ISSN / EISSN : 1392-8295 / 2335-2388
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 442
Latest articles in this journal
Respectus Philologicus pp 11-25; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.104
The paper examines whether rhetorical questions (RQs) with insulting content or implications soften or intensify the insulting content that they express, as compared to corresponding direct statements with similar insulting content. The analysis is based on the results of two online surveys conducted among 276 Bosnian university students (182 and 94, respectively), who evaluated, in regard to their offensiveness, two sets of RQs and corresponding statements with insulting content or implications. Three types of insulting RQs were included in the surveys: insulting RQs without explicitly offensive terms, insulting RQs that incorporate derogatory words, and sarcastic RQs with insulting implications. The expected results were that: a) in line with Frank’s (1990) account of strengthening effects of RQs as their primary function, insulting RQs, with or without derogatory words, will function as amplifiers, and sound more offensive than corresponding declaratives; and b) sarcastic RQs, following Dews and Winner’s (1995) account of softening effects of sarcastic utterances, will function as mitigators, as compared to non-sarcastic declaratives with insulting content. The obtained results indicate that the first hypothesis cannot be verified (in spite of some indications that slight amplifying effects do exist), and the second hypothesis is completely rejected, with some likelihood that the opposite could be true.
Respectus Philologicus pp 132-144; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.114
While the post-colonial approach (Fernández Carbajal, 2016; López-Ropero, 2016) has dominated research on Zadie Smith’s postmodern work, NW (2013), there has been little to no stylistic analysis of the novel. The article aims to fill in this theoretical gap by examining the different modes of point of view, indicating how they are linguistically encoded. Using Leech and Short’s model of narratological aspects of viewpoint (2007), the stylistic features of the third-person narrator and the reflectors are revealed. The analysis seeks to demonstrate that the narrative style varies with each shift of perspective and that the voice of the narrator and the characters’ points of view are linguistically intertwined. The research points out the stylistic metamorphosis of the narrator who moves from mimetic storytelling to metafiction, alternating between the covert narrator who foregrounds the characters’ point of view and the overt one who constantly pinpoints the linguistic identity of the novel. The fusion of form and content becomes the storyline of this novel, where the differences between viewpoints of the narrating voices reflect the differences between their lives.
Respectus Philologicus pp 246-257; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.123
A collection of 15th-century Latin sermons for the day of St. Hedwig of Silesia (“Sermones de s. Hedwigis”) constitutes the source material for an analysis of matrimonial role models and the ideal of a wife (uxor) in medieval culture. The collection includes 84 sermons about St. Hedwig, preserved in 45 codes of Silesian provenance. The corpus of sermons on St. Hedwig is supplemented by 61 edited versions of “Vita sanctae Hedvigis” written in 47 manuscripts. The present article includes an analysis of St. Hedwig as a married woman, the ideal of a pious wife avoiding the pleasures of the flesh and observing moral norms in marriage, above all in sexual relations.
Respectus Philologicus pp 219-233; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.121
This paper is an attempt to add knowledge to scholarship in a field that has attracted less attention from researchers. It presents a study of graffiti found on a board located inside a gym in Madrid that was carried out in order to get a grasp of the functions of the graffiti and gain an insight into discursive practices in gyms. Data analysis focused on texts while overlooking the graffiti’s non-verbal features and was carried out following Fairclough’s (2004, 2013) approach, which emphasizes the study of language as a social practice and encourages a three-fold analysis of discourse that includes action, representation and identification. The study revealed that social agents attempted to act and interact directly or indirectly with fellow gym-goers through graffiti.
Respectus Philologicus pp 234-245; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.122
The article presents the results of three linguistic associative experiments. The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of specific linguistic units – phonetic nonce words (occasionalisms) – on the perception of modern Ukrainian poetical discourse by addressees (readers). As stimuli for linguistic analysis of phonetic occasional units in modern Ukrainian poetical discourse used the most frequent phonetic nonce words in their graphic actualization (total 16 different stimuli). The three experimentally groups of respondents include 105 students of three Poltava high schools. A result of these experiments are 1684 reactions, among which 1146 (68%) – positive, 300 (18%) – negative, 238 (14%) – neutral. The lowest per cent of neutral reactions is motivated because phonetic nonce words are power intensifiers for the expressiveness of sound background in poetical discourse. The phonetic nonce words positively influence the perception of modern verbal discourse by addressees. The special role in decoding of sound information belongs to acoustic-articulator characteristics of vowels and consonants.
Respectus Philologicus pp 207-218; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.120
The goal of the article was to select and analyze keywords concerning central Brexit-related themes found in chosen speeches delivered in the years 2013-2021 by politicians from three British parties: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party, and the Brexit Party. The decision regarding Brexit had been made as a result of the referendum in which a small majority of British citizens had voted for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to leave the EU. Via a pragmatic analysis conducted with the help of the program AntConc on a sample of one hundred transcripts of chosen speeches from sources such as the official government website and media websites, four keywords which played a crucial role in the discourse on Brexit were chosen, namely leave, remain, referendum, and country. They appeared in the speeches of members of all of the three above mentioned parties. In their rhetorical and persuasive speeches delivered before the referendum, the politicians tried to convince the British society to support Brexit or to be against it, and in their speeches given after the referendum, they accented, e.g., that the decision made by the majority of the voters needs to be honored.
Respectus Philologicus pp 155-166; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.116
The article discusses the “Diary” (1944–1946) by Henrikas Nagys (1920–1996), а diaspora poet, translator, literary critic, a member of a movement of zemininkai-lankininkai and Doctor of Humanities, as one of the objects of ego-documentary heritage, kept in the Maironis Museum of Lithuanian Literature. It records the period of one post-war year, which became a decisive turning point for his generation. Applying the descriptive and interpretive methods of analysis of the archival material, the philosophical, existential and personal aspects that have formed in the writer‘s mind are revealed; the historical, social and cultural context is assessed, revealing the value criteria of the generation. Via texts, the scenario of Henrik Nagys’ personality becomes clearer. The diary text in scientific discourse is revealed for the first time.
Respectus Philologicus pp 94-106; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.111
The article discusses common root nouns of the Lithuanian language with the ending of foreign origin -(i)acija and the suffix of Lithuanian origin -imas. The study, which was based on the analysis of 406 Lithuanian words, revealed that some of the words with -(i)acija form a derivational opposition with verbs; therefore, they should be considered derivatives and that quite often, the -(i)acija derivatives form pairs of derivative synonyms with the -imas(is) verb abstracts. The meanings of nouns, and especially the examples of usage found in the corpora, have shown that in many cases, common root derivatives with -(i)acija and -imas(is) are partial synonyms: they have semantic and valency differences that are neutralized only in certain word combinations; hence, it is impossible to talk about the possibilities of substitution without restrictions. Sometimes the members of pairs of derivative synonyms differ stylistically (for example, the -(i)acija derivatives are terms); often, the frequency of use of common root derivatives also differs. It is believed that in the sources of the lexicography of the current Lithuanian language, some used derivatives or their new meanings should appear (for example, komunikavimas ‘communication’, mutavimas ‘mutation’, vulgarizavimas ‘vulgarization’ and their base verbs).
Respectus Philologicus pp 167-179; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.117
The article posits that the Biblical code is one of the most important pillars in the interpreting the literary works by Lesya Ukrainka, one of Ukraine’s renowned writers. Her verse dramas foreground Biblical intertextuality, which becomes a starting point for intellectual debates in the Ukrainian ‘fin de siècle’ on such essential problems as freedom and love, social and mental slavery, and the mission of art. The problems of (mis)treating the essence of God’s Kingdom and the human relationship with God are also centrepieces of Lesya Ukrainka’s dialogicality with the Bible. In the writer’s verse dramas, the explicit and implicit Biblical intertexts specify the active double-voiced discourse, which exhibits an interaction of the different consciousnesses. Following this, the text of the Scriptures provides the background for the dominant symbols (harp, stone and light) that can be actualized by the informed reader both through the allusions and via the reminiscences in Lesya Ukrainka’s dramatum.
Respectus Philologicus pp 83-93; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2022.41.46.110
The syntax of the serial subject in contemporary Polish poses many problems, especially in the normative context. Many publications emphasize that a verb predicate should be agreed upon based on real-meaning syntax – regardless of the features of the members of the series and the order (e.g. Stół i / lub / czy taboret stały obok siebie vs. Obok siebie stały stół i / lub / czy taboret), and only exceptionally the form of the personal word may be adapted to the nearest segment. However, as evidenced by empirical studies, such an approach is inconsistent with the actual state of affairs. Only in individual cases does the linguistic custom allow for an almost non-exceptional ad sensum syntax (Mąż i żona siedzieli naprzeciwko), and so many examples illustrating the ad formam syntax can be found (Nie Janek, ale Basia czytała najlepiej). There are even more sentences with a variant adaptation (Siedzą / siedzi naprzeciwko mąż i żona). The article lists all the tested series types that determine the real-meaning and formal-grammatical syntax, and they are formally and structurally characterized. Examples of series illustrating the accommodative variability are given as a kind of cliché. The presented material can be treated as a voice in the discussion on prescriptive comments on the syntax of the serialized subject, formulated in corrective publications.