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ISSN / EISSN : 19326203 / 19326203
Current Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 238,970
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M. Toghyani, L. R. McQuade, B. V. Mclnerney, A. F. Moss, P. H. Selle, S. Y. Liu
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239156

Abstract:
A study evaluating apparent digestibilities of protein and amino acids and their corresponding digestion rates in four small intestinal sites in broiler chickens was completed to further investigate dietary optimisation via synchronised nutrient digestion and absorption. A total of 288 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were offered semi-purified diets with eight protein-rich feedstuffs, including; blood meal (BM), plasma protein meal (PPM), cold pressed (CCM) and expeller-pressed (ECM) canola meal, high (SBM HCP) and low (SBM LCP) crude protein soybean meals, lupins and peas. Diets were iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous and the test ingredient was the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Each diet was offered to 6 bioassay cages with 6 birds per cage from day 21 to 28 post hatch. On day 28, all birds were euthanized and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum to determine apparent protein and amino acids digestibility coefficients, digestion rates and potential digestible protein and amino acids. Dietary protein source significantly influenced energy utilisation, nitrogen retention, apparent protein (N) digestibilities, digestion rates and potential digestible protein along the small intestine. Diets containing BM and SBM LCP exhibited the highest protein digestion rate and potential digestible protein, respectively. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of the majority of amino acids in four sections of the small intestine were influenced by dietary protein source (P < 0.01) and blood meal had the fastest protein digestion rate. In general, jejunal amino acid and protein digestibilities were more variable in comparison to ileal digestibilities, and the differences in protein and amino acid disappearance rates were more pronounced between types of feedstuffs than sources of similar feedstuffs.
Eduardo Grimaldo, Bent Herrmann, Nadine Jacques, Jørgen Vollstad, Biao Su
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234224

Abstract:
Gillnets made of the biodegradable resin polybutylene succinate co-adipate-co-terephthalate were tested under commercial fishing conditions to compare their fishing performance with that of conventional nylon polyamide (PA) gillnets. Both types of gillnets were made of 0.55 mm Ø monofilaments. However, since the biodegradable nets are weaker than nylon PA nets when using the same monofilament diameter, we also used biodegradable nets made of 0.60 mm Ø monofilament that had a similar tensile strength to the 0.55 mm Ø nylon PA nets. The relative catch efficiency of the different gillnet types was evaluated over the 2018 autumn fishing season for saithe and cod in northern Norway. For cod, both biodegradable gillnets (0.55 and 0.60 mm) had a significantly lower catch efficiency compared to the traditional nylon PA net (0.55 mm) with estimated catch efficiencies of 62.38% (CI: 50.55–74.04) and 54.96% (CI: 35.42–73.52) compared with the nylon PA net, respectively. Similarly for saithe, both biodegradable gillnets (0.55 and 0.60 mm) had a lower estimated catch efficiency compared to the traditional nylon PA net (0.55 mm) with estimated catch efficiencies of 83.40% (71.34–94.86) and 83.87% (66.36–104.92), compared with the nylon PA net, respectively. Tensile strength does not explain the differences in catch efficiency between the two gillnet types, since increasing the twine diameter of the biodegradable gillnets (to match the strength of nylon PA gillnets) did not yield similar catch efficiencies. However, the elasticity and stiffness of the materials may be responsible for the differences in catch efficiency between the nylon PA and biodegradable gillnets.
Alejandra Vives, Tarik Benmarhnia, Francisca González, Joan Benach
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238401

Abstract:
Social epidemiologic research in relation to the health impacts of precarious employment has grown markedly during the past decade. While the multidimensional nature of precarious employment has long been acknowledged theoretically, empirical studies have mostly focused on one-dimensional approach only (based either on employment temporariness or perceived job insecurity). This study compares the use of a multidimensional employment precariousness scale (EPRES) with traditional one-dimensional approaches in relation to distinct health outcomes and across various socio-demographic characteristics. We used a subsample of formal salaried workers (n = 3521) from the first Chilean employment and working conditions survey (2009–2010). Multilevel modified Poisson regressions with fixed effects (individuals nested within regions) and survey weights were conducted to estimate the association between general health, mental health and occupational injuries and distinct precarious employment exposures (temporary employment, perceived job insecurity, and the multidimensional EPRES scale). We assessed the presence of effect measure modification according to sex, age, educational level, and occupational class (manual/non-manual). Compared to one-dimensional approaches to precarious employment, the multidimensional EPRES scale captured a larger picture of potential health effects and differences across subgroups of workers. Patterns of effect measure that modification were consistent with the expectations that groups in greater disadvantage (women, older individuals, less educated and manual workers) were more vulnerable to poor employment conditions. Multidimensional measures of precarious employment better capture its association with a breath of health outcomes, being necessary tools for research in order to strengthen the evidence base for policy making in the protection of workers’ health.
Joshua Moore, Xuhan Shu, Bernardo T. Lopes, Richard Wu, Ahmed Abass
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0236096

Abstract:
To assess the axial, radial and tangential limbus position misrepresentation when parametric models are used to represent the cornea and the sclera. This retrospective study included 135 subjects aged 22 to 65 years (36.5 mean ±9.8 STD), 71 females and 64 males. Topography measurements were taken using an Eye Surface Profiler topographer and processed by a custom-built MATLAB code. Eye surfaces were freed from edge-effect artefacts and fitted to spherical, conic and biconic models. When comparing the radial position of the limbus, average errors of -0.83±0.19mm, -0.76±0.20mm and -0.69±0.20mm were observed within the right eye population for the spherical, conic and biconic models fitted up to 5mm. For the same fitting radius, the average fitting errors were -0.86±0.23mm, -0.78±0.23mm and -0.73±0.23mm for the spherical, conic and biconic models respectively within the left eye population. For the whole cornea fit, the average errors were -0.27±0.12mm and -0.28±0.13mm for the spherical models, -0.02±0.29mm and -0.05±0.27mm for the conic models, and -0.22±0.16mm and 0.24±0.17mm for the biconic models in the right and left eye populations respectively. Through the use of spherical, conic and biconic parametric modelling methods, the eye’s limbus is being mislocated. Additionally, it is evident that the magnitude of fitting error associated with the sclera may be propagating through the other components of the eye. This suggests that a corneal nonparametric model may be necessary to improve the representation of the limbus.
Mei Lun Mui, Thomas R. Famula, Paula S. Henthorn, Rebecka S. Hess
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239542

Abstract:
The Australian Terrier breed is the breed at highest risk for naturally-occurring diabetes mellitus in the United States, where it is 32 times more likely to develop diabetes compared to mixed breed dogs. However, the heritability and mode of inheritance of spontaneous diabetes in Australian Terriers has not been reported. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the heritability and mode of inheritance of diabetes in Australian Terriers. A cohort of related Australian Terriers including 383 Australian Terriers without diabetes, 86 Australian Terriers with spontaneous diabetes, and 14 Australian Terriers with an unknown phenotype, was analyzed. A logistic regression model including the effects of sex was formulated to evaluate the heritability of diabetes. The inheritance pattern of spontaneous diabetes in Australian Terriers was investigated by use of complex segregation analysis. Six possible inheritance models were studied, and the Akaike Information Criterion was used to determine the best model for diabetes inheritance in Australian Terriers, among the models deemed biologically feasible. Heritability of diabetes in Australian Terriers was estimated at 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.0–0.67). There was no significant difference in the effect of males and females on disease outcome. Complex segregation analysis suggested that the mode of diabetes inheritance in Australian Terriers is polygenic, with no evidence for a large effect single gene influencing diabetes. It is concluded that in the population of Australian Terriers bred in the United States, a relatively small degree of genetic variation contributes to spontaneous diabetes. A genetic uniformity for diabetes-susceptible genes within the population of Australian Terriers bred in the Unites States could increase the risk of diabetes in this cohort. These findings hold promise for future genetic studies of canine diabetes focused on this particular breed.
Marleen Botermans, Johanna W. Roenhorst, Marinus Hooftman, Jacobus Th. J. Verhoeven, Eveline Metz, Esther J. Van Veen, Bart P. J. Geraats, Mark Kemper, Debora C. M. Beugelsdijk, Harrie Koenraadt, et al.
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232502

Abstract:
Potato spindle tuber viroid and other pospiviroids can cause serious diseases in potato and tomato crops. Consequently, pospiviroids are regulated in several countries. Since seed transmission is considered as a pathway for the introduction and spread of pospiviroids, some countries demand for the testing of seed lots of solanaceous crops for the presence of pospiviroids. A real-time RT-PCR test, named PospiSense, was developed for testing pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds for seven pospiviroid species known to occur naturally in these crops. The test consists of two multiplex reactions running in parallel, PospiSense 1 and PospiSense 2, that target Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Columnea latent viroid (CLVd), pepper chat fruit viroid (PCFVd), potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd), tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) and tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd, including the former Mexican papita viroid). Dahlia latent viroid (DLVd) is used as an internal isolation control. Validation of the test showed that for both pepper and tomato seeds the current requirements of a routine screening test are fulfilled, i.e. the ability to detect one infested seed in a sample of c.1000 seeds for each of these seven pospiviroids. Additionally, the PospiSense test performed well in an inter-laboratory comparison, which included two routine seed-testing laboratories, and as such provides a relatively easy alternative to the currently used tests.
Tedi Begaj, Anna Marmalidou, Thanos D. Papakostas, J. Daniel Diaz, Leo A. Kim, David M. Wu, John B. Miller
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239138

Abstract:
There are multiple surgical approaches to the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Here, we evaluated the outcomes of small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), alone or in combination with scleral buckle (SB-PPV), for RRD repair using a standardized technique by 3 vitreoretinal surgeons: “extensive” removal of the vitreous with scleral depression and dynamic examination of the peripheral retina. One hundred eighty seven eyes of 180 consecutive patients treated for primary RRD by three vitreoretinal surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center from September 2015 to March 2018 were analyzed. Most RRDs occurred in males (134 [71.3%] eyes), affected the left eye (102 [54.3%]), and were phakic (119 [63.3%]). PPV alone was performed in 159 eyes (84.6%), with a combined SB-PPV used in the remaining 29 eyes (15.4%); focal endolaser was used in all (100%) cases. The single surgery anatomic success rate was 186 eyes (99.5%) at 3 months, and 187 (100%) at last follow up. Overall best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had significantly improved at 3 months ([Snellen 20/47] P
John C. W. Hildyard, Faye Rawson, Dominic J. Wells, Richard J. Piercy
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239467

Abstract:
Dystrophin plays a vital role in maintaining muscle health, yet low mRNA expression, lengthy transcription time and the limitations of traditional in-situ hybridization (ISH) methodologies mean that the dynamics of dystrophin transcription remain poorly understood. RNAscope is highly sensitive ISH method that can be multiplexed, allowing detection of individual transcript molecules at sub-cellular resolution, with different target mRNAs assigned to distinct fluorophores. We instead multiplex within a single transcript, using probes targeted to the 5’ and 3’ regions of muscle dystrophin mRNA. Our approach shows this method can reveal transcriptional dynamics in health and disease, resolving both nascent myonuclear transcripts and exported mature mRNAs in quantitative fashion (with the latter absent in dystrophic muscle, yet restored following therapeutic intervention). We show that even in healthy muscle, immature dystrophin mRNA predominates (60–80% of total), with the surprising implication that the half-life of a mature transcript is markedly shorter than the time invested in transcription: at the transcript level, supply may exceed demand. Our findings provide unique spatiotemporal insight into the behaviour of this long transcript (with implications for therapeutic approaches), and further suggest this modified multiplex ISH approach is well-suited to long genes, offering a highly tractable means to reveal complex transcriptional dynamics.
Laura N. Pott, Rita M. Austin, Andrea R. Eller, Courtney A. Hofman, Sabrina B. Sholts
Published: 24 September 2020
PLOS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239600

Abstract:
Atlas occipitalization (AO) is a spinal anomaly, characterized by the fusion of the first cervical vertebra and occipital bone, with a complex etiology that can arise from congenital and environmental causes. AO has been reported in three regions of pre-Hispanic Peru in skeletal remains with artificial cranial modification (ACM), which involves the use of compression devices to permanently alter cranial shape and may have affected the fusion of the atlas and occipital bone. The aims of this study were to gain insights into AO’s etiology by testing correlations between AO and ACM presence/type and geographic region as well as to characterize morphological variation associated with AO. We investigated the geographic distribution of AO and its potential relationship to ACM in a large sample of human crania from eight coastal and highland regions of pre-Hispanic Peru, held at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History (n = 608, 1300–1500 CE). Eleven cases of AO were observed in three coastal regions—including two previously unreported regions—at an overall frequency of 1.8%. The frequency of AO did not differ significantly between crania with and without ACM, in general or by type, suggesting that ACM is not an etiological factor that influences AO in this sample. AO was observed at a significantly higher rate in the southern coastal region of Arequipa than in any other region. Genetic, dietary, and epidemiological conditions are evaluated as factors possibly shaping the geographic distribution of AO along the central and southern coasts of Peru.
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