ISSN / EISSN : 1932-6203 / 1932-6203
Current Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 246,770
Latest articles in this journal
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247945
Background Remaining underweight during Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is associated with a higher risk of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes and relapse. Previous studies conducted in Ethiopia found that bodyweight not adjusted for height at the start of treatment is associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight change during treatment with treatment outcomes has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the association of BMI at the time of diagnosis and after two months of treatment and TB treatment outcomes. Methods Using an ambi-directional cohort study design (retrospective and prospective), a total of 456 participants were enrolled among 30 randomly selected public health centers residing within six sub-cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected using medical chart abstraction and face to face interviews. We compared TB treatment outcomes in persons with a body mass index (BMI) 2 (underweight) versus persons with BMI ≥18.5kg/m2 (normal or overweight) at treatment initiation and after two months of treatment. Treatment was classified as successful in persons who were free of symptoms and had a negative sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli at the end of the 6-month treatment course. We analysed outcomes using univariable and multivariable logistic regression with 95% CI and p value< 0.05. Results Of enrolled study participants, 184 (40.4%) were underweight and 272 (59.6%) were normal or overweight. Body mass index (BMI ≥18.5kg/m2) at the start and second month of treatment were independent predictors for successful treatment outcome (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.05, 4.39) and (AOR = 3.55; 95% CI: 1.29, 9.73), respectively. The probability of treatment success among patients with BMI≥18.5kg/m2 at the start and second month of treatment was 92.9% and 97.1%, respectively versus 86.5% and 91.7% in patients with BMI2. Bodyweight not adjusted for height and change in the bodyweight after the second and sixth months of treatment were not significantly associated with treatment success. Conclusion In persons treated for TB disease, being underweight at baseline and after two months of treatment was a predictor for unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Nutritional assessment, counselling, and management are important components of TB treatment programs with the potential to improve treatment outcomes.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247914
Aim To understand the impact and causes of ‘Failure to Attend’ (FTA) labelling, of patients with chronic conditions. Background Nurse navigators are registered nurses employed by public hospitals in Queensland, Australia, to coordinate the care of patients with multiple chronic conditions, who frequently miss hospital appointments. The role of the nurse navigator is to improve care management of these patients. Evidence for this is measured through improvement in patient self-management of their conditions, a reduction in preventable hospital admissions and compliance with attendance at outpatient clinics. Failure to attend (FTA) is one measure of hospital utilisation, identifying outpatient appointments that are cancelled or not attended. Method The cohort for this study was patients with multiple chronic conditions, and nurse navigators coordinating their care. Data describing the concept of FTA were thematically analysed twelve months into this three year evaluation. Results Although the patient is blamed for failing to attend appointments, the reasons appear to be a mixture of systems error/miscommunication between the patient and the health services or social reasons impacting on patient’s capacity to attend. Themes emerging from the data were: access barriers; failure to recognise personal stigma of FTA; and bridging the gap. Conclusion The nurse navigators demonstrate their pivotal role in engaging with outpatient services to reduce FTAs whilst helping patients to become confident in dealing with multiple appointments. There are many reasons why a patient is unable to attend a scheduled appointment. The phrase ‘Failure to Attend’ has distinctly negative connotations and can lead to a sense of blame and shame for those with complex chronic needs. We propose the use of the neutral phrase “appointment did not proceed” to replace FTA. Implications for Nursing management This article advocates for further consideration of collaborative models that engage the patient in their care journey and for consideration of the language used within the outpatient acute hospital setting, proposing the term ‘appointment did not proceed.’
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247046
Interacting Particle Systems (IPSs) are used to model spatio-temporal stochastic systems in many disparate areas of science. We design an algorithmic framework that reduces IPS simulation to simulation of well-mixed Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs). This framework minimizes the number of associated reaction channels and decouples the computational cost of the simulations from the size of the lattice. Decoupling allows our software to make use of a wide class of techniques typically reserved for well-mixed CRNs. We implement the direct stochastic simulation algorithm in the open source programming language Julia. We also apply our algorithms to several complex spatial stochastic phenomena. including a rock-paper-scissors game, cancer growth in response to immunotherapy, and lipid oxidation dynamics. Our approach aids in standardizing mathematical models and in generating hypotheses based on concrete mechanistic behavior across a wide range of observed spatial phenomena.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248015
Objective Resistin is a small, cysteine-rich proinflammatory molecule that is primarily secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages in humans. Previous studies have shown resistin to participate in various pathological processes including atherosclerosis and cancer progression but not many studies have assessed the role of resistin as a risk factor for all-cause mortality. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether resistin predicts mortality among elderly Finnish people. Methods The study population consisted of 599 elderly (71.7 ± 5.4 years) patients and the follow-up was approximately six years. A thorough clinical examination including anthropometric and other clinical measurements such as blood pressure as well as various laboratory parameters (including resistin) was conducted at baseline. Results After the follow-up, 65 (11%) of the patients died. Resistin was a significant risk factor for all-cause mortality (HR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.64–5.56, p Conclusions Our results indicate that resistin is a significant risk factor for all-cause mortality among elderly Finnish subjects, independent from traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247878
Background Isolated or multi lineage cytopenia are the most common clinicopathological features and independently associated with increased risk of disease progression and death among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. In the study area, there is scarcity of data about the magnitude of various cytopenia. Objectives Aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of peripheral cytopenia among HIV infected children at the University of Gondar Specialized Referral Hospital ART clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 255 HIV infected children from January- April 2020. None probable convenient sampling technique was used to select the study participant. Socio demographic data were collected by pre tested structured questionnaire via face-to-face interview and their medical data were obtained from their follow-up medical records. Moreover, blood specimens were collected and examined for complete blood count, viral load and blood film, whereas stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of cytopenia. P-Value Result The overall magnitude of peripheral cytopenia was 38.9%. Anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and bi-cytopenia were 21.2%, 12.2%, 11%, 1.6% and 3.9% respectively. Being in the age group of 2–10 years (AOR = 5.38, 95%CI 2.33–12.46), AZT based regimen (AOR = 5.44, 95%CI: 2.24–13.21), no eating green vegetables (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.26–4.92) and having plasma viral load >1000 copies /ml (AOR = 5.38, 95%CI: 2.22–13.03) showed significant association with anemia. Conclusion Anemia was the predominant peripheral cytopenia among HIV infected children in this study. It was strongly associated with AZT based drug type, age below 10 years and high viral load. Critical stress should be given for early investigation and management of cytopenia in addition to the use of alternative drug which leads to higher viral suppression and lower risk of toxicity issue.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0246712
Background The primary objective of National NCD monitoring survey (NNMS) was to generate national-level estimates of key NCD indicators identified in the national NCD monitoring framework. This paper describes survey study protocol and prevalence of risk factors among adults (18–69 years). Materials and methods NNMS was a national level cross-sectional survey conducted during 2017–18. The estimated sample size was 12,000 households from 600 primary sampling units. One adult (18–69 years) per household was selected using the World Health Organization-KISH grid. The study tools were adapted from WHO-STEPwise approach to NCD risk factor surveillance, IDSP-NCD risk factor survey and WHO-Global adult tobacco survey. Total of 8/10 indicators of adult NCD risk factors according to national NCD disease monitoring framework was studied. This survey for the first time estimated dietary intake of salt intake of population at a national level from spot urine samples. Results Total of 11139 households and 10659 adults completed the survey. Prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use was 32.8% (95% CI: 30.8–35.0) and 15.9% (95% CI: 14.2–17.7) respectively. More than one-third adults were physically inactive [41.3% (95% CI: 39.4–43.3)], majority [98.4% (95% CI: 97.8–98.8)] consumed less than 5 servings of fruits and / or vegetables per day and mean salt intake was 8 g/day (95% CI: 7.8–8.2). Proportion with raised blood pressure and raised blood glucose were 28.5% (95% CI: 27.0–30.1) and 9.3% (95% CI: 8.3–10.5) respectively. 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2–14.5) of adults (40–69 years) had ten-year CVD risk of ≥30% or with existing CVD. Conclusion NNMS was the first comprehensive national survey providing relevant data to assess India’s progress towards targets in National NCD monitoring framework and NCD Action Plan. Established methodology and findings from survey would contribute to plan future state-based surveys and also frame policies for prevention and control of NCDs.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0246576
The glass cliff suggests that women are more likely to access leadership positions when organizations are facing a crisis. Although this phenomenon is well established, it is still largely unknown how variations in types of crises influence the strength of the think crisis-think female association, and whether female leaders and leaders with communal gendered traits are both affected by this association. We hypothesized that selection of stereotypically feminine traits (communal leaders) is specific to a relational crisis because of a fit between leader traits and traits required by the situation. We further expected that the selection of women also extends to other crisis situations because other factors such as their signaling change potential may play a role. We investigated the associations that participants made with candidates who varied across gendered traits and gender and between two crisis situations involving problems with either stereotypically feminine (e.g., an internal disharmony) or masculine (e.g., a financial problem) components, and a no crisis situation control. Results from three experimental studies (Ns = 319, 384, 385) supported our hypotheses by showing that communal leaders were most strongly associated with a relational crisis and least with a financial crisis, with the no crisis context situated in-between. This pattern was explained by higher relevance ratings for communal leadership behavior in the relational crisis versus financial crisis context, with the no crisis context situated in-between. In contrast, female leaders were most strongly associated with the relational crisis and least with the no crisis context, with the financial crisis situated in-between. Specific explanatory mechanisms related to the female-crisis association are explored and discussed. Our findings suggest that implicit motivations for valuing feminine/communal leadership and atypical leaders in crisis situations need further research.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248003
The duration of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a critical factor that determines the duration of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate factors affecting the PTBD duration in patients who underwent percutaneous treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. This study analyzed data of 169 patients who underwent percutaneous treatment of CBD stones from June 2009 to June 2019. Demographic data, characteristics of stone, procedure-related factors, and laboratory findings before the insertion of PTBD tubes were retrospectively evaluated. To assess the effect of confounding factors on the PTBD duration, multivariate linear regression analysis was applied, incorporating significant predictive factors identified in the univariate regression analysis. In the univariate regression analysis, the predictive factor that showed high correlation with the PTBD duration was the initial total bilirubin level (coefficient = 0.68, P < .001) followed by the short diameter of the largest stone (coefficient = 0.19, P = .056), and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy (coefficient = -2.50, P = .086). The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the initial total bilirubin level (coefficient = 0.50, P < .001) and short diameter of the largest stone (coefficient = 0.16, P = .025) were significantly related to the PTBD duration. The total bilirubin level before PTBD tube insertion and the short diameter of the largest CBD stone were predictive factors for the PTBD duration in patients who underwent percutaneous CBD stone removal. Careful assessment of these factors might help in predicting the treatment period, thereby improving the quality of patient care.
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248253
PLOS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247708
Chronic obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common disorder of the middle ear. In recent years, two main diagnostic tools have become available: Eustachian tube score (ETS-7) and computed tomography (CT) combined with Valsalva maneuver. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of ETS-7 and CT in a group of patients affected by middle ear atelectasis with a strong suspicion of ETD. Three males and nine females, affected by middle ear atelectasis with retraction of the TM were enrolled. Each patient underwent to Eustachian tube dysfunction evaluation adopting the ETS-7 score and a temporal bone CT with Valsalva maneuver. The ears analyzed at steady state were divided into 2 groups: ETS