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ISSN / EISSN : 19326203 / 19326203
Current Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 221,135
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Sandra Soto-Heras, Irene Menéndez-Blanco, Maria-Gracia Catalá, Dolors Izquierdo, Jeremy G. Thompson, Maria-Teresa Paramio
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221663

Abstract:In vitro embryo production success in juvenile animals is compromised due to their intrinsic lower oocyte quality. Conventional in vitro maturation (IVM) impairs oocyte competence by inducing spontaneous meiotic resumption. A series of experiments were performed to determine if maintaining meiotic arrest during a pre-maturation culture phase (pre-IVM) prior to conventional IVM improves oocyte competence of juvenile-goat (2 months old) cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). In experiment 1, COCs were cultured with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP; 0, 50, 100, 200 nM) for 6 and 8 h. Nuclear stage was assessed, revealing no differences in the incidence of germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown. In experiment 2, the same CNP concentrations were assessed plus 10 nM estradiol, the known upstream agonist activating expression of NPR2, the exclusive receptor of CNP. CNP (200 nM) plus estradiol increased the rate of oocytes at GV stage at 6 h compared to control group (74.7% vs 28.3%; P<0.05) with predominantly condensed chromatin configuration. In experiment 3, relative mRNA quantification revealed NPR2 expression was down-regulated after pre-IVM (6 h). In experiment 4, analysis of transzonal projections indicated that pre-IVM maintained cumulus-oocyte communication after oocyte recovery. For experiments 5 and 6, biphasic IVM (6 h pre-IVM with CNP and estradiol, plus 24 h IVM) and control IVM (24 h) were compared. Biphasic IVM increased intra-oocyte glutathione and decreased ROS, up-regulated DNA-methyltransferase 1 and pentraxin 3 expression and led to an increase in rate of blastocyst development compared to control group (30.2% vs 17.2%; P<0.05). In conclusion, a biphasic IVM, including a pre-IVM with CNP, maintains oocyte meiotic arrest for 6 h and enhances the embryo developmental competence of oocytes from juvenile goats.
Craig D. Tipton, Nicholas E. Sanford, Jake A. Everett, Rebecca A. Gabrilska, Randall D. Wolcott, Kendra P. Rumbaugh, Caleb D. Phillips
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221565

Abstract:Chronic wound infections are increasingly recognized to be dynamic and polymicrobial in nature, necessitating the development of wound models which reflect the complexities of infection in a non-healing wound. Wound slough isolated from human chronic wounds and transferred to mice was recently shown to create polymicrobial infection in mice, and there is potential this tool may be improved by cryogenic preservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of cryogenic preservation to transferring polymicrobial communities, specifically by quantifying the effects of cryopreservation and wound microbiome transplantation. Slough from an established murine polymicrobial surgical excision model and five patients were subjected to three preservation strategies: refrigeration until infection, freezing in liquid nitrogen, or freezing in liquid nitrogen with glycerol solution prior to infection in individual mice. Four days following inoculation onto mice, wound microbiota were quantified using either culture isolation or by 16s rRNA gene community profiling and quantitative PCR. Cryogenic preservation did not significantly reduce bacterial viability. Reestablished microbial communities were significantly associated with patient of origin as well as host context (i.e., originally preserved from a patient versus mouse infection). Whereas preservation treatment did not significantly shape community composition, the transfers of microbiomes from human to mouse were characterized by reduced diversity and compositional changes. These findings indicated that changes should be expected to occur to community structure after colonization, and that compositional change is likely due to the rapid change in infection context as opposed to preservation strategy. Furthermore, species that were present in higher relative abundance in wound inoculate were more likely to colonize subsequent wounds, and wound inoculate with higher bacterial load established wound communities that were more compositionally similar. Results inform expectations for the complementation of chronic wound in vivo modeling with cryogenic preservation archives.
Jonas A. Gustafson, Sarah S. Park, Michael L. Cunningham
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221402

Abstract:Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of the sutures of the calvaria and is principally designated as being either syndromic (demonstrating characteristic extracranial malformations) or non-syndromic. While many forms of syndromic craniosynostosis are known to be caused by specific mutations, the genetic etiology of non-syndromic, single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) is poorly understood. Based on the low recurrence rate (4–7%) and the fact that recurrent mutations have not been identified for most cases of SSC, we propose that some cases of isolated, single suture craniosynostosis may be polygenic. Previous work in our lab identified a disproportionately high number of rare and novel gain-of-function IGF1R variants in patients with SSC as compared to controls. Building upon this result, we used expression array data from calvarial osteoblasts isolated from infants with and without SSC to ascertain correlations between high IGF1 expression and expression of other osteogenic genes of interest. We identified a positive correlation between increased expression of IGF1 and RUNX2, a gene known to cause SSC with increased gene dosage. Subsequent phosphorylation assays revealed that osteoblast cell lines from cases with high IGF1 expression demonstrated inhibition of GSK3β, a serine/threonine kinase known to inhibit RUNX2, thus activating osteogenesis through the IRS1-mediated Akt pathway. With these findings, we have utilized established mouse strains to examine a novel model of polygenic inheritance (a phenotype influenced by more than one gene) of SSC. Compound heterozygous mice with selective disinhibition of RUNX2 and either overexpression of IGF1 or loss of function of GSK3β demonstrated an increase in the frequency and severity of synostosis as compared to mice with the RUNX2 disinhibition alone. These polygenic mouse models reinforce, in-vivo, that the combination of activation of the IGF1 pathway and disinhibition of the RUNX2 pathway leads to an increased risk of developing craniosynostosis and serves as a model of human SSC.
Yang Xi, Qi Li, Ning Gao, Siyuan He, Xiaoyu Tang
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221185

Abstract:Many neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have suggested that semantic integration as a high-level cognitive process involves various cortical regions and is modulated by attention. However, the cortical network specific to semantic integration and the modulatory mechanism of attention remain unclear. Here, we designed an fMRI experiment using “bimodal stimulus” to extract information regarding the cortical activation related to the effects of semantic integration with and without attention, and then analyzed the characteristics of the cortical network and the modulating effect of attention on semantic integration. To further investigate the related cortical regions, we constructed a functional brain network for processing attended AV stimuli to evaluate the nodal properties using a graph-based method. The results of the fMRI and graph-based analyses showed that the semantic integration with attention activated the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), and frontoparietal cortex, with the ATL showing the highest nodal degree and efficiency; in contrast, semantic integration without attention involved a relatively small cortical network, including the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl’s gyrus (HG), and precentral gyrus. These results indicated that semantic integration is a complex cognitive process that occurs not only in the attended condition but also in the unattended condition, and that attention could modulate the distribution of cortical networks related to semantic integration. We suggest that semantic integration with attention is a conscious process and needs a wide cortical network working together, in which the ATL plays the role of a central hub; in contrast, semantic integration without attention is a pre-attentive process and involves a relatively smaller cortical network, in which the HG may play an important role. Our study will provide valuable insights into semantic integration and will be useful for investigations on multisensory integration and attention mechanism at multiple processing stages and levels within the cortical hierarchy.
Namwoo Kim, Sung Joon Cho, Hyeyoung Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Hyun Jeong Lee, C. Hyung Keun Park, Sang Jin Rhee, Daewook Kim, Bo Ram Yang, So-Hyun Choi, et al.
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221552

Abstract:The epidemiology of pharmaceutically treated depression (PTD) and treatment resistant depression (TRD) is largely unknown in South Korea. The aim of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the characteristics of PTD and TRD in nearly the entire adult population in South Korea using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Diagnostic codes and prescription data for South Korean adults were extracted from the HIRA. Subjects were included in the PTD cohort if they received at least one prescription for antidepressants and were diagnosed with depression. TRD was defined as PTD having two or more regimen failures of antidepressants or antipsychotics. In 2012, there were 41,256,396 adults in South Korea with 834,694 meeting the criteria for PTD (2.0%). Among subjects with PTD, 57% stopped treatment in less than 28 days of antidepressant supply. Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants were the most frequently used antidepressants as a first-line regimen for PTD (44.3% of PTD) followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (32.1% of PTD). Results also indicated that 34,812 subjects developed TRD (4.2% of PTD). Median PTD and TRD durations were 28 and 623 days respectively. Proportions of psychiatric and non-psychiatric comorbidities were higher in TRD cases than in PTD cases that were not treatment resistant. Despite a small proportion of patients with TRD, the prolonged duration of illness and higher comorbidity implies the need for better treatment.
John Chételat, Peter A. Cott, Maikel Rosabal, Adam Houben, Christine McClelland, Elise Belle Rose, Marc Amyot
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221361

Abstract:A subarctic fish community in mine-impacted Yellowknife Bay (Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada) was investigated for biological and ecological processes controlling arsenic bioaccumulation. Total concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and metals were measured in over 400 fishes representing 13 species, and primary producers and consumers were included to characterize food web transfer. Yellowknife Bay had slightly more arsenic in surface waters (~3 μg/L) relative to the main body of Great Slave Lake (<1 μg/L), resulting in two-fold higher total arsenic concentrations in muscle of burbot (Lota lota), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Other mining-associated contaminants, specifically antimony, lead, and silver, were typically below analytical detection in those fish species. No evidence was found for enhanced bioaccumulation of arsenic in long-lived, slow-growing subarctic fishes. Food web biodilution of total arsenic occurred between primary producers, aquatic invertebrates, and fish, although trophic position did not explain arsenic concentrations among fishes. Pelagic-feeding species had higher total arsenic concentrations compared to littoral fishes. Arsenic accumulated in subarctic fishes to comparable levels as fishes from lakes around the world with similar water arsenic concentrations. This first comprehensive study for a subarctic freshwater food web identified the importance of water exposure, biodilution, and habitat-specific feeding on arsenic bioaccumulation.
Alicia Inurria, Alberto Arencibia, Pascual Calabuig, May Gómez, Soraya Déniz, Jorge Orós
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221730

Abstract:The aims of this study were: a) to describe the pathological and laboratory findings in a case series of stranding and mortality associated with ingestion of large amounts of sea urchins in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), and b) to alert veterinarians and biologists involved in sea turtle conservation of this cause of stranding and/or death. The six loggerheads studied were stranded on the coasts of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, between 2008 and 2015. Post mortem studies included pathological, microbiological, and sea urchin species identification procedures. All turtles showed severe intestinal impaction caused by large amounts of sea urchins, mainly affecting the colon and the caudal half of the small intestine. Histologically, severe focal fibrinonecrotic enteritis was diagnosed in two turtles. In the remaining turtles, lesions ranged from mild desquamation of the intestinal epithelium to severe congestion of the blood vessels of lamina propria, submucosa, muscular and serosa, and edema. Vibrio sp. was isolated from the spleen and intestinal mucosa of a loggerhead in which focal fibrinonecrotic enteritis had been diagnosed. In five turtles, all the remains were fragments from long-spined sea urchins (Diadema africanum); the last turtle contained a mixture of long-spined sea urchin (90%) and purple sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis) (10%) remains. Although the prevalence of this cause of stranding was low (< 1.6%) compared to other mortality causes, continued overfishing and anthropogenic climate change could increase its incidence. Intestinal impaction with large amounts of sea urchins should be included in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in sea turtles, and the possible toxic effect of some sea urchin species on sea turtles should also be investigated.
Shunshun Zhu, Zhe Tian, Daisuke Torigoe, Jiabin Zhao, Peiyu Xie, Taichi Sugizaki, Michio Sato, Haruki Horiguchi, Kazutoyo Terada, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, et al.
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221366

Abstract:Sarcopenia due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength leads to physical inactivity and decreased quality of life. The number of individuals with sarcopenia is rapidly increasing as the number of older people increases worldwide, making this condition a medical and social problem. Some patients with sarcopenia exhibit accumulation of peri-muscular adipose tissue (PMAT) as ectopic fat deposition surrounding atrophied muscle. However, an association of PMAT with muscle atrophy has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that PMAT is associated with muscle atrophy in aged mice and that atrophy severity increases in parallel with cumulative doses of PMAT. We observed severe muscle atrophy in two different obese model mice harboring significant PMAT relative to respective control non-obese mice. We also report that denervation-induced muscle atrophy was accelerated in non-obese young mice transplanted around skeletal muscle with obese adipose tissue relative to controls transplanted with non-obese adipose tissue. Notably, transplantation of obese adipose tissue into peri-muscular regions increased nuclear translocation of FoxO transcription factors and upregulated expression FoxO targets associated with proteolysis (Atrogin1 and MuRF1) and cellular senescence (p19 and p21) in muscle. Conversely, in obese mice, PMAT removal attenuated denervation-induced muscle atrophy and suppressed upregulation of genes related to proteolysis and cellular senescence in muscle. We conclude that PMAT accumulation accelerates age- and obesity-induced muscle atrophy by increasing proteolysis and cellular senescence in muscle.
Qing Yao, Tim S. Evans, Kim Christensen
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220965

Abstract:We construct two examples of shareholder networks in which shareholders are connected if they have shares in the same company. We do this for the shareholders in Turkish companies and we compare this against the network formed from the shareholdings in Dutch companies. We analyse the properties of these two networks in terms of the different types of shareholder. We create a suitable randomised version of these networks to enable us to find significant features in our networks. For that we find the roles played by different types of shareholder in these networks, and also show how these roles differ in the two countries we study.
You Jung Heo, Young Ah Lee, Bora Lee, Yun Jeong Lee, Youn Hee Lim, Hye Rim Chung, Seung Han Shin, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Published: 23 August 2019
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220240

Abstract:We evaluated frequency and risk factors of delayed TSH elevation (dTSH) and investigated follow-up outcomes in the dTSH group with venous TSH (v-TSH) levels of 6–20 mU/L according to whether late preterm infants born at gestational age (GA) 35–36 weeks had risk factors. The medical records of 810 neonates (414 boys) born at Seoul National University Hospital who had a normal neonatal screening test (NST) and underwent the first repeat venous blood test at 10–21 days post birth were reviewed. Seventy-three (9.0%) neonates showed dTSH, defined as a v-TSH level ≥6.0 mU/L, 12 of whom (1.5%) were started on levothyroxine medication. A multivariate-adjusted model indicated that a low birth weight (LBW <2,000 g), a congenital anomaly, and exposure to iodine contrast media (ICM) were significant predictors for dTSH (all p < 0.05). Among these 73 dTSH infants, all 5 infants with TSH levels ≥20 mU/L began levothyroxine medication, and 6 of 16 infants with v-TSH levels of 10–20 mU/L were indicated for levothyroxine, regardless of coexisting risk factors. However, only 1 of 52 infants with v-TSH levels of 6–10 mU/L who had a congenital anomaly was indicated for levothyroxine. All healthy late preterm infants, including LBW and multiple births, with v-TSH levels of 6–10 mU/L exhibited normal thyroid function. dTSH was detected in 9.0% and levothyroxine was indicated in 1.5% of infants born at GA 35–36 weeks, particularly those with a LBW, a congenital anomaly, or history of ICM exposure. Either levothyroxine or retesting is indicated for late preterm neonates with TSH levels ≥10 mU/L regardless of risk factors. If healthy preterm neonates show v-TSH levels of 6–10 mU/L, a second repeat test may not be necessary; however, further studies are required to set a threshold for retesting.