential was assessed by Saurin’s classification. The entire dataset was divided into training and validation sets. The performance of the CNN was measured by the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results A total of 53 555 CE images were included. The model had an overall accuracy of 99%, a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 99%, a PPV of 87%, and an NPV of 99% for detection of multiple small bowel abnormalities and respective classification of bleeding potential. Conclusion We developed and tested a CNN-based model for automatic detection of multiple types of small bowel lesions and classification of the respective bleeding potential. This system may improve the diagnostic yield of CE for these lesions and overall CE efficiency.
, Hin Huang, Barbara Hannah, Viraj Chandana Kariyawasam
Published: 27 September 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000745

Abstract:
Background Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a potentially effective but underused therapy for Crohn’s disease (CD) in adults. It is first-line induction treatment for paediatric patients but remains a second-line or third-line therapy in adults. Objective To analyse the evidence for EEN in adult patients with CD, and summarise this in a narrative review. Methods In April/May 2020 and July 2021, a literature search was performed using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms: ‘Crohn’s disease’, ‘CD’, ‘inflammatory bowel disease’, ‘IBD’, ‘exclusive enteral nutrition’, ‘enteral nutrition’, ‘EEN’, in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane. Additional studies were obtained from references of search result articles as well as general reading. Studies with adult patients with CD treated with EEN were selected. 79 articles of relevance were found. Where data in adults were lacking, data from paediatric studies as extrapolated with care. Results EEN in adult patients been shown to improve clinical, biomarker, endoscopic and radiologic measures of disease activity. EEN avoids the potential adverse effects of recurrent corticosteroids for induction such as metabolic derangements and opportunistic infections. EEN has also demonstrated benefits among adult patients with fistulising and stricturing CD. It may avoid surgery in such patients. Preoperative EEN has also been shown to reduce postoperative complications and recurrence. There appears to be benefits in combing EEN with antitumour necrosis factor agents, however, benefits of combination therapy with other biologics are less clear. A major drawback of EEN therapy in adults has been poor compliance. More palatable polymeric formulations improved patient education and dietitian support may overcome this. Evidence in adults is limited to small studies, often with suboptimal control arms and lack of blinding. Larger scale studies with improved study design are needed to confirm these beneficial effects. Conclusion Despite limitations in evidence EEN should be considered in treating adults with CD.
, Enrique Coss-Adame, Mercedes Amieva-Balmori, José Antonio Velarde-Ruiz Velasco, Paulo César Gómez-Castaños, Ricardo Flores-Rendón, Octavio Gómez-Escudero, María Celina Rodríguez-Leal, Cristina Durán-Rosas, Samanta Mayanin Pinto-Gálvez, et al.
Published: 16 September 2021
by BMJ
BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000729

Abstract:
Objective A minimum of physical activity and low liquid intake are factors that have been associated with constipation. The health emergency brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in adopting behaviour, such as sheltering-in-place (less mobility) and dietary changes, creating a scenario we believe to be an adequate model for examining the appearance of symptoms of constipation and its associated factors. Design A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on an open population, applying an electronic survey (4 weeks after lockdown due to COVID-19 in Mexico) to evaluate demographic characteristics, physical activity, water and fibre intake, appearance of constipation symptoms (including stool consistency), and quality of life. Results Out of 678 subjects evaluated, 170 (25%, 95% CI: 21.7 to 28.4) developed symptoms of ‘new-onset’ constipation, with a significant decrease in the number of daily bowel movements (p<0.05) and stool consistency (p<0.05) during lockdown. Furthermore, in the ‘new-onset’ constipation population there was a higher proportion of subjects (79 (47%) of 170) who stopped exercising during the pandemic compared with the subjects who did not develop constipation symptoms (187 (37%) of 508, p=0.03, OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.1). The multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that female sex (p=0.001), water intake (p=0.039), and physical activity (p=0.012) were associated with ‘new-onset’ constipation. Conclusions In our study on an open population in Mexico, we found that one-fourth of the population developed ‘new-onset’ constipation symptoms during the lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A reduction of physical activity and less water consumption were associated factors.
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