Journal of Clinical Imaging Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 2156-7514 / 2156-5597
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 730
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Hainan Ren, , Minami Hirasawa, Shin Hamada, Shunji Mugikura, Atsushi Masamune, Kei Takase
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_158_2021

Abstract:
Objectives: The objectives of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of findings on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) separately and to identify an optimal Boolean interpretation model for discriminating patients with small pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from control groups in clinical practice. Material and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients with surgery confirmed small PDAC (≤20 mm) and 302 patients without pancreatic abnormality between April 2008 and February 2020. The presence of masses was evaluated by T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Abnormality of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) was evaluated by T2WI and MRCP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to select significant sequences for discriminating the small PDAC and control groups. Boolean operators “OR” or “AND” were used to construct sequence combinations. Diagnostic performances of these sequences and combinations were evaluated by X 2 tests. Results: The sensitivity of T2WI was lowest (20%) for detecting masses. For evaluating MPD abnormality, sensitivity was higher for MRCP than for T2WI (86.7% vs. 53.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that T1WI and DWI for detecting the presence of masses and MRCP for evaluating MPD abnormality were significantly associated with differentiation between the two groups (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0484, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Seven combinations were constructed with T1WI, DWI, and MRCP. The combination of findings on “T1WI or DWI or MRCP” achieved the highest sensitivity of 96.7% and negative predictive value of 99.6%. Conclusion: The combination of findings on “T1WI or DWI or MRCP” might be an optimal interpretation model for discriminating small PDAC from control groups in clinical practice.
, Yifeng Yang, Jiehui Xu, Jeffrey B. Ware, Baogiong Liu
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_148_2021

Abstract:
Objectives: While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has higher sensitivity than computed tomography for certain types of traumatic brain injury (TBI), it remains unknown whether the increased detection of intracranial injuries leads to improved clinical outcomes in acute TBI patients, especially given the resource requirements involved in performing MRI. We leveraged a large national patient database to examine associations between brain MRI utilization and inpatient clinical outcomes in hospitalized TBI patients. Material and Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database was queried to find 3,075 and 340,090 hospitalized TBI patients with and without brain MRI, respectively, between 2012 and 2014 in the United States. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to independently evaluate the association between brain MRI utilization and inpatient mortality rate, complications, and resource requirements. Results: The MRI group had a lower unadjusted mortality rate of 0.75% compared to 2.54% in the non-MRI group. On multivariate regression analysis, inpatient brain MRI was independently associated with lower mortality (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86), as well as higher rates of intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.27–3.81) and non-home discharge (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07–1.67). Brain MRI was independently associated with 3.4 days (P < 0.001) and $8,934 (P < 0.001) increase in the total length and cost of hospital stay, respectively. Conclusion: We present the first evidence that inpatient brain MRI in TBI patients is associated with lower inpatient mortality, but with increased hospital resource utilization and likelihood of non-home discharge.
Joseph T. George, Winnie Mar
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_154_2021

Abstract:
Allograft torsion is a rare but potentially devastating outcome of renal transplantation. Patients typically present with an acute onset of abdominal pain, though symptoms are non-specific and can easily be missed in favor of more common diagnoses. Imaging, in particular ultrasound and computed tomography, can aid in the diagnosis of renal transplant torsion by demonstrating characteristic features, and once recognized immediate surgery is typically performed in an attempt to salvage the allograft. However, renal transplant torsion needs not be an acute event; patients can instead present with chronic, waxing, and waning symptoms if the allograft undergoes partial or intermittent torsion. The aforementioned characteristic imaging findings may not be present in this situation. It is essential to recognize partial, intermittent torsion as well, for which imaging can again play a role.
Akitoshi Inoue, , Benjamin A. Voss, Yong S. Lee, Shuai Leng, Chi Wan Koo, Brian D. McCollough, Jayse M. Weaver, Hao Gong, Rickey E. Carter, et al.
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_143_2021

Abstract:
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to estimate the impact of high matrix image reconstruction on chest computed tomography (CT) compared to standard image reconstruction. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included patients with interstitial or parenchymal lung disease, airway disease, and pulmonary nodules who underwent chest CT. Chest CT images were reconstructed using high matrix (1024 × 1024) or standard matrix (512 × 512), with all other parameters matched. Two radiologists, blinded to reconstruction technique, independently examined each lung, viewing image sets side by side and rating the conspicuity of imaging findings using a 5-point relative conspicuity scale. The presence of pulmonary nodules and confidence in classification of internal attenuation was also graded. Overall image quality and subjective noise/artifacts were assessed. Results: Thirty-four patients with 68 lungs were evaluated. Relative conspicuity scores were significantly higher using high matrix image reconstruction for all imaging findings indicative of idiopathic lung fibrosis (peripheral airway visualization, interlobular septal thickening, intralobular reticular opacity, and end-stage fibrotic change; P ≤ 0.001) along with emphysema, mosaic attenuation, and fourth order bronchi for both readers (P ≤ 0.001). High matrix reconstruction did not improve confidence in the presence or classification of internal nodule attenuation for either reader. Overall image quality was increased but not subjective noise/artifacts with high matrix image reconstruction for both readers (P < 0.001). Conclusion: High matrix image reconstruction significantly improves the conspicuity of imaging findings reflecting interstitial lung disease and may be useful for diagnosis or treatment response assessment.
, Jean-Luc Engelholm, Michaël Vouche, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_72_2021

Abstract:
Objectives: The objectives of the study was to compare pancreatic perfusion by computed tomography in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. Material and Methods: In this case–control study, 17 patients with type 2 diabetes and 22 non-diabetic controls were examined with a dynamic 192-slices perfusion computed tomography for estimating pancreatic perfusion parameters. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included (22 with Type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]), with a mean age of 64 years. There were significant differences in some pancreatic perfusion parameters in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. Blood volume (BV) was lower in pancreatic head (with T2DM: 14.0 ± 3.4 vs. without T2DM: 16.1 ± 2.4 mL/100 mL; P = 0.033), pancreatic tail (with: 14.4 ± 3.6 vs. without: 16.8 ± 2.5 mL/100 mL; P = 0.023), and in whole pancreas (with: 14.2 ± 3.2 vs. without: 16.2 ± 2.5 mL/100 mL; P = 0.042). Similar behavior was observed with mean transit time (MTT) in pancreatic head (with: 7.0 ± 1.0 vs. without: 7.9 ± 1.2 s; P = 0.018), pancreatic tail (with: 6.6 ± 1.3 vs. without: 7.7 ± 0.9 s; P = 0.005), and in whole pancreas (with: 6.8 ± 1.0 vs. without: 7.7 ± 0.9 s; P = 0.016). BV in head, tail, and whole pancreas had negative correlations with age (head r: –0.352, P = 0.032; tail r: –0.421, P = 0.031; whole pancreas r: –0.439, P = 0.007), and fasting plasma glucose (head r: –0.360, P = 0.031; tail r: –0.483, P = 0.003; whole pancreas r: –0.447, P = 0.006). In a multivariate linear regression model, HbA1c was independently associated with decrease in BV in whole pancreas (β: –0.884; CI95%: –1.750 to –0.017; P = 0.046). Conclusion: Pancreatic BV and MTT were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes. BV was decreased with older age and poorer glycemic control.
, Ashley Bragg, Gary Whitman
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_81_2021

Abstract:
Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is a subset of cancer that is too often diagnosed at a more advanced stage due to physiologic changes of the breast and lack of awareness among patients and physicians, resulting in higher mortality rates. While PABC is rare, it is postulated that as women delay childbearing, the rate of PABC may increase. Therefore, it is important to discuss appropriate workup, safety of mammography during pregnancy, and biopsy techniques.
Gopal R. Vijayaraghavan, Matthew Kona, Abiramy Maheswaran, Dina H. Kandil, Madhavi K. Toke,
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_60_2021

Abstract:
Objectives: Ultrasound (US) is commonly used for diagnostic evaluation of breast lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between US imaging morphology from routine radiologists’ interpretation and biological behavior such as receptor status and tumor grade determined from histopathology in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 453 patients with pathology-verified diagnosis of IDC who had undergone US imaging and had surgery over a 5-year period. US and surgical pathology reports were reviewed and compiled. Correlation analyses and age-adjusted multivariable models were used to determine the association between US imaging morphology and receptor status, tumor grade, and germ line mutation of the breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). The odds ratio (OR), area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Results: The likelihood for high-grade cancer increased with size (OR: 1.066; CI: 1.042–1.091) and hypo-echogenicity (OR: 2.044; CI: 1.337–3.126), and decreased with angular or spiculated margins (OR: 0.605; CI: 0.393–0.931) and posterior acoustic shadowing (OR: 0.352; CI: 0.238–0.523). These features achieved an AUC of 0.799 (CI: 0.752–0.845) for predicting high-grade tumors. The likelihood for Estrogen Receptor-positive tumors increased with posterior acoustic shadowing (OR: 3.818; CI: 2.206–6.607), angulated or spiculated margins (OR: 2.596; CI: 1.159–5.815) and decreased with US measured tumor size (OR: 0.959; CI: 0.933–0.986) and hypoechoic features (OR: 0.399; CI: 0.198– 0.801), and achieved an AUC of 0.787 (CI: 0.733–0.841). The likelihood for Progesterone Receptor-positive tumors increased with posterior acoustic shadowing (OR: 2.732; CI: 1.744–4.28) and angulated or spiculated margins (OR: 2.618; CI: 1.412–4.852), and decreased with US measured tumor size (OR: 0.961; CI: 0.937–0.985) and hypoechoic features (OR: 0.571; CI: 0.335–0.975), and achieved an AUC of 0.739 (CI: 0.689–0.790). The likelihood for Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors increased with heterogeneous echo texture (OR: 2.141; CI: 1.17– 3.919) and decreased with angulated or spiculated margins (OR: 0.408; CI: 0.177–0.944), and was marginally associated with hypoechoic features (OR: 2.101; CI: 0.98–4.505) and circumscribed margins (OR: 4.225; CI: 0.919–19.4). The model with the aforementioned four US morphological features and achieved an AUC of 0.686 (CI: 0.614–0.758). The likelihood for triple-negative breast cancers increased with hypo-echogenicity (OR: 2.671; CI: 1.249–5.712) and decreased with posterior acoustic shadowing (OR: 0.287; CI: 0.161–0.513), and achieved an AUC of 0.739 (CI: 0.671– 0.806). No statistical association was observed between US imaging morphology and BRCA mutation. Conclusion: In this study of over 450 IDCs, significant statistical associations between tumor grade and receptor status with US imaging morphology were observed and could serve as a surrogate imaging marker for the biological behavior of the tumor.
, Mohamed Rizwan Haroon Al Rasheed, Gavin Low
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_54_2021

Abstract:
Perianal fistulae are commonly complicated by abscesses and ramifications, which have well-recognized imaging morphology. Less commonly, atypical findings of solid enhancing mass-like lesions with no fluid component are associated with chronic and recurrent fistulae, the etiology of which includes inflammatory masses as well as locally aggressive malignancy. The latter predicts poorer prognosis and warrants extensive surgical resection. The reading radiologist must identify the unusual appearance, be aware of the possible etiologies, and if appropriate recommend prompt tissue sampling to exclude malignancy. This is pertinent as it determines surgical management, which is crucial in achieving a potential curative outcome.
, Saif Baig, Peter Fiester, Adam Holtzman, Michael Rutenberg, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Dinesh Rao
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_139_2021

Abstract:
Chordomas of the skull-base are typically slow-growing, notochord-derived tumors that most commonly originate along the clivus. Skull base chordoma is treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Local recurrence approaches 50% at 10 years. Radiologists play a critical role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Surgeons and radiation oncologists rely on radiologists for pre-operative delineation of tumor and adjacent anatomy, identification of post-treatment changes and disease recurrence, and radiation treatment effects. This review provides an overview of clinical characteristics, surgical anatomy, indications for radiotherapy, identification of treatment complications, and patterns of disease recurrence for radiologists to provide value in the management of these lesions.
, Khush Aujla, Michael Nead, Kevin Bylund
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.25259/jcis_134_2021

Abstract:
Most patients diagnosed with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be easily cured with surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Modalities such as photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, or laser therapy only offer temporary palliation. A 79-year-old gentleman with early-stage NSCLC who underwent a left lower lobe lobectomy in 2009 presented to us again in 2010 with hemoptysis. A friable ~5 cm tumor along the bifurcation of anterior and the posterior segment of the right upper lobe was noted on bronchoscopic examination, and biopsy confirmed this to be squamous cell carcinoma. Because of his previous surgery, the patient was not a candidate for another surgery. SBRT was not possible as the lesion could not be seen on radiologic imaging. The patient was, therefore, treated with curative intent high-dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EBBT) in 4 weekly sessions of 7 Gy per fraction delivered at a depth of 8 mm, covering ~5 cm tumor plus 1 cm margin proximally and distally. He tolerated the treatment well without any acute or late side effects and was followed every 3 months thereafter with bronchoscopy examinations for 6 months and subsequently with computerized tomography (CT) imaging. In July 2018, the patient started having episodes of hemoptysis and evaluation leads to diagnosis of a third primary lung cancer, which was successfully treated with SBRT with image-guided radiotherapy using a five-fraction regimen. The patient’s most recent CT from July 2019 showed no evidence of disease. We conclude that in patients with early-stage NSCLC, when surgery or SBRT is not feasible due to radiologic occult nature, HDR-EBBT can yield excellent long-term outcome.
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