Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2074-0506 / 2542-0909
Published by: IPO Association of Transplantologists (10.23873)
Total articles ≅ 125
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S. E. Voskanyan, E. V. Naydenov, А. И. Артемьев, D. A. Zabezhinskiy, K. K. Gubarev, V. S. Rudakov, M. V. Shabalin, D. S. Svetlakova, A. P. Maltseva, Yu. V. Voskanyan, et al.
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-235-247

Abstract:
The aim was to study the results of using various treatment regimens for hepatic encephalopathy for patients with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation and the effect on the incidence and severity of hepatic encephalopathy in the perioperative period, and on the posttransplantation course.Material and methods. Fifty four patients with cirrhosis of various etiologies and the presence of significant hepatic encephalopathy undergoing living donor liver transplantation were included in the study. In the comparison group, patients took lactulose and rifaximin. In the main group, patients took lactulose and rifaximin in combination with L-ornithine-L-aspartate in the preoperative period, and L-ornithine-L-aspartate after liver transplantation for 5 days.Results. The use of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in the complex therapy of hepatic encephalopathy led to significantly reduced time of performing the Number Connection Test, the improvement of cognitive functions in patients by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a decreased incidence of stage II–III hepatic encephalopathy and an increased incidence of stage 0-I hepatic encephalopathy in the preoperative period. In the postoperative period, patients of the main group showed a rapid decrease in the severe stages of hepatic encephalopathy (stage II–III) towards less severe forms (stage 0–I) on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after liver transplantation, and also a faster recovery of cognitive functions, an earlier adequate recovery of consciousness, muscle tone, an earlier possibility of extubation, a shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit, and a decreased postoperative hospital length of stay relatively to the patients of the comparison group.Conclusion. The use of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in the combination therapy for hepatic encephalopathy in the peritransplantation period leads to a significant decrease of the incidence and severity of hepatic encephalopathy, accelerates rehabilitation of patients, reduces postoperative hospital length of stay.
A. A. Budaev, M. S. Makarov, V. V. Slastinin, N. V. Borovkova
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-280-292

Abstract:
The authors have presented the review of scientific literature on producing grafts intended for surgical reconstruction of ligament ruptures. The treatment of ligament ruptures in reconstructive plastic surgery could be performed by using synthetic grafts, autologous and allogenic grafts from tissue donors. Advantages of synthetic grafts include the possibility of their regular manufacturing under sterile conditions, and providing mechanical properties, high biocompatibility. However, synthetic implants significantly increase the risk of synovitis and other complications, they can not be replaced by the native tissue, and have no ability to regeneration. Autologous grafts have ideal tissue compatibility and quick biointegration, could be harvested from different anatomical sites, but commonly the graft harvesting is followed by donor site morbidity and potential risk of injury nerves, elongates operation time, bad cosmetic results. The use of autografts may be also limited by anatomical features of the patient. Allogenic ligament biomaterial could provide wide range of grafts, but in our days there is no standardized methods for ligament graft sterilization and long storage. Wellknown sterilization methods, such as ionized radiation and chemical treatment, gave controversial results. One could conclude that estimation of ligament graft viability must include a complex study of biomechanical properties, cell and fibers integrity.
, , D. V. Lonshakov, , A. I. Kazantsev,
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-220-234

Abstract:
Introduction. The total number of pancreas transplantations performed in Russia by the end of 2019 had been 176. There are no detailed reports on the number and results of pancreas transplantation in Russia with analysis of factors that significantly affect outcomes.Material and methods. This article presents a retrospective analysis of 60 pancreas transplantation results, which had been performed from January 2008 to July 2019 at the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine. In addition, the assessment of factors that significantly affect the outcomes of pancreas transplantations was performed.Results. 17 intra-abdominal pancreas transplantations with duodenoejunoanastomosis and 43 retroperitoneal pancreas transplantations with interduodenal anastomosis were performed. In 52 patients, the pancreas graft after vascular reconstruction with a Y-shaped vascular prosthesis was used; in other 8 patients, the pancreas graft with isolated blood flow through the splenic artery was used. The rates of immunological and surgical complications were 23.3% and 56.7%, respectively. In-hospital and 1-year recipient, kidney and pancreas graft survival rates were 88.3%, 86.4%, 83.3% and 86.6%, 84.8%, and 81.7%, respectively. The factors that significantly affected the outcomes of pancreas transplantation were the conversion of the dialysis therapy modality, the development of parapancreatic infection, repeated open surgical interventions, surgical complications of IIIb-IVa severity grades by Clavien-Dindo Classification, some features of basic and induction immunosuppressive therapy.Conclusion. The results of pancreas transplantation at the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine are comparable to the outcomes of pancreas transplantation in most world transplant centers.
, N. V. Shmarina, , E. S. Stolyarevich, N. V. Natalya V. Zagorodnikova, K. E. Lazareva
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-260-271

Abstract:
Introduction. Despite the improvements in immunosuppressive therapy, the growing number of repeat kidney transplantations and associated risks of acute rejection make it relevant to assess the impact of early acute rejection on a long-term kidney graft survival.Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate, the clinical aspects of early acute rejection after repeat kidney transplantation and the outcomes of its treatment, to perform the assessment of the impact of rejection episodes on a long-term kidney graft survival.Material and methods. We carried out the retrospective analysis of kidney graft survival after 121 repeat kidney transplantations performed in N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in the period from 2007 to 2018. Group I included 96 recipients after kidney transplantation without acute rejection in postoperative period. Group II consisted of 25 patients with early acute rejection after kidney transplantation. We performed the assessment of the impact of early acute rejection on the kidney graft survival in comparison with recipients with uncomplicated postoperative period. Statistical processing was carried out by nonparametric methods. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier curves.Results. 1-year and 3-year kidney graft survival rates amounted to 90.3% (95%, confidence interval 85–95) and 85.4% (95%, CI 79–91), respectively, in recipients of Group I; and 72% (95%, CI 58–86) and 60% (95%, CI 46–76) in patients of Group II. Significant differences in 1-year and 3-year kidney graft survival between patients of Group I and II have been noticed (P=0.0022 and P=0.0065, respectively).Conclusions. Patients with early acute rejection after kidney transplantation had poorer kidney graft survival in comparison with patients without rejection episodes in postoperative period.
A. M. Talyzin, S. V. Zhuravel, M. Sh. Khubutiya, E. A. Evgeniy A. Tarabrin, N. K. Kuznetsova
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-248-259

Abstract:
Introduction. Recently, researchers have paid considerable attention to the strategy of intraoperative infusiontransfusion therapy in traumatic surgical interventions. The choice of a “restrictive” regimen during surgery in many studies has reduced the incidence and severity of intra- and postoperative complications.Objective. Comparison of the effectiveness of "liberal" and "restrictive" intraoperative infusion-transfusion therapy in lung transplantation.Material and methods. The study included 58 patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in the period 2012-2019. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the comparison group included 31 patients, the total volume of intraoperative infusion-transfusion in whom was 14386.9 ± 1310.0 ml (16.5 ml/kg/h). Group II consisted of 27 patients; their total volume of intraoperative infusion-transfusion during surgery was 10251.3 ± 740.1 ml (12.9 ml/kg/hour). The analysis we performed included the volume and composition of intraoperative infusion-transfusion therapy, the volume of blood loss, clinical and laboratory data, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the frequency of intraoperative use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the duration of its use after surgery, mortality.Results. When using the "restrictive" fluid therapy for lung transplantation, we observed a decrease in the volume of intraoperative blood loss by 1.3 times, the volume of transfusion of blood components, including fresh frozen plasma by 37%, erythrocyte suspension by 3.1 times, and instrumental reinfusion of autoerythrocytes by 1.56 times. At the same time, we revealed a decrease by 2.7 times in the duration of the mechanical ventilation use, a decreased frequency of using veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during surgery by 1.3 times, and a decreased duration of using veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after surgery by 2.3 times. Mortality was 38.7% in group I, and 30.7% in group II.Conclusion. The “restrictive” approach to intraoperative infusion-transfusion therapy in lung transplantation seems a promising new trend requiring further study and gaining the experience.
V. E. Syutkin, , A. A. Salienko, , N. A. Kupryshina, M. S. Novruzbekov
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-272-279

Abstract:
Introduction. One of the serious complications after transplantation of solid organs and bone marrow is the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.Clinical case. To evaluate the course of post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases in the long-term in a liver transplant recipient after conversion of immunosuppressive therapy from tacrolimus to everolimus. We analyze a case of generalized primary plasmacytoma of lymph nodes with bone marrow involvement in a patient after liver transplantation.Results. After conversion of immunosuppression we observed a rapid positive trend: decreasing size of lymph nodes and regression of the level of paraprotein down to its complete disappearance. There were neither adverse events associated with everolimus for four years, nor signs of immunosuppression insufficiency.Conclusion. This Case Report is the first description of a long-term remission of nodal plasmacytoma that developed in a liver transplant recipient after complete withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors and administration of everolimus. We suggest that the regression of post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases after replacing calcineurin inhibitors with everolimus is associated not only with the minimization of calcineurin inhibitors exposure, but also with the antitumor effect of the everolimus itself, which prompts us to discuss the possibilities of expanding its clinical application.
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-3-293-308

Abstract:
The analysis of literature on experimental and clinical transplantation for the period of the 1968–1969 demonstrated that in the period from 1960 to 1970 the world transplantation saw a paradigm change in the field of homoorgan transplant: instead of overcoming the incompatibility between the donor organ and the recipient's body by using biological and physiological methods to influence the organ, which V.P. Demikhov had been dealing with for many years; surgeons and scientists, first abroad, and then in the USSR started developing and applying the creation of artificial immunological tolerance by using various physical, chemical and biological methods to impact recipient's body. The change of paradigms significantly influenced the implementation of organ transplantation techniques in clinic, including those of vital organs, and the further development of clinical transplantology. The data on the first heart transplants in 1968 and lung transplants in 1963–1970 have been presented.
A. V. Shabunin, S. P. Loginov, , I. V. Nesterenko, D. A. Makeev, O. S. Zhuravel, L. R. Karapetyan
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-2-158-164

Abstract:
Rationale. To date, liver transplantation is the most effective method of treating end-stage liver failure, and therefore this treatment has become widespread throughout the world. However, due to the improvement in the quality of transplant care and an increase in the long-term survival of patients, the development of concomitant pathology, which often requires medical treatment, is inevitably associated with a higher life expectancy of liver transplant recipients. Thus, in patients who underwent liver transplantation, there is. a significant increase in the incidence of dyslipidemia. However, a long-term immunosuppressive therapy in organ transplant patients can adversely modify the effect of the prescribed drugs, which requires careful monitoring and consideration of drug interactions.Purpose. Using a clinical example to demonstrate the importance of taking drug interactions into account in the treatment of patients after organ transplantation receiving immunosuppressive drugs.Material and methods. In the presented clinical case, a patient after orthotopic liver transplantation performed in 2005 underwent a staged treatment of cicatricial stricture of choledochal anastomosis in the S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital. During the following hospitalization, the patient complained of minor muscle pain when walking. At doctor's visit 3 weeks before hospitalization, a local physician prescribed therapy with atorvastatin 10 mg per day due to an increase in blood plasma cholesterol levels. The patient underwent removal of the self-expanding nitinol stent. During the follow-up examination, the patient had no evidence of an impaired bile outflow, however, muscle pain and weakness progressively increased, the rate of diuresis decreased, and in the biochemical analysis of blood there was an abrupt increase in the concentration of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase. Atorvastatin was canceled, a diagnosis of acute non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis was established, treatment with hemodialysis and plasma exchange was started on 03/05/2020. The last session of renal replacement therapy was 03/30/20.Results. With the restoration of the diuresis rate, there was a spontaneous decrease in the level of creatinine to 170 μmol/L. The patient was discharged with satisfactory renal and hepatic function. The pain syndrome completely resolved. Conclusion. Drug interactions between atorvastatin and cyclosporine have resulted in acute rhabdomyolysis with life-threatening consequences. This once again confirms the importance of taking drug interactions into account when managing patients after solid organ transplantation.
B. Z. Khubutiya, O. N. Rzhevskaya, A. A. Lisenok
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-2-165-178

Abstract:
Introduction. All over the world and in Russia, the number of patients requiring dialysis therapy and kidney transplantation for chronic renal failure in the end-stage of the renal disease is increasing. In many countries of the world, the number of dialysis patients over 60 years of age accounts for 30 to 45% of all patients with chronic renal failure. Meantime, taking into account the improved methods for early diagnosis of chronic renal failure and the treatment methods for chronic kidney disease, including the renal replacement therapy, we can expect an increase in the number of elderly potential kidney transplant recipients. The likelihood of receiving a renal graft in elderly patients is significantly lower than in young recipients. Elderly patients are known to have a higher risk of death while waiting for a kidney transplant due to higher morbidity and lethality on dialysis. For this reason, the urgency of increasing the availability of kidney transplantation in elderly patients is growing over time. One of the solutions can be the use of kidneys from suboptimal donors with a far from ideal graft quality, but which could meet the needs for transplant care of the older age group of patients. The older age of a recipient entails a certain risk of developing a graft dysfunction due to the presence of concomitant diseases, and the potential risk increases even more with kidney transplants from expanded criteria donors. If a reduced functional reserve of kidneys removed from donors with extended criteria is identified, two-kidney transplantation is possible, which provides fairly good long-term results. To reduce the risk of a kidney graft loss, a careful selection of recipients is necessary, taking into account their co-morbidities, including the presence of urological diseases that impair the function of the upper and lower urinary tract. Their timely identification and correction makes it possible to raise the availability of kidney transplantation for elderly patients and improve its results. This review presents the results of the studies conducted in various world transplant centers, covers the mortality rates, kidney graft and recipient survival rates.The study purpose was to summarize the actual data and the results of the study on kidney transplantation in elderly patients with urological pathology.
Transplantologiya. The Russian Journal of Transplantation, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.23873/2074-0506-2021-13-2-179-197

Abstract:
Analysis of the materials of the 2nd All-Union conference on the problem of tissue incompatibility, conservation and transplantation of tissues and organs (Odessa, 1967) showed that Soviet and foreign scientists had similar approaches to solving the problem of organ and tissue transplantation. Soviet scientists spoke about overcoming tissue incompatibility by hybridization of plants and chimerization of animals, about the effect of drug sleep on transplant immunity, about neurohumoral immunological shifts and the role of the central and peripheral nervous systems in the engraftment of grafts, about the influence of external factors on immunity. They also discussed the characterization of the antigenic structure of grafts, the role of DNA in immunity, the genetic transformation of homomaterial, the use of pharmacological agents to suppress immunogenesis, the cryopreservation of auto- and homo-organs and tissues with perfusion of their vascular bed, and the study of immunogenesis at the molecular level. A year earlier, the Americans discussed immunological paralysis, the effect on the recipient's immunity of the donor's blood transfused to him and its components, and biochemical studies of immunity. At the same time, without any ethical doubts, American scientists conducted experiments, including clinical ones, with multiple passages of homosexual skin, with exchange transfusion of blood to newborns and subsequent transplantation of homosexual donors to them, with irradiation of recipients with powerful doses of X-rays. It is shown that most of the trends that had been developed by V.P. Demikhov, were approved by the 2nd All-Union Conference. But what he lacked was close and comprehensive integration with morphologists, physiologists, immunologists, biochemists, pharmacologists and, sadly, with clinical surgeons. Based on the research conducted, an unambiguous conclusion can be drawn: Soviet scientists should not have criticized V.P. Demikhov for his "misunderstanding" of immunology, and to help him in every possible way, directing his energy in the right direction.
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