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ISSN / EISSN : 19326203 / 19326203
Current Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 235,236
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M. C. Gonçalves-Vidigal, T. A. S. Gilio, G. Valentini, M. Vaz-Bisneta, P. S. Vidigal Filho, Q. Song, P. R. Oblessuc, M. Melotto
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235215

Abstract:
Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Pseudocercospora griseola, respectively, are devastating diseases of common bean around the world. Therefore, breeders are constantly searching for new genes with broad-spectrum resistance against ANT and ALS. This study aimed to characterize the genetic resistance of California Dark Red Kidney (CDRK) to C. lindemuthianum races 73, 2047, and 3481 and P. griseola race 63–39 through inheritance, allelism testing, and molecular analyses. Genetic analysis of response to ANT and ALS in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a CDRK × Yolano cross (CY) showed that the resistance of CDRK cultivar is conferred by a single dominant loci, which we named CoPv01CDRK/PhgPv01CDRK. Allelism tests performed with race 3481showed that the resistance gene in CDRK is independent of the Co-1 and Co-AC. We conducted co-segregation analysis in genotypes of 110 CY RILs and phenotypes of the RILs in response to different races of the ANT and ALS pathogens. The results revealed that CoPv01CDRK and PhgPv01CDRK are coinherited, conferring resistance to all races. Genetic mapping of the CY population placed the CoPv01CDRK/PhgPv01CDRK loci in a 245 Kb genomic region at the end of Pv01. By genotyping 19 RILs from the CY population using three additional markers, we fine-mapped the CoPv01CDRK/PhgPv01CDRK loci to a smaller genomic region of 33 Kb. This 33 Kb region harbors five predicted genes based on the common bean reference genome. These results can be applied in breeding programs to develop bean cultivars with ANT and ALS resistance using marker-assisted selection.
Elliot Lassiter, Orlando Garcés, Kathleen Higgins, Eric Baitchman, Matthew Evans, Jorge Guerrel, Eric Klaphake, Donna Snellgrove, Roberto Ibáñez, Brian Gratwicke
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235285

Abstract:
Spindly leg syndrome (SLS) is a relatively common musculoskeletal abnormality associated with captive-rearing of amphibians with aquatic larvae. We conducted an experiment to investigate the role of environmental calcium and phosphate in causing SLS in tadpoles. Our 600-tadpole experiment used a fully-factorial design, rearing Atelopus varius tadpoles in water with either high (80mg/l CaCO3), medium (50mg/l CaCO3), or low calcium hardness (20mg/l CaCO3), each was combined with high (1.74 mg/l PO4) or low (0.36 mg/l PO4) phosphate levels. We found that calcium supplementation significantly improved tadpole survival from 19% to 49% and that low calcium treatments had 60% SLS that was reduced to about 15% at the medium and high calcium treatments. Phosphate supplementation significantly reduced SLS prevalence in low calcium treatments. This experimental research clearly links SLS to the calcium: phosphate homeostatic system, but we were unable to completely eliminate the issue, suggesting an interactive role of other unidentified factors.
Taketeru Tomita, Kiyomi Murakumo, Shinya Komoto, Alistair Dove, Masakatsu Kino, Kei Miyamoto, Minoru Toda
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235342

Abstract:
This report elaborates on adaptations of the eyes of the whale shark Rhincodon typus (Elasmobranchii, Rhincodontidae), including the discovery that they are covered with dermal denticles, which is a novel mechanism of eye protection in vertebrates. The eye denticle differs in morphology from that of the dermal denticles distributed over the rest of the body, consistent with a different function (abrasion resistance). We also demonstrate that the whale shark has a strong ability to retract the eyeball into the eye socket. The retraction distance was calculated to be approximately half the diameter of the eye, which is comparable to those of other vertebrates that are known to have highly retractable eyes. These highly protective features of the whale shark eye seem to emphasize the importance of vision for environmental perception, which contradicts the general, though poorly established, notion of low reliance on vision in this species.
Matilda Holm, Pirjo Nummela, Annamari Heiskanen, Tero Satomaa, Tuomas Kaprio, Harri Mustonen, Ari Ristimäki, Caj Haglund
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234989

Abstract:
Alterations in glycosylation are seen in many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Glycans, the sugar moieties of glycoconjugates, are involved in many important functions relevant to cancer and can be of value as biomarkers. In this study, we have used mass spectrometry to analyze the N-glycan profiles of 35 CRC tissue samples and 10 healthy tissue samples from non-CRC patients who underwent operations for other reasons. The tumor samples were divided into groups depending on tumor location (right or left colon) and stage (II or III), while the healthy samples were divided into right or left colon. The levels of neutral and acidic N-glycan compositions and glycan classes were analyzed in a total of ten different groups. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in glycan levels when all right- and left-sided CRC samples were compared, and few differences (such as in the abundance of the neutral N-glycan H3N5) were seen when the samples were divided according to both location and stage. Multiple significant differences were found in the levels of glycans and glycan classes when stage II and III samples were compared, and these glycans could be of value as candidates for new markers of cancer progression. In order to validate our findings, we analyzed healthy tissue samples from the right and left colon and found no significant differences in the levels of any of the glycans analyzed, confirming that our findings when comparing CRC samples from the right and left colon are not due to normal variations in the levels of glycans between the healthy right and left colon. Additionally, the levels of the acidic glycans H4N3F1P1, H5N4F1P1, and S1H5N4F1 were found to change in a cancer-specific but colon location-nonspecific manner, indicating that CRC affects glycan levels in similar ways regardless of tumor location.
Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema, Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen, Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235382

Abstract:
Unsafe abortion remains a global public health concern and it is the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite the efforts made to improve maternal health care service utilization, unsafe abortion yet constitutes the highest maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ethiopia. Although abortion among reproductive-age women is a common problem in Ethiopia, there is limited evidence about the spatial distribution and determinants of abortion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution and determinants of abortion among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data. A total of 12378 reproductive-age women were included in this study. The Bernoulli model was fitted using SaTScan version 9.6 statistical software to identify significant hotspot areas of abortion and ArcGIS version 10.6 statistical software was used to explore the spatial distributions of abortion. For the determinant factors, a mixed effect logistic regression model was fitted to take into account the hierarchical nature of the EDHS data. Deviance (-2LL), AIC, BIC, and ICC were used for model comparison. The AOR with a 95% CI was estimated for the potential determinants of abortion. The overall prevalence of abortion in Ethiopia was 8.9% ranging from 4.5% in Benishangul to 11.3% in Tigray regions. The spatial analysis revealed that abortion was significantly varied across the country. The SaTScan analysis identified a total of 60 significant clusters, of these 19 clusters were primary clusters. The primary clusters were located in the northern part of the Tigray region (LLR = 26.6, p<0.01; RR = 2.63). In the multivariable mixed-effect logistic regression analysis; primary education [AOR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.64], rural residence [AOR = 4.96; 95% CI: 3.42, 7.18], protestant religion follower [AOR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.75], richest wealth status [AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.40], maternal age 45–49 years [AOR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.52, 6.44], listening radio [AOR = 1.27; 1.01, 1.60], and watching television [AOR = 1.45; 1.04, 2.01] were significant determinants of abortion. The prevalence of abortion remains unacceptably high in Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of abortion has been significantly varied across regions in Ethiopia. Having primary education, being rural, having media exposure, and being from the richest household were significantly associated with higher odds of abortion whereas being protestant religious followers were associated with lower odds of abortion. Therefore, the government should design public health programs targeting the identified hotspot areas of abortion and should scale up maternal health programs in rural areas, to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
Rebecca Wigan, Cathy Vaughn, Lenka Vodstrcil, Michelle Doyle, Marti Kaiser, Collette McGuiness, Catriona S. Bradshaw, Jade E. Bilardi
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235286

Abstract:
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection among women of reproductive age. Increasing evidence suggests BV may be sexually transmitted indicating a potential role for the treatment of sexual partners. If partner treatment reduces BV recurrence in women, real-world success will depend on sexual partners’ willingness to accept it. However, a lack of data exists on the acceptability of partner treatment among sexual partners, and no data exists on male partners’ experience of BV specifically. The aim of this study was to explore male partners’ views and experience of BV and their attitudes toward associated partner treatment. A social constructionist approach informed the framework of this study. Semi structured interviews were conducted with eleven men who participated in a BV partner treatment trial. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. In the absence of symptoms in themselves, BV had little impact on men beyond their concerns for their partner’s health and self-esteem. Acceptance of treatment was largely a demonstration of care and support. While all participants had accepted treatment, men surmised the primary reasons other men may reject treatment as being: if they felt BV had “nothing to do with them”, which was related to not wanting to be viewed as having a ‘problem’ and exacerbated by norms of masculinity and STI-related stigma; lack of a diagnostic test to indicate if a male “had BV”; and a casual or less established relationship. Men’s attitudes to BV and partner treatment were primarily influenced by the nature of their relationships. The ambiguous aetiology of BV appears to attenuate STI related stigma and questions of infidelity.
Vijay K. Nandula, Darci A. Giacomini, Jeffery D. Ray
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235394

Abstract:
Several Amaranthus spp. around the world have evolved resistance (and cross resistance) to various herbicide mechanisms of action. Populations of redroot pigweed (RRPW-R) and tall waterhemp (TW-R) in Mississippi, USA have been suspected to be resistant to one or more acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides. Whole plant dose-response experiments with multiple ALS inhibitors, ALS enzyme assays with pyrithiobac, and molecular sequence analysis of ALS gene constructs were conducted to confirm and characterize the resistance profile and nature of the mechanism in the RRPW-R and TW-R populations. Two susceptible populations, RRPW-S and TW-S were included for comparison with RRPW-R and TW-R, correspondingly. The resistance index (R/S; the herbicide dose required to reduce plant growth by 50% of resistant population compared to the respective susceptible population) values of the RRPW-R population were 1476, 3500, and 900 for pyrithiobac, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron, respectively. The R/S values of the TW-R population for pyrithiobac, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron were 51, 950, and 2600, respectively. I50 values of RRPW-S and RRPW-R populations for pyrithiobac were 0.062 and 208.33 μM, indicating that the ALS enzyme of the RRPW-R population is 3360-fold more resistant to pyrithiobac than the RRPW-S population under our experimental conditions. The ALS enzyme of the TW-R population was 1214-fold resistant to pyrithiobac compared to the TW-S population, with the I50 values for pyrithiobac of ALS from TW-R and TW-S populations being 87.4 and 0.072 μM, correspondingly. Sequencing of the ALS gene identified a point mutation at position 574 of the ALS gene leading to substitution of tryptophan (W) residue with a leucine (L) residue in both RRPW-R and TW-R populations. Thus, the RRPW-R and TW-R populations are resistant to several ALS-inhibiting herbicides belonging to different chemical classes due to an altered target site, i.e., ALS. Resistance in Amaranthus spp. to commonly used ALS-inhibiting herbicides warrants an integrated weed management scheme incorporating chemical, mechanical, and cultural strategies by growers.
Lubembe D. Mukolwe, David O. Odongo, Charles Byaruhanga, Louwtjie P. Snyman, Kgomotso P. Sibeko-Matjila
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0231434

Abstract:
East Coast fever (ECF) and Corridor disease (CD) caused by cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva respectively are the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in the affected African countries. The p67 gene has been evaluated as a recombinant subunit vaccine against ECF, and for discrimination of T. parva parasites causing ECF and Corridor disease. The p67 allele type 1 was first identified in cattle-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa, where parasites possessing this allele type have been associated with ECF. Subsequent characterization of buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from South Africa where ECF was eradicated, revealed the presence of a similar allele type, raising concerns as to whether or not allele type 1 from parasites from the two regions is identical. A 900 bp central fragment of the gene encoding p67 was PCR amplified from T. parva DNA extracted from blood collected from cattle and buffalo in South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Four p67 allele types previously described were identified. A subtype of p67 allele type 1 was identified in parasites from clinical cases of CD and buffalo from southern Africa. Notably, p67 allele type 1 sequences from parasites associated with ECF in East Africa and CD in Kenya were identical. Analysis of two p67 B-cell epitopes (TpM12 and AR22.7) revealed amino acid substitutions in allele type 1 from buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern Africa. However, both epitopes were conserved in allele type 1 from cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa. These findings reveal detection of a subtype of p67 allele type 1 associated with T. parva parasites transmissible from buffalo to cattle in southern Africa.
Tianao Wu, Wei Zhang, Xiyun Jiao, Weihua Guo, Yousef Alhaj Hamoud
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235324

Abstract:
Accurate ET0 estimation is of great significance in effective agricultural water management and realizing future intelligent irrigation. This study compares the performance of five Boosting-based models, including Adaptive Boosting(ADA), Gradient Boosting Decision Tree(GBDT), Extreme Gradient Boosting(XGB), Light Gradient Boosting Decision Machine(LGB) and Gradient boosting with categorical features support(CAT), for estimating daily ET0 across 10 stations in the eastern monsoon zone of China. Six different input combinations and 10-fold cross validation method were considered for fully evaluating model accuracy and stability under the condition of limited meteorological variables input. Meanwhile, path analysis was used to analyze the effect of meteorological variables on daily ET0 and their contribution to the estimation results. The results indicated that CAT models could achieve the highest accuracy (with global average RMSE of 0.5667 mm d-1, MAE of 4199 mm d-1and Adj_R2 of 0.8514) and best stability regardless of input combination and stations. Among the inputted meteorological variables, solar radiation(Rs) offers the largest contribution (with average value of 0.7703) to the R2 value of the estimation results and its direct effect on ET0 increases (ranging 0.8654 to 0.9090) as the station’s latitude goes down, while maximum temperature (Tmax) showes the contrary trend (ranging from 0.8598 to 0.5268). These results could help to optimize and simplify the variables contained in input combinations. The comparison between models based on the number of the day in a year (J) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra) manifested that both J and Ra could improve the modeling accuracy and the improvement increased with the station’s latitudes. However, models with J could achieve better accuracy than those with Ra. In conclusion, CAT models can be most recommended for estimating ET0 and input variable J can be promoted to improve model performance with limited meteorological variables in the eastern monsoon zone of China.
Yi Zou, Stephen Pan, Peng Zhao, Lei Han, Xiaoxiang Wang, Lia Hemerik, Johannes Knops, Wopke Van Der Werf
Published: 29 June 2020
PLoS ONE, Volume 15; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235247

Abstract:
China reported a major outbreak of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, from mid-January till mid-March 2020. We review the epidemic virus growth and decline curves in China using a phenomenological logistic growth model to summarize the outbreak dynamics using three parameters that characterize the epidemic’s timing, rate and peak. During the initial phase, the number of virus cases doubled every 2.7 days (range 2.2–4.4 across provinces). The rate of increase in the number of reported cases peaked approximately 10 days after suppression measures were started on 23–25 January 2020. The peak in the number of reported sick cases occurred on average 18 days after the start of suppression measures. From the time of starting measures till the peak, the number of cases increased by a factor 39 in the province Hubei, and by a factor 9.5 for all of China (range: 6.2–20.4 in the other provinces). Complete suppression took up to 2 months (range: 23-57d.), during which period severe restrictions, social distancing measures, testing and isolation of cases were in place. The suppression of the disease in China has been successful, demonstrating that suppression is a viable strategy to contain SARS-CoV2.
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