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ISSN / EISSN : 0950-9232 / 1476-5594
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1038)
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Ola Billing, Ylva Holmgren, Daniel Nosek, , Oskar Hemmingsson
Oncogene pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01808-3

Abstract:
Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling and a tumor suppressor in several cancers, but its involvement in melanoma is largely unexplored. Here, we aim to determine the role of LRIG1 in melanoma tumorigenesis, RTK signaling, and BRAF inhibitor resistance. We find that LRIG1 is downregulated during early tumorigenesis and that LRIG1 affects activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in melanoma cells. LRIG1-dependent regulation of EGFR signaling is evolutionary conserved to the roundworm C. elegans, where negative regulation of the EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway by sma-10/LRIG completely depends on presence of the receptor let-23/EGFR. In a cohort of metastatic melanoma patients, we observe an association between LRIG1 and survival in the triple wild-type subtype and in tumors with high EGFR expression. During in vitro development of BRAF inhibitor resistance, LRIG1 expression decreases; and mimics LRIG1 knockout cells for increased EGFR expression. Treating resistant cells with recombinant LRIG1 suppresses AKT activation and proliferation. Together, our results show that sma-10/LRIG is a conserved regulator of RTK signaling, add to our understanding of LRIG1 in melanoma and identifies recombinant LRIG1 as a potential therapeutic against BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma.
Panagiotis Papoutsoglou, Dorival Mendes Rodrigues-Junior, Anita Morén, Andrew Bergman, , , Laia Caja, ,
Oncogene pp 1-18; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01803-8

Abstract:
Activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway modulates the expression of genes involved in cell growth arrest, motility, and embryogenesis. An expression screen for long noncoding RNAs indicated that TGFβ induced mir-100-let-7a-2-mir-125b-1 cluster host gene (MIR100HG) expression in diverse cancer types, thus confirming an earlier demonstration of TGFβ-mediated transcriptional induction of MIR100HG in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. MIR100HG depletion attenuated TGFβ signaling, expression of TGFβ-target genes, and TGFβ-mediated cell cycle arrest. Moreover, MIR100HG silencing inhibited both normal and cancer cell motility and enhanced the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs. MIR100HG overexpression had an inverse impact on TGFβ signaling responses. Screening for downstream effectors of MIR100HG identified the ligand TGFβ1. MIR100HG and TGFB1 mRNA formed ribonucleoprotein complexes with the RNA-binding protein HuR, promoting TGFβ1 cytokine secretion. In addition, TGFβ regulated let-7a-2–3p, miR-125b-5p, and miR-125b-1–3p expression, all encoded by MIR100HG intron-3. Certain intron-3 miRNAs may be involved in TGFβ/SMAD-mediated responses (let-7a-2–3p) and others (miR-100, miR-125b) in resistance to cytotoxic drugs mediated by MIR100HG. In support of a model whereby TGFβ induces MIR100HG, which then enhances TGFβ1 secretion, analysis of human carcinomas showed that MIR100HG expression correlated with expression of TGFB1 and its downstream extracellular target TGFBI. Thus, MIR100HG controls the magnitude of TGFβ signaling via TGFβ1 autoinduction and secretion in carcinomas.
Baoqing Tian, Jiandong Liu, Nasha Zhang, Yemei Song, Yeyang Xu, Mengyu Xie, Bowen Wang, Hui Hua, Yue Shen, Yankang Li, et al.
Oncogene pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01809-2

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Rebecca S. Goydel,
Oncogene pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01811-8

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Correction
P. Ozenne, D. Dayde, E. Brambilla, B. Eymin, S. Gazzeri
Oncogene pp 1-2; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01653-4

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Deepti Bajpai, Spencer Mehdizadeh, Akihiko Uchiyama, Yuta Inoue, Andrew Sawaya, Andrew Overmiller, Stephen R. Brooks, Kowser Hasneen, Meghan Kellett, Elisabetta Palazzo, et al.
Oncogene pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01802-9

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, Joana G. Rodrigues, Catarina Gomes, Paul J. Hensbergen, , Arnoud H. de Ru, Stefan Mereiter, António Polónia, Elisabete Fernandes, , et al.
Oncogene pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01801-w

Abstract:
The clinical performance of the therapeutic monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in the treatment of ErbB2-positive unresectable gastric cancer (GC) is severely hampered by the emergence of molecular resistance. Trastuzumab’s target epitope is localized within the extracellular domain of the oncogenic cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ErbB2, which is known to undergo extensive N-linked glycosylation. However, the site-specific glycan repertoire of ErbB2, as well as the detailed molecular mechanisms through which specific aberrant glycan signatures functionally impact the malignant features of ErbB2-addicted GC cells, including the acquisition of trastuzumab resistance, remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ErbB2 is modified with both α2,6- and α2,3-sialylated glycan structures in GC clinical specimens. In-depth mass spectrometry-based glycomic and glycoproteomic analysis of ErbB2’s ectodomain disclosed a site-specific glycosylation profile in GC cells, in which the ST6Gal1 sialyltransferase specifically targets ErbB2 N-glycosylation sites occurring within the receptor’s trastuzumab-binding domain. Abrogation of ST6Gal1 expression reshaped the cellular and ErbB2-specific glycomes, expanded the cellular half-life of the ErbB2 receptor, and sensitized ErbB2-dependent GC cells to trastuzumab-induced cytotoxicity through the stabilization of ErbB dimers at the cell membrane, and the decreased activation of both ErbB2 and EGFR RTKs. Overall, our data demonstrates that ST6Gal1-mediated aberrant α2,6-sialylation actively tunes the resistance of ErbB2-driven GC cells to trastuzumab.
Correction
J. Stebbing, H. Zhang, Y. Xu, L. C. Lit, A. R. Green, A. Grothey, Y. Lombardo, M. Periyasamy, K. Blighe, W. Zhang, et al.
Oncogene pp 1-1; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01794-6

Linfeng Mao, Weijie Yuan, Kaimei Cai, Chen Lai, Changhao Huang, Yi Xu, Shangwei Zhong, Chen Yang, Ran Wang, Pengwei Zeng, et al.
Oncogene pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01786-6

Abstract:
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2) is a key member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, while YES Proto-Oncogene 1 (YES1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (nRTK) and annexin A2 (ANXA2) belongs to the calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family annexins. Here, we show that EphA2, YES1, and ANXA2 form a signal axis, in which YES1 activated by EphA2 phosphorylates ANXA2 at Tyr24 site, leading to ANXA2 activation and increased ANXA2 nuclear distribution in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Overexpression (OE) of YES1 increases, while knockdown (KD) of YES1 or ANXA2 decreases GC cell invasion and migration in vitro and tumor growth in mouse models. Reexpression of wildtype (WT) rather than mutant ANXA2 (Tyr24F) in ANXA2 knockdown (ANXA2-KD) GC cells restores YES1-induced cell invasion and migration, while neither WT nor mutant ANXA2 (Tyr24F) can restore cell invasion and migration in YES1-KD GC cells. In addition, the activation of EphA2–YES1–ANXA2 pathway is correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, our results establish EphA2–YES1–ANXA2 axis as a novel pathway that drives GC invasion and metastasis, targeting this pathway would be an efficient way for the treatment of GC.
Marek Wanior, Andreas Krämer, ,
Oncogene pp 1-18; doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01781-x

Abstract:
Multi-subunit ATPase-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose non-fermentable) are fundamental epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. Functional genomic studies revealed a remarkable mutation prevalence of SWI/SNF-encoding genes in 20–25% of all human cancers, frequently driving oncogenic programmes. Some SWI/SNF-mutant cancers are hypersensitive to perturbations in other SWI/SNF subunits, regulatory proteins and distinct biological pathways, often resulting in sustained anticancer effects and synthetic lethal interactions. Exploiting these vulnerabilities is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we review the importance of SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers in gene regulation as well as mechanisms leading to assembly defects and their role in cancer development. We will focus in particular on emerging strategies for the targeted therapy of SWI/SNF-deficient cancers using chemical probes, including proteolysis targeting chimeras, to induce synthetic lethality.
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