ISSN / EISSN : 1392-8295 / 2335-2388
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 422
Latest articles in this journal
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 158-169; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.101
The article focuses on functional speech genres used on the Internet to assess the level of customer satisfaction after purchasing goods and services on portals with various offers. It attempts to define what genre is used in the texts called commentaries, evaluations, opinions and consumer reviews. Both Internet users and providers of goods and services use these terms interchangeably. The situation may result from the fact that in the ordinary mind, they constitute one genre. The text introduces the research on the statements of internet users expressing their opinion on the transaction, the purchased products, and the service provided. Nowadays, the Internet has such a large social impact that it is important to examine the changes in speech genres existing in the Internet space in relation to their prototypes derived from the literary tradition.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 111-121; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.96
This paper analyses the concept of thrownness and the related notions of immediacy and actuality in a 1961 short science fiction story “Wall of Crystal, Eye of Night” by Algis Budrys. It first defines the concept of thrownness (Geworfenheit), created and coined by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger in his classic book Being and Time, and it explains how this notion can be employed in literary analysis in general and applied to this work in particular. The article then analyses how certain stylistic devices in the short story, namely similes, change of pace and the presentation of an inner conflict in the main character, contribute to the feeling of authenticity. In other words, it attempts to exhibit the means used in a prose work to make it seem more realistic and immediate. Finally, the work also argues that science fiction is in many ways more real than other fictional works. Although it belongs to the genre that has traditionally been denied serious literary merit, the novel view and interpretation of this story aims to disclose new horizons of artistic expression that illuminate human mental and physical frailty and stimulate a valuable inquiry into the meaning of life.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 86-97; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.94
Literary theology, which began to form in the second half of the 20th century, opened up new possibilities for linking religion, literature, and personal experience. The journalistic articles of Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas (1869–1933) show that, on the one hand, he understood the world in a crystcentric way. On the other hand, Vaižgantas’s thought was also shaped by modernity and the time he lived in, which inclined him to reject religion. By analysing Vaižgantas’s journalistic articles and letters to his relatives, this article argues that the writer’s modernity rests on the interaction of the two realities: the eternal reality of God and the temporal reality of man. Having managed to combine these two realities with his human presence, Vaižgantas has opened up to our culture the dynamics of this interaction, in which the Christian self-restraint and modern consciousness, acting as complementary parts, become an act of self-creation founded on rational will, which in turn is associated with self-control, moderation, determination, and renunciation of egoism.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.88
The article raises the problem of philosophical principles and origins of Ferdinand de Saussure’s views. The editors of “Course in General Linguistics”, C. Bally and A. Sechehaye, contributed to the emergence of stereotypes about Saussure as the founder of structuralism, who for the first time conceptually distinguished language and speech based on dichotomy, established the systemic nature of language as an abstract entity, developed a bilateral psychological theory of sign and divided linguistics into the synchronous and the diachronic. This prevented the synthesis of Saussure’s concept as a holistic and internally consistent anthropocentric system of views. The conceptual analysis of the fundamental theses of Saussure’s concept, given in Saussure’s autographed materials, which appeared in 2002, showed that its most important feature is that it was an anthropocentric nomothetic proposition aimed at creating the foundations for the study of human language activity as such, language as such and speech as such. The Kantian idea of anthropocentric transcendentalism can be considered the principal philosophical source of Saussure’s nomothetic project.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 74-85; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.93
In the studies of Latvian culture and history, there is a number of investigations dedicated to the influence of Baltic German culture on Latvian culture. Hence the Latgale region was not given due attention in this regard. The role of the Baltic Germans in this region is peculiar due to its specific history, and it is important to study how the Baltic German culture influences the multicultural identity of Latgale. A project of the Latvian Science Council The Baltic Germans of Latgale in the context of socio-ethnic relations from the 17th until the beginning of the 20th century (2020–2021) is devoted to this topic. One of the tasks of the project is the analysis of the image of the Baltic Germans in fiction. In the framework of the research, the works written in the Latvian literary language, the action of which is set in Latgale, are analysed. The focus is on fictional works about Latgale written by two authors – Antons Austriņš (1884–1934) and Ādolfs Ers (1885–1945) – in the first and second decades of the 20th century. The said writers are the first currently distinguished authors narrating in the Latvian literary language, who describe Latgale in a number of their works. Compared to other nationalities (Poles, Russians, Jews), the Baltic Germans are mentioned minimally in their works; moreover, it is a commonplace that in some cases protagonist’s belonging to German descent is not mentioned, which can only be inferred. Although the Baltic Germans belong to the Latgale past, their culture is imperceptibly and harmoniously apparent in Latgale, i.e. it is evident in the castles (castle ruins) and manors as well as in the use of Germanisms by the Baltic Germans, it has determined the location of the Latgale cities and influenced the worldview.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 145-157; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.99
The article undertakes constructive reflection on the loss of human health in the context of the issue of disability, with an indication that it is a state of mind rather than actual, physical impotence. The main subject of considerations is the attitude of the writer, Michał Kaziów, perceived as a way to independence and creativity developed as a result of his health condition in the light of selected issues of narrative medicine and human rights. The paper presents the difficult fate of Kaziów after a permanent loss of fitness (L. Kowalewski, M. Czerwińska) under the model of social disability (P. Hunt, M. Oliver) and an autobiographical attitude (M. Czermińska). The views of R. Charon (a doctor and a literary scholar) and her co-workers were also taken into account, according to which narrative medicine is a specific, well thought and described in the literature on the subject form of clinical (and didactic) practice that supports the process of diagnosis and treatment. Simultaneously, a review of laws and regulations on the creation of legal norms that supported people with disabilities and their evolution was undertaken. The whole text correlates with the thesis that the change in approach to disability is a living testimony to overcoming difficulties and their consequences, both in an individual and collective experience.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 181-186; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.103
The book “Discourse Studies In Practice” is a compilation of articles on discourse, written by S. Chiper over fifteen years and published in Romania and abroad. The research of different topics has been done in the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis (CDA). This book aims at discourse researchers and students, and anyone interested in discourse and intercultural studies.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 122-133; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.97
In interwar and post-war societies, men were required to show endurance, courage, and emotional stability, but their traumas, caused by the experience of war and the economic, political, and social realities of the post-war period, are just started to be analysed. Algirdas Jeronimas Landsbergis (1924–2004), a playwright, prose writer, editor, literary and theatre critic of the Lithuanian diaspora, conveys these themes in his work. The images of masculinity revealed in the texts help clarify the general experience of the society hidden in the works and understand what kind of masculinity prevailed in society after the world wars changed the lives of women and men. Using K. G. Jung’s theory of analytical psychology, the article analyses A. Landsbergis’ short stories, which literature researchers less studied. Texts are explored as reflections and shapers of society, and in the case of masculinity, it is discussed what is meant by the archetypes of masculinity recorded in the literature. Based on the work of R. L. Moore and D. Gillette and J. C. Campbell, the archetypes of the divine child, the child prodigy, the Oedipus child and the hero and mature masculinity – the king, warrior, magician and lover are distinguished.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 22-34; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.89
In a democratic society with a market economy, editorial policy is often a matter of financial feasibility rather than anything else. Meanwhile, totalitarian societies approach it from a different angle, frequently putting political considerations in the centre. Living behind the Iron Curtain, Soviet scholars had very limited access to Western publications – very few of them were translated into the languages of Soviet republics. What is more, research shows that they were subject to censorship, just like literary works. Besides, the work of a translator, being invisible to the majority of readers, could be quite dangerous and ruin one’s scholarly career. Thus, a scholar embarking on a translation journey to acquaint their colleagues with the best samples of world research had to be very considerate. Such was the case of the Russian translation of Uriel Weinreich’s seminal book Languages in Contact done by the Ukrainian linguist, translator, lexicographer, and educator Yuriy Zhluktenko. The present paper explores the matter of censorship and self-censorship in this translation and its paratexts.
Respectus Philologicus, Volume 40, pp 35-47; https://doi.org/10.15388/respectus.2021.40.45.90
The article analyses 199 suffixal hybrid adjectives and 34 adjectival participles from the Lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary. The study reveals that borrows with affixal adaptation are adapted to the language system and the adaptive features are determined by regularities: hybrids replicate word formation models from the Standard Lithuanian language. It was found that the most common suffix of affixal adaptation of borrowings from English is suffix -inis. Distribution of hybrids with suffix -iškas is different: there are almost twice less English originated hybrid adjectives with this suffix than originated from Russian language. Adjectival passive participants are most commonly used in the Lithuanian slang.