ISSN / EISSN : 1392-8295 / 2335-2388
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 201
Latest articles in this journal
Respectus Philologicus pp 32-45; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.75
This article investigated how metaphors for COVID-19 were framed in a Catholic-based journal Thinking Faith. Data, consisting of 107 metaphors, were collected from the online journal and were analyzed within the Jesuit perspectives. Results showed that out of the 107 occurrences of metaphoric expressions for the pandemic, the source domains tend to have reflective and empowering aspects. The 12 main source domains of COVID-19 were war, drama, tools, natural forces, journey, manageable item, teacher, other living beings, darkness, pain, threat, and signs of the times. The coverage of Thinking Faith aimed to show the life-changing wisdom of the Gospel, Catholic Social Teaching, and Papal messages. Positive or neutral word choices of metaphors like teacher, drama, journey, manageable items, natural forces, and signs of the times managed to spark hopefulness for the journal readership. Meanwhile, the violence-related metaphors war, pain, and threat may appear to be discouraging. Overall, the metaphors used in the Jesuit online journal were contextually heartening
Respectus Philologicus pp 185–195-185–195; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.87
Migration processes have accompanied man since the dawn of time. In the case of migration currents to South Africa after World War II, there are several factors influencing the decisions to migrate. There were several waves of migration, depending on the changing in the second half of the Twentieth century South Africa’s economic and political situation. To properly present the issue of migration to South Africa, both from Poland and other countries of the world, it is first necessary to focus on the events that enabled the development of a policy of racial segregation. Then focus on economic development during this period that determined the successive waves of migrants. The last, crucial element is focusing on emigrants and the reasons for their emigration. In the case of the Polish diaspora in South Africa, many people decided to leave Poland due to the political system that was in the communist period; they wanted to give their children a better start in life or simply wanted to develop professionally, which was not possible at that time in the country. The aim of this article is to present the political, economic, demographic and social factors that influenced migration to South Africa.
Respectus Philologicus pp 89–100-89–100; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.79
The idea advanced in the paper is to theorize the mechanisms of autobiographicality in Stephen Dixon’s novels that are viewed as a radical renewal of autobiographical narrative, where the modality of disappearance/return of the subject produces a new mode of life-writing. We propose the term “autobiographical transgression” to capture the essence of this renewal started by three representative figures – John Barth, Stephen Dixon, and Joseph Heller that can be reduced neither to autobiography as a genre, nor to “transgressive autobiography” as its generic variant. Dixon finds a new form for representing autos. He creates the character with the name-deixis I. that personifies a fiduciary subject, thus, suggesting a provocative restatement of postmodernist generic problems. In the novels I. and End of I. the autobiographical hero I. exists simultaneously as a metaphor of the author’s presence in the text, as the subjective author’s I and as a character in the novel − an objectified, semi-functional, distancing I. The transplanting of life experience manifests itself in a special kind of repersonalization and double coding of the traditional autobiographical subject.
Respectus Philologicus pp 148–160-148–160; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.84
The growing supply of audiovisual products is closely linked to their translation to the target audience. In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, various modes of audiovisual translation are applied: some audiovisual works are dubbed, some are translated using voice-over, and still others are subtitled or surtitled. Deaf and hard of hearing viewers have access to the audiovisual content with the help of specialized subtitles; whereas the blind and partially sighted gain access via audio description. Each mode of audiovisual translation is defined by particular terms and specific characteristics, the variety of which may frequently seem like a kind of terminological maze for their users. This article aims at defining terms related to both the field of audiovisual translation and its modes by examining their differences and similarities to provide a structured classification of these terms. The paper also presents the insights and results of the survey, which reveals consumers’ ambiguities about the perception of audiovisual products and the application of audiovisual translation terminology.
Respectus Philologicus pp 161–172-161–172; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.85
The article is devoted to the cognitive analysis of linguistic means, representing the primary human needs in extreme conditions. The nominations denoting the concepts of “food” and “warmth” are subjected to the lexico-semantic, grammatical, stylistic consideration. A choice of the discourse for analysis is due to describing a human life in detention when the primary adaptive needs prevail all others and become the most valuable. The representation of human basic biological need in food and warmth is considered in the given contexts. The use of colloquial vocabulary, grammatical norms violation, as well as figurative comparisons and transformed phraseological units in the contexts determine peculiarities of the verbal explication of the concept “food”. The author pays attention to the stylistically reduced vocabulary, which stands out the lexeme “belly”, acquiring new semantic shades in the analyzed fragments. With the nomination of warmth as another important human need for existence, the lexeme “stove” is associated. The paper identifies and analyzes the factors that cause the life values changes at the cognitive level of a person experiencing deprivation of basic biological needs.
Respectus Philologicus pp 73–88-73–88; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.78
The article analyses the linguistic basis of the Tarmynas, the database Lithuanian local language variants. The development of the database model was based on the linguistic variability of the Kaunas district as an important zone for the development of Standard Lithuanian. Until now, the territory of the Kaunas district has not been systematically studied by dialectologists; therefore, the study is relevant in assessing the interaction between Standard language and local variants; the conclusions drawn are significant for prog-nostic models of the Lithuanian language. The analysis performed by the methods of geolinguistics research showed a significant horizontal and vertical variability of the Kaunas district. Based on the characteristics of the traditional dialects and their spread in the new dialectal structures, four linguistic areas of the Kaunas district were distinguished. Their main distinguishing features are the shortening of long vowels in unaccented inflexions and the hardening of the compounds le and lė. The influence of the local Polish dialects on the current linguistic variants was also identified. The possibilities of the explication of the dialectal phonetic features in the database are also briefly presented: transcriptions of acoustic recordings and a questionnaire about the frequency of usage of the dialectal features.
Respectus Philologicus pp 46-57; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.76
Candidate programs are a publication of political parties during the agitation campaign, which presents the political attitudes of a political actor and influence voters’ motivation to vote in elections. The electoral candidate program illustrates a politician’s relationship with voters. It is an element of political communication, part of the image of a political figure. The article deals with the rhetoric of electoral candidate programs announced before the elections to the Seimas, the European Parliament, and Municipal Councils (2014–2019). The aim is to identify and expand the characteristic rhetorical elements that allow qualifying political electoral programs as a specific genre of political rhetoric: at the inventive level, the study of rhetorical strategies includes the analysis of rhetorical reasoning, the relationship between a political actor and a voter; at the dispositional level, the composition of programs is analyzed; and finally, at the elocutionary level, the specifics of the linguistic expression of discourse are investigated. A rhetorical study of discourse revealed that, in many cases, the electoral candidate program functions as a tool for building the image of a political actor, a tool for discrediting opponents and spreading populist promises.
Respectus Philologicus pp 110–119-110–119; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.81
Stefan Batory University in Vilnius was established in 1919 as a regional entity to carry out scientific research and develop Polish academic education. One of its faculties – the Faculty of Fine Arts (1930–1939) – gathered charismatic and popular artists, historians and architects. Among them, two professors – Juliusz Kłos (1888–1933) and Marian Morelowski – published the guidebooks for Vilnius and Wileńszczyzna region (Wilno. Przewodnik krajoznawczy, 1937; Zarys sztuki wileńskiej z przewodnikiem po zabytkiem między Niemnem a Dźwiną, 1939). The book written by Kłos gained popularity and was often purchased by the tourists who visited Vilnius. The aim of the article is to determine the main methodology, historical approaches and working styles of both authors. Moreover, the paper involves their attitude towards developing tourism, cultural heritage and historical research. The article also involves the main ideas of artistic education professors had and how much tourism was involved in the whole education process for them.
Respectus Philologicus pp 11-20; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.73
The paper is devoted to cultural heritage dictionaries with special reference to the oldest branch of English lexicography – author lexicography, comprising three hundred reference books of different types: concordances, glossaries, lexicons, indices, thesauri, etc. The article describes the main trends in developing author linguistic dictionaries for general and special purposes to single and complete works of G. Chaucer, W. Shakespeare, J. Milton, other famous English writers since the 16th c. up to the present days. The architecture of author encyclopedic dictionaries (guides, encyclopedias, companions) and onomasticons (dictionaries of characters and place names, who is who in … series) and their significant contribution to the English language, culture and society are discussed. The main accent is made on the digital era of English heritage lexicography, innovative features of modern printed and Internet author reference resources, aimed at certain target groups users’ needs and demands.
Respectus Philologicus pp 101–109-101–109; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.80
The paper analyzes works by the Serbian postmodernist writer Milorad Pavić. It attempts to prove that he possesses knowledge of royal art and uses masonic symbols in his writing related to geometry and architecture, including the radiant delta, compass, masonic gloves, and clepsydra. It is assumed that under the influence of these particular ideas, the writer creates the leading image of an architect and the motif of construction as freemasons believe in the Great Architect of the Universe. In the short novel Damascene, according to speculative masonry’s beliefs, the building of the church projects the building of a temple in a human soul. M. Pavić, as an architect, creates a structure of every novel, which he identifies with the golden section. This paper finds special symbols of the divine proportion in his prose, including snail’s shells, pyramids, and violins. A dynamic structure as an embodiment of the open work concept and a broad spectrum of themes provide artistic communication with a creative recipient. A reader has an opportunity to choose their own style of reading and solving textual puzzles because Pavić’s prose represents a wide variety of themes, symbols, images, and allusions that embody the secrets of Freemasonry, allowing for various interpretations.