Journal of Food Research
ISSN / EISSN : 1927-0887 / 1927-0895
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 745
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p51
Journal of Food Research wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal are greatly appreciated. Journal of Food Research is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please contact us for the application form at: [email protected] Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 3 Adele Papetti, University of Pavia, Italy Bruno Alejandro Irigaray, Facultad de Química, Uruguay Cheryl Rosita Rock, California State University, United States Essence Jeanne Picones Logan, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines Gisele Fátima Morais Nunes, Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Brazil Jose Maria Zubeldia, Clinical Regulatory Consultant for the HIV & Hepatitis C initiative at Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, Spain Juliano De Dea Lindner, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil Liana Claudia Salanta, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Romania Meena Somanchi, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Mohd Nazrul Hisham Daud, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute, Malaysia Ningning Zhao, Oregon Health & Science University, United States Qinlu Lin, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, China Rozilaine A. P. G. Faria, Federal Institute of Science, Education and Technology of Mato Grosso, Brazil Tanima Bhattacharya, Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Australia Tzortzis Nomikos, Harokopio University, Greece Vezirka Jankuloska, University "St. Kliment Ohridski" - Bitola, Republic of Macedonia Violeta Ivanova-Petropulos, University "Goce Delcev" - Stip, Republic of Macedonia Zahra Saleh Ahmed, National Research Centre, Egypt
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p43
Plant-based extracts such as coffee (coffea) and Mauby (Colubrina Arborescens) were tested for chemopreventative potential by measuring their antioxidant activity (i.e., reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity) conventionally using chemical assays 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). Alternately, extracts were also analyzed for their chemopreventative potential via a novel method (Global Antioxidant Response [GAR]), where they were subjected to simulated digestion before their antioxidant activity was determined via conventional methods previously mentioned. Next, the antioxidant capacities of the extracts, conventional versus the novel (GAR) method were compared. Overall, the analysis indicated that the reducing power (FRAP) and free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) of coffee and Mauby were reduced (~16%) after undergoing simulated digestion. It was also observed that while the antioxidants in Mauby scavenged radicals at a significantly higher capacity than those in coffee (95.7% ± 0.67 and 90% ± 2.1 before digestion, and 77.7% ± 2.2 and 74.6% ± 2.3 after digestion, respectively), antioxidants in coffee exhibited higher reducing power compared to those in Mauby. Specifically, after undergoing simulated digestion, 1.12 mM FeSO4/mL ± 0.05 to 0.68 mM FeSO4/mL ± 0.07 ions were reduced before digestion, and 0.73 mM FeSO4/mL ± 0.09 to 0.48 mM FeSO4/mL ± 0.04 ions were reduced after digestion for coffee and Mauby, respectively. These findings suggest that while the antioxidants in coffee may have been more powerful in their ability to reduce ions, the antioxidants in Mauby may have been more effective in scavenging and neutralizing radicals.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p33
The objective of this study was to determine biochemical composition of palm kernel oils produced and consuming in Côte d’Ivoire in order to find out those more suitable for human diet. Our preliminary investigations showed that palm kernel oils consumed in Côte d’Ivoire were those extracted from varieties Dura and Tenera of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Thus, the types of oils analyzed in this study were oil extracted from the variety Dura (OD) and oil extrated from the variety Tenera (OT). The GC-MS was used to determine the biochemical composition of these oils. The results obtained show that in each oil, seventeen fatty acids were identified by GC–MS. However, among these fatty acids, undecylenic acid was identified only in OD and heptanoic acid was identified only in OT. The two types of oil are rich in saturated fatty acids. However, OD had a relatively higher unsaturated fatty acids content. For the other compounds identified, OT had significantly the highest contents of polyphenols, α-tocopherol and sterols with the predominance of β-sitosterol. These results support that palm kernel oil extracted from the variety Tenera is rich in natural compounds that could be developed as nutraceuticals and phytomedicine. However, some unexpected compounds such as lactones were also identified in the two types of oils. Moreover, it is noted that these lactones were more abundant in oil extracted from the variety Dura (OD).
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p25
The rapid growth of corn-based dry grind ethanol plants over the past decade in the US has resulted in a great increase in production of the coproduct DDGS (distillers dried grains with solubles). Since some physical properties like low bulk density and poor flowability can impact the market potential of DDGS, pelleting of DDGS can be one of the easiest ways to improve this situation. Pellet quality is the focus of this project. The pelleting process was conducted with three initial DDGS moisture contents and two different dies; a total of six runs were completed to produce DDGS pellets. The physical qualities of pelleted DDGS were determined by measuring durability, bulk density, angle of repose, and color of the pellets. The results showed that the durability ranged from 42% to 89%, the highest pellet durability occurred when the moisture content was 20% db and the die diameter was 1/8 in. The bulk density increased when the DDGS moisture content decreased, and the highest bulk density was observed when the moisture content was 10% db and the die diameter was 1/8 in.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p11
Individuals higher in eating restraint report feeling ambivalent (i.e., both positive and negative) about food, regardless of whether it is perceived to be unhealthy or healthy (Norris, Do, Close & Deswert, 2019). Given that ambivalence is thought to be a highly unpleasant, unstable, and arousing state, we sought in the current study to examine whether individuals higher in eating restraint show enhanced physiological arousal toward food (but not nonfood) images. Replicating our earlier findings (Norris et al., 2019), individuals higher in eating restraint exhibited more ambivalence towards both unhealthy and healthy food (but not nonfood) images than did those lower in eating restraint. Importantly, skin conductance reactivity (SCR) toward both unhealthy and healthy food images was greater for individuals higher in eating restraint than those lower in eating restraint; there were no group differences for nonfood images. Furthermore, eating restraint scores were positively correlated with SCR toward both unhealthy and healthy food images, suggesting that more extreme restraint is associated with stronger physiological arousal. Together, our results suggest that individuals higher in eating restraint experience more ambivalence and enhanced physiological arousal toward food images regardless of their perceived health value. Implications for treating individuals with eating disorders are discussed.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n2p56
Journal of Food Research wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal are greatly appreciated. Journal of Food Research is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please contact us for the application form at: [email protected] Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 2 Ammar Eltayeb Ali Hassan, University of Tromsø, Norway Bernardo Pace, Institute of Science of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council (CNR), Italy Cheryl Rosita Rock, California State University, United States Diego A. Moreno-Fernández, CEBAS-CSIC, Spain Elke Rauscher-Gabernig, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Austria Jose Maria Zubeldia, Clinical Regulatory Consultant for the HIV & Hepatitis C initiative at Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, Spain Leonardo Martín Pérez, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Argentina Marco Iammarino, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Italy Marta Mesias, Spanish National Research Council, Spain Mohd Nazrul Hisham Daud, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute, Malaysia Olutosin Otekunrin, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria Rozilaine A. P. G. Faria, Federal Institute of Science, Education and Technology of Mato Grosso, Brazil Tanima Bhattacharya, Novel Global Community Education Foundation, Australia Teodora E. Coldea, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania Xingjun Li, Academy of the National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration, China
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n3p1
Cassava is a staple food and an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in Rwanda. However, the nature and chemical composition of cassava roots limit its proper use as food due to its toxicity and short shelf life. The cyanogenic glucosides found in the cassava roots are responsible for the toxicity. The aim of the study was to characterize the chemical profile and consumer acceptability of paste from eight cassava varieties processed into flour using four processing methods. The cassava samples were harvested from trials conducted at Rubona Station of Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board. Four processing methods were used, namely, Cassava grated fermented, Cassava roots fermented, Cassava grated no fermented and Cassava roots no fermented. Pressing was done before drying the products to obtain the flour. At each stage of processing, the samples were prepared for laboratory analysis of dry mater, titratable acidity, cyanhydric acid and crude fiber by Rwanda Standards Board laboratory. Cassava flour was made into paste and sensory evaluation was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of the eight cassava varieties. The sensory attributes for the Ugali tested was significantly different (P<0.05). The method of grating before fermentation gave the most tasty Ugali than cassava root fermented. The more prefered varieties were GAHENE/2 and SEMAK 150/452 followed by BULK 13, MH95/0091 and NASE 14. The chemical analysis done for the 8 cassava varieties flour from the 4 processing methods exhibited the acceptable acidity and the NASE 14, Gahene/2 and Bulk 13 had the lowest cyanide hydrogen.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n2p47
Despite promising interventions to lower people’s daily sugar consumption, such as health- or taste-focused labels, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) continues to rise. To improve the effectiveness of existing labels, the way people process sugar amounts in grams (g) as displayed on beverages seems to merit elucidation. For example, do people perceive the difference in the amount of sugar, and thus in the subjective sweet taste, between two beverages according to Weber’s law? Additionally, is that perceived difference the cause of their beverage choice? In order to investigate these questions, participants in this online experiment first had to estimate the sugar difference between two beverages based on grams and then decide whether they would switch to a lower-sugar beverage. We found that participants’ different estimates followed Weber’s law. The choice of the lower-sugar beverage, however, depended on how large they personally perceived that difference. In other words, the choice was independent of the ratio. These results show that future labels, rather than indicating the total amount of sugar, should indicate whether the reduction, for example in the amount of sugar compared to another beverage, was perceived as significant by others.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n2p32
Interest on Trinitario cocoa has continuously increased due to the fact that some genotypes of this group had inherited some characters of vigorosity from Forastero and the flavor grade of Criollo. The pronounced incompatibility between Trinitario clones orientates research on the crossing of Trinitario clones with other varieties of cocoa in order to increase productivity and cocoa beans quality. Polyphenols and methylxanthines are bioactive compounds responsible for the health benefits of cocoa and cocoa based products. Cocoa is a crop with a high content of bioactive compounds in the plant kingdom. This study aims at correlating genotypes, methylxanthines and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity of beans and dark chocolate derived from Trinitario×Forastero hybrids. Total polyphenol content and total condensed tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Individual bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-DAD-ESI(+)-MS both in beans and dark chocolate bar. Results showed differences within beans of dark chocolate and between beans and dark chocolate. Beans from the hybrid (♀)SNK10×(♂)IMC67 recorded the highest polyphenol content (49.18±1.55mg CatE/g) considering the two matrices. The highest concentration of condensed tannins (22.81±0.69 mgCatE/g) was recorded in beans obtained from the hybrid (♀)ICS40×(♂)UPA134. Dark chocolate bar from beans of the hybrid (♀)ICS40×(♂)UPA134 was the richest in condensed tannins (18.25±0.71 mg CatE/g). The total polyphenol and total condensed tannin contents, the chemical composition as well as the antioxidant activity could be genotype-dependent and were affected negatively during roasting. In fact, roasting decreased the polyphenol content and consequently the antioxidant activity. (-)-epicatechin, theobromine, ferulic and chlorogenic acids and their derivatives, procyanidin C1, caffeine and salicylic acid 3-O-glucose/galactose were identified in beans and/or dark chocolate.
Journal of Food Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jfr.v10n2p21
During the past two decades, metabolic dysfunction and concomitant reduction-oxidation reaction (redox) imbalances (i.e., oxidative stress) have been suggested to be associated with numerous age-related chronic diseases. One profound result of metabolic imbalances is endothelial dysfunction, a pathophysiological condition that increases risk of downstream chronic disease consequences. Healthy endothelial function has been positively associated with elevated levels of circulating nitric oxide (NO). Consequently, a natural, plant-based material that may safely increase endogenous NO levels, reduce redox imbalance, and promote improved metabolic response could be of significant interest and benefit. In this first study of its kind, we conducted a longitudinal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of S7, a proprietary polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetable, and herb-based material previously reported to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to increase NO. Specifically, we measured changes in real-time cellular generation of ROS and changes in levels of bioavailable NO (measured as circulating NOHb) in 42 overweight or slightly obese individuals who were recruited into one of three groups: placebo, 25mg of S7, and 50mg of S7. Results suggest that after 90 days of once-daily supplementation, the 25mg and 50mg S7 groups exhibited diminished mitochondrial ROS generation (~54% and ~75%, respectively) compared to placebo, which exhibited a slight increase (>12%) (p = 0.049). Furthermore, circulating NOHb levels significantly increased in the 25mg and 50mg S7 groups (33.87% and 53.43%, respectively) compared to placebo (p < 0.001). Together, these results suggest that long-term daily supplementation of S7 may provide potential benefits related to healthy endothelial function and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction.