Archives of Microbiology & Immunology
EISSN : 2572-9365
Current Publisher: Fortune Journals (10.26502)
Total articles ≅ 53
Latest articles in this journal
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 151-153; doi:10.26502/ami.93650054
We report therein the onset of three chronic diseases: Behçet's disease, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis in three sisters after tick bites. Only Behcet's disease was treated in our department. After failure of the initial treatment including colchicine and corticoids, the patient recovered within a prolonged antibiotic therapy time period of 18 months. A 23-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital in the Infectious Diseases Department as she presented with headache, diffuse inflammatory arthromyalgia, abdominal pain and cutaneous folliculitis, and for the umpteenth time for several past years, meningeal syndrome recurrence. The physical examination was unremarkable. The biological test assessment was normal, as were the ophthalmological and cerebral MRI examinations. The patient’s HLA B5 test was negative. The upper digestive fibroscopy shown digestive ulcerations. The diagnosis of Behçet's disease was made on the following: inflammatory arthralgias, digestive ulcerations, folliculitis lesions; recurrent bipolar aphthosis was found at patient’s interview. The patient was given prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/day and colchicine 1 mg/day. The evolution was characterized by an initial improvement of clinical symptoms followed by further iterative recurrence as soon as the corticosteroid doses were reduced. Upon resuming the interview with the patient’ s mother, clinical symptoms began at the age of 9 years old by the occurrence of a voluminous cutaneous erythema following multiple tick bites. One month later the patient presented with subacute lymphocytic meningitis, which was treated as tuberculosis meningitis without relevant bacteriological evidence. On the same day, the patient's two sisters were also bitten by ticks. A few weeks later on, one of them developed osteomyelitis of the tibia, which was operated on. The bacteriological examination result was negative, the histological examination showed non-specific osteomyelitis. Subsequently, she developed various multiple functional complaints that led to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Her other sister concomitantly developed seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of chronic post-tick bite syndrome was suspected despite the negativity of the Lyme serology. The patient significantly improved thanks to high-dose of intravenous penicillin G, despite an initial exacerbation during the first month of treatment, which could be interpreted as confirmation of an infectious process (Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction). Corticosteroids and colchicine were discontinued ; the patient was given doxycycline for a total duration of 18 months. Antibiotic therapy was associated with hydroxychloroquine, the same way as reported for therapy of chronic Q fever and some types of Lyme disease . In 2004, the patient was in complete remission of Behçet's disease. Ten years later, no recurrence has been observed.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 05, pp 207-213; doi:10.26502/ami.93650058
Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Nigeria has one of the largest burdens of TB and HIV/AIDS in the world. Most cases of TB in Nigeria are closely linked to HIV infections. Aim: In this study, the prevalence of TB among PLWHA was investigated. Methodology: One hundred and sixty three (163) sputum specimens were collected from patients attending COCIN Rehabilitation Center in Mangu Jos, Plateau State. The sputum specimens were stained by ZiehlNeelsen’s technique and examined microscopically for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB). Results: Out of the 163 sputum specimens tested six were positive for AFB giving an overall prevalence of 3.7%. The prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection with respect to age group and gender revealed that patient within the age range of < 20 years had the highest prevalence of 14.3%, while male patients were found to have a prevalence of 4.9% compared to their female counterparts (1.7%). Regarding marital status, higher prevalence (9.1%) was recorded among patients who are married compared to the prevalence of 2.3% found among the singles. The prevalence in relation to occupation, showed that patients who engaged in farming had the highest prevalence of 5.2%, followed by those who identified as student (5.0%) and business (2.9%). However, no case of TB was recorded among patients who identified as civil servants and housewives. Conclusion: This study has established the link between TB and HIV infection in the study area. We therefore recommend that further studies be conducted in the entire Plateau State for possible intervention in terms of improve antiretroviral treatment coverage tuberculosis screening, treatment and prevention as a way of reducing active TB among people living with HIV.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 154-175; doi:10.26502/ami.93650055
Objective: To analyze the impact of study selection on the results of a recently published meta-analysis of the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (AZI) in Covid-19 patients. Methods: 31 studies were reviewed looking for critical bias. Combined hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for both treatments using a fixed effects size model and a random effects model. Quantitative analysis regarding the toxicity of the association HCQ plus AZI is made. Results: Meta-analyses performed on the 11 studies we deem critically unbiased show a mortality reduction of 55% for HCQ and 66% for HCQ plus AZI. For both treatments, our meta-analysis indicates a significant efficacy in reducing mortality in hospitalized Covid-19 patients.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 05, pp 182-206; doi:10.26502/ami.93650057
Ebola viral disease remains a great threat to the society due to the limited availability of licensed drugs or vaccines. As the pathogen belongs to Biosafety Level 4, it is extremely dangerous to design a vaccine using conventional techniques. Therefore, reverse vaccinology approach is used to select the suitable epitopes from the genomic sequence of the virus. Using several algorithms, specific epitopes were chosen and 3D structures were obtained. The HLA alleles vary in different population and hence those alleles that commonly occur in African and world population were selected. Homology models were built for those HLA alleles whose 3D structures were unavailable. Then selected 20 epitopes were docked with selected 8 HLAs and further, selected epitope NQDGLICGL was validated by molecular dynamics study.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 139-150; doi:10.26502/ami.93650053
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 110-120; doi:10.26502/ami.93650050
Background & Objectives: COVID-19 is a global pandemic, also affecting Pakistan with its first case reported on 26th February 2020. Since then, it has been a total of 217,809 positive cases and 4473 deaths in Pakistan so far. Deranged liver function enzymes levels are prominently detected extra-pulmonary clinical manifestation of COVID-19 reported by at least one-half of the patients. Our study aimed to evaluate these derangements in our population. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted to include all the admitted patients having COVID-19 positive, and evaluated those for derangements of liver function enzymes (n=77). The statistical analysis was conducted to compare those derangements amongst the disease severity, prognostic markers, and death. Results: Out of the 77 patients, 55 were admitted in the ward, 22 were in ICU, 61 of them recovered, while 16 deaths reported. The most deranged liver enzyme was found out to be Gamma-glutamyl transferase (51.94%), followed by Aspartate transferase (41.55%), Alanine transferase (28.57%), and Alkaline phosphatase (14.28%). Total bilirubin was deranged in only 10 patients, however, direct bilirubin was above the normal range in 33 patients, while indirect component in only 4 patients. Increased direct bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase, and Gamma-glutamyl transferase were associated with increased mortality, increased ICU admissions, increased neutrophils, lymphocytopenia, leukocytosis, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio>3, while Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase were not associated with the above factors. Conclusion: The deranged values of liver function enzymes in COVID-19 are correlated with an increased number of ICU admissions, mortalities as well as prognostic markers.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 1-10; doi:10.26502/ami.93650040
Background: Heat stroke is a life-threatening disease, but there is currently no biomarker to accurately assess prognosis. Objective: To study whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) is an effective biomarker for evaluating the prognosis for patients with heat stroke. Method: Clinical data for 61 patients with heat stroke were retrospectively collected and analyzed. PCT, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS) were calculated within the first 24 hours of admission to the ICU. The ability of PCT, APACHE II score, and MODS score to predict prognosis was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analyses. Result: There was no statistical difference in the PCT value on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (PCT1) between the survivors and non-survivors (3.27 [95% CI 0.15-13.55] vs 0.45 [95% CI 0.13-2.04], p=0.369). ROC curve analysis showed that AUC of APACHE II score and MODS score were 0.932 (95% CI 0.861-1.000), p<0.001 and 0.857 (95% CI 0.744- 0.970), p<0.001, respectively. The AUC of PCT1 was 0.599 (95% CI 0.353-0.846), p=0.370. The dynamic trend of PCT was also not statistically different between the survivor and non-survivor group (p=0.138). Conclusion: PCT and its dynamic trend do not provide a good assessment of the prognosis for patients with heat stroke. An increase in PCT levels at ICU admission is not an indicator of bacterial infection, which should be confirmed by larger future studies.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4; doi:10.26502/ami.93650046
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4; doi:10.26502/ami.93650047
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 95-109; doi:10.26502/ami.93650049
Objective In this retrospective case study, we determine the results, side effects and long-term outcome features of treatment with imiquimod 5% in women with recurrent or residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (rrCIN). Methods The study was set in three outpatient clinics of hospitals in the Netherlands. Women diagnosed with rrCIN and treated with imiquimod 5% intravaginally between 2010 and up to and including 2017 were included. Data were extracted from medical records. The main outcome measures were complete regression or partial regression of SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesions) (cytology) or CIN (histology), side effects and long-term outcome in terms of the need for further excisional treatment during the follow-up period. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results The 18 studied women tolerated imiquimod well: all completed the treatment, with a temporary stop or dose reduction in two. The treatment was successful in 11 women overall (61%) of whom 8 women (80%) with high grade CIN (grades II-III). Of these 11 women, 4 women developed a recurrence of which 3 women were treated successfully with imiquimod or a LLETZ procedure. One woman died in the follow up without treatment of the CIN lesion. Of the remaining seven women with unsuccessful treatment, four patients underwent additional therapy. Two women underwent a hysterectomy, one woman underwent multiple procedures and the last woman underwent laser therapy and imiquimod, but died in the follow up. Of the remaining three out of those 7 women with unsuccessful treatment, two women refused further therapy and one woman required no further therapy since she cleared HPV and showed no dysplasia in the follow-up period. Conclusions In studied population, imiquimod treatment was well tolerated and associated with resolution or regression of SIL/CIN in 61% of women. We have started a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of imiquimod with that of LLETZ in recurrent or residual CIN.