Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics
ISSN / EISSN : 2165-3852 / 2165-3860
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 360
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 127-153; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.122007
A study to investigate the effects of taper on vortex shedding coherence on High Mast Lighting Towers (HMLT) with models of eight-, twelve-, and sixteen-sided polygonal cross-section was performed in Purdue’s Boeing Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Partial tower models were mounted on springs to recreate a flutter phenomenon seen on high mast lighting towers and data was taken using a stationary configuration within the wind tunnel. The model was later oscillated at specified frequencies and amplitudes and the resulting wake and surface pressures were recorded and compared to the stationary cases. The researchers aim to study the characteristics of a “lock-in” phenomenon, that is, a region of pole height where there is a vortex cell with a single shedding frequency, instead of different shedding frequencies for different diameters as Strouhal theory dictates. Results show the existence of vortex cell shedding for clamped models. Using a motor and a forcing cam to recreate the elastic movement of the HMLT in ambient conditions has yielded a specific range of diameters to determine the size of the locked in vortex cells. According to standard Department of Transportation manufacturing standards for tapered HMLT, the lock in distance for small excitations (0.254 cm) would be approximately 305 cm in tower height.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 230-247; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.122011
This study investigates the accuracy of different numerical schemes of OpenFOAM software to simulate compressible turbulent jets. Both pressure-based schemes utilizing the implicit PIMPLE algorithm and density-based schemes relying on AUSM scheme and explicit Runge-Kutta time integration are considered. The results of the numerical tests are compared and validated against data from NASA ARN nozzle geometry. The choice of parameter setting of the schemes is discussed in depth and possible optimization strategies are proposed to increase accuracy of RANS simulations of turbulent jets.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 213-229; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.122010
This paper reports on generation of electric power using Spin Hydrodynamics (SHD) and its impact on magneto hydrodynamics (MHD). The targeted system uses saltwater as conducting fluid in a channel that is equipped with high energy permanent magnets in that the direction of magnetic field is perpendicular to that of the working fluid. By measuring the induced voltage caused by turbulent motion of conducting fluid (with and without magnetic field) the relationship between the SHD and MHD has been investigated. This system has been further simulated and experimentally verified to validate the claims.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 249-262; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.123012
A shear-induced structure (SIS) is formed under appropriate concentration and shear conditions in a surfactant micellar solution. In this study, we performed experiments of surfactant solution dosing in a fully developed two-dimensional turbulent channel flow from a sintered metallic wire mesh plate attached to a side wall. We investigated the behavior of the solution under the elongation during its passing through the wire mesh and under the strong shear due to the channel flow. It was confirmed that the dosed solution containing a laser dye was visualized by a laser sheet, and the accumulated gel from the wire mesh formed a layer and developed with time. Consequently, on dosing the dilute surfactant solution from the wire mesh, a gel-like SIS layer was formed, which majorly covered the wire mesh plate. The gel-like SIS layer on the wire mesh plate acted as a sticky solid and restricted the flow in the channel. This layer continued to grow while dosing, owing to which the pressure drop of the channel flow significantly increased. The gel-like SIS layer grew rapidly even in the turbulent flow and reached the equilibrium thickness. After the termination of the dosing, the gel layer collapsed gradually. In addition, the thickness of the gel-like SIS layer (indicating the strength indirectly) strongly depended on the surfactant concentration and the elongation rate in the wire mesh.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 56-68; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.121003
This paper investigated the buoyancy and surface tension-driven ferro-thermal-convection (FTC) in a ferrofluid (FF) layer due to influence of general boundary conditions. The lower surface is rigid with insulating to temperature perturbations, while the upper surface is stress-free and subjected to general thermal boundary condition. The numerically Galerkin technique (GT) and analytically regular perturbation technique (RPT) are applied for solving the problem of eigenvalue. It is analyzed that increasing Biot number, decreases the magnetic and Marangoni number is to postponement the onset. Additionally, magnetization nonlinearity parameter has no effect on FTC in the non-existence of Biot number. The results under the limiting cases are found to be in good agreement with those available in the literature.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 96-126; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.121006
This paper investigated lateral diffusion of a confined two-dimensional wall jet (air inlet height: 5 cm) through a perforated plate. We considered two plates with porosities of and . The plates were positioned at distances of 10 cm and 20 cm below the jet inlet. The experiments were realized using 2D Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA). Different profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities are presented. The presence of a perforated plate strongly modified the airflow pattern compared to an empty enclosure. The velocities above and below the plate depend on several parameters, including the porosity and the plate’s position relative to the inlet slot and the longitudinal position. The difference between the flow velocity above and below the plates could not be related using a universal formula that depends on these parameters. We also investigated the influence of a porous media of a height of 20 cm (a stack of spheres having a diameter of 3.75 cm) located below the perforated plate. The results highlight that the porous medium strengthens the effects of the perforated plate on the flow.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.121005
The derivation of solutions to the Navier-Stokes (system of) equations (NSEs), in three spatial dimensions, has been an enigma as time can tell. This study wishes to show how to eradicate this problem via the usage of a recently proposed method for solving partial differential equations called the Generating Function Technique, or GFT for short. The paper will first quickly define the NSEs with and without an external force, then provide a quick synopsis of the GFT. Next, the study will derive solutions to these two major problems and give an analysis of the data concerning a specific set of criteria established by the Clay Mathematics Institute to determine the smoothness and existence of solutions. Results via GFT will show one can easily prove the existence of solutions to the NSEs with or without the presence of an external force. However, only the solutions to the NSEs will be globally bound.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 168-212; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.122009
When performing numerical modeling of fluid flows where a clear medium is adjacent to a porous medium, a degree of difficulty related to the condition at the interface between the two media, where slip velocity exists, is encountered. A similar situation can be found when a jet flow interacts with a perforated plate. The numerical modeling of a perforated plate by meshing in detail each hole is most often impossible in a practical case (many holes with different shapes). Therefore, perforated plates are often modeled as porous zones with a simplified hypothesis based on pressure losses related to the normal flow through the plate. Nevertheless, previous investigations of flow over permeable walls highlight the impossibility of deducing a universal analytical law governing the slip velocity coefficient since the latter depends on many parameters such as the Reynolds number, porosity, interface structure, design of perforations, and flow direction. This makes the modeling of such a configuration difficult. The present study proposes an original numerical interface law for a perforated plate. It is used to model the turbulent jet flow interacting with a perforated plate considered as a fictitious porous medium without a detailed description of the perforations. It considers the normal and tangential effects of the flow over the plate. Validation of the model is realized through comparison with experimental data.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 1-35; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.121001
In this work, a study involving the fully coupled Euler and Navier-Stokes reactive equations is performed. These equations, in conservative and finite volume contexts, employing structured spatial discretization, on a condition of thermochemical non-equilibrium, are analyzed. High-order studies are accomplished using the Spectral method of Streett, Zang, and Hussaini. The high enthalpy hypersonic flows around a circumference, around a reentry capsule, along a blunt body, and along a double ellipse in two-dimensions are simulated. The Van Leer, Liou and Steffen Jr., and Steger and Warming flux vector splitting algorithms are applied to execute the numerical experiments. Three temperatures, which are the translational-rotational temperature, the vibrational temperature, and the electron temperature, are used to accomplish the numerical comparisons. Excellent results were obtained with minimum errors inferior to 6.0%. The key contribution of this work is the correct implementation of a three temperature model coupled with the implementation of three algorithms to perform the numerical simulations, as well the description of energy exchange mechanisms to perform more realistic simulations.
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 12, pp 36-55; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojfd.2022.121002
The existence of an evolving microstructure in a 2.9 vol% fumed silica in paraffin oil and polyisobutylene is demonstrated experimentally and via rheological modeling during steady state and large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The continuously evolving, rebuilding, and breaking down of the microstructure is shown, and correlated through the rheology experiments, thixo-elastovisco-plastic modeling, and small angle light scattering (SALS). All elements are then connected via a global, stochastic optimization algorithm that will provide parameter estimation with a “best-fit” of the steady state and transient data using the well-known Modified Delaware Thixotropic Model, allowing for the comparison of SALS results with experimental values.