Advances in Research

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EISSN : 2348-0394
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 856
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Published: 3 November 2021
Advances in Research pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530314

Abstract:
This study responds to the disruptive environment in which educational institutions globally find themselves in the COVID-19 lockdown, where remote-based teaching was adapted to ensure continuous learning. Globally, over 90% of learners are affected by the closure of learning institutions. The study evaluates the digital transformation necessitated by the COVID-19 lockdown through the perception of faculty. Despite the rapid technological developments and high adoption of technology-mediated tools in most developed countries, developing countries lag. E-learning adoption has remained low in most developing countries, and this study aims to investigate the acceptance of Moodle at a rural university in Zimbabwe. This quantitative study utilised the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to explore how the institution used the COVID-19 pandemic as a springboard to accelerate the adoption of virtual learning systems. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate Moodle acceptance in a developing country context using the UTAUT model during a pandemic such as the COVID-19. An online questionnaire was distributed to 200 faculty members. The results revealed that performance and effort expectancy and the facilitating conditions positively influenced the behavioural intention to use Moodle. However, in contrast, social influence did not positively influence the actual usage of Moodle. Educationists and technologists can use the results of the study to improve e-learning deployment in developing countries. The study also builds on ongoing research on e-learning implementation and evaluation using the UTAUT model. Future studies should be conducted across several institutions and involve students to come up with more generalisable results.
O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu, S. A. Ojo
Published: 22 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530313

Abstract:
The study examined the relationship between event centres’ locational pattern and tourism development in Ado Ekiti. This is a survey research which involved the use of questionnaire. The data was analysed descriptively and inferentially. Findings from the study revealed that: only few event centres are built in the outskirt of the town. It also showed that event centres are built spacious like hall and are built where it is easily accessible within the residential areas in Ado Ekiti. The study further revealed that tourist finds it more comfortable locating event centres that are well situated. The study also showed that location of event centres have impacts on tourism development in the study area as location play a major role in beautification of the city, comfortability and source of attraction for tourist. The study concluded that increase in event centres has also increased tourism activities in Ado Ekiti. The study recommended that it is necessary to find suitable strategies to source fund for the development of event centres by private and public sectors which will help to facilitate tourism development in the study area. It is also important to note that domestication of the modern methods of building event centre is needed in order to have an attractive event centre which will also enhance the development of tourism in Ado Ekiti among others.
Xolisile Mokoena,
Published: 18 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 16-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530312

Abstract:
The cytotoxicity potentials of methamphetamine (METH) is presumably associated with oxidative stress induced apoptosis, this study therefore, investigated the toxic potentials of METH in neuroblastoma cells and further determined it effects on the mitochondrial activity. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE (2) cells cultured in DMEM/F12 were used in this study. The cells were treated acutely with methamphetamine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) over 24, and were allowed to recover from METH treatment over 48, 72, and 96 h. Cell viability study was done with Trypanblue exclusion assay. The cell proliferative characteristics of the neuroblastoma cell line were investigated by constructinga cell proliferation curve. Mitochondrial activity was assessed using the XTT Assay. Statistical analysis were done with Graph Pad prism and significant difference were considered at p<0.001, 0.01 and 0.05. The result showed normal growth in the untreated neuroblastoma cell over the 96 h of monitoring. Following treatment with METH, significant decrease in cell growth was observed when treated acutely with 5 and 10 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 and 96 h recovery period. The SK-N-BE (2) treated with increasing concentration of METH showed no significant difference in cell viability over the recovery period from METH exposure. Toxicity of SK-N-BE (2) cells was only observed when treated with 10 µg/mL of METH. Significant decrease in mitochondria activity was observed when the cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 h recovery. The result showed that METH is cytotoxic to the SK-N-BE (2) cells and the mechanism of toxicity might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial activity.
Alice Ribeiro Cavalcante, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Panait Abu Nidal Alves dos Santos, Hanna Gracie Inez De Freitas Lima, Welton Aaron de Almeida, Emmanuel Viana Pontual,
Published: 11 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530311

Abstract:
Cereal crops strongly contribute with the world economy and because of this the reduction of their productivity may lead to irreparable economic consequences worldwide. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais is the main pest of maize in the field or during processing, storage and commercialization of grains, also attacking processed food. The population control of S. zeamais uses a restrict panel of synthetic insecticides which are associated with environmental contamination, selection of resistant individuals and toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans and other animals. This scenario has stimulated the search for new insecticides and plant metabolites stand out because of their high degree of biodegradability and more selective toxicity. This work provides a review of the effect of plant compounds on S. zeamais to encourage the use of these ingredients in more ecofriendly strategies for pest control. Plant insecticides can exert their toxicity by ingestion, contact and/or fumigation resulting in damage to the development, survival and reproductive potential of S. zeamais, or may present food deterrent activity, which protects the substrates from the attack by the insects. The data reviewed contribute to consolidate the use of natural products in control of S. zeamais.
W. Vinu, Aranga. Panbilnathan
Advances in Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530310

Abstract:
Many researchers during several decades have proved that sleep is a key factor for enhancing performance in sports. Henceforth, this study is to investigate the impact of a mobile phone on changes in athletes sleep behaviour because of COVID-19 lockdown in India. For which, the survey conducted among 550 sports persons representing various Universities (300 male/250 female) across various states of India using simple random sampling technique, and Sleep Quality Assessment (PSQ: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was used to find out the level of sleep disturbance in athletes. The composed data were analysed using a percentile. The results of this study showed that the mobile phone usage during COVID-19 lockdown in India out of 550 athletes’ data was collected in which 6.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 4 in the scale were not distracted due to COVID-19 lock down they underwent regular sleeping schedule there was no change in their circadian rhythm, 40.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 6 which means there was a high level of distraction in sleep due to COVID-19 lock down and 23⸓ of the athletes suffered a very high level of sleep destruction during COVID-19 lock down. Which showed a changed sleep behaviour of sports persons. Conclusion and Recommendations: Lack of exercise during COVID-19 lockdown changed the sleep behaviour in athletes. Which made an addiction towards mobile phone usage. This study concludes that regular exercise enhances sleep and also keeps athletes from over usage of mobile phones.
, Akunne Ijeoma Apakama, Miriam-Benigna Chika Amobi, Emeka Akujuobi Chianakwalam, Chuka Michael Okosa, Ejike Ekene Igboegwu, George Uchenna Eleje
Published: 22 September 2021
Advances in Research pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430309

Abstract:
Visual impairment greatly affects one’s quality of life. The number of persons with visual impairment and blindness in the world is on the increase. Eye screening allows for early detection of sight-threatening diseases and timely intervention could be sight-saving. Aim: To determine the practice of eye checks and identify the factors that affect periodic eye checks among medical doctors in south-east Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among practicing medical doctors in private and public hospitals in Anambra State Nigeria, using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Information obtained from the participants included the sociodemographics data, type and duration of practice, presence of any medical and/or ocular condition, family history of eye diseases, history of use of spectacles, practice of eye check and interval of eye check, factors affecting the practice of eye check, and ways of promoting regular eye check. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. Statistical significance was set at p˂0.05. Results: One hundred and eighty-seven practicing medical doctors were interviewed. There were 123 (65.8%) males and 64 (34.2%) females. Their ages ranged from 24 to 80 years, with a mean age of 44.81 ± 12.73 years. The mean duration of professional practice was 18.16 ± 11.9 years. Majority, 124 (66.3%) works in government-owned hospitals. Among the study participants, 93(49.7%) doctors had been diagnosed with different ocular diseases; 99(52.9%) had a family history of ocular problems; 94(50.3%) had used prescription lenses; and 51(27.3%) had medical conditions. One hundred and twelve (59.9%) had undergone at least eye examinations once, of which 54(48.2%) had their last eye examination over 5 years ago. The prevalence of eye check was 59.9% (95%CI: 52.9 – 66.9%). Eye checks were significantly associated with medical practice of over 20 years (P=0.030), working in a private practice (P=0.001), having eye diseases such as cataract (P=0.006), refractive error (P˂0.001), presbyopia (P˂0.001), and use of prescription spectacles (P˂0.001). ‘Belief of not having eye problems’ and ‘No time’ which accounted for 58.7% and 24.0% respectively were the commonest reasons for not regularly having eye examinations. Conclusion: Poor attitude to periodic eye examinations was seen in medical doctors in south east Nigeria.
, Rita Lariba Alenyorige, Inusah Abdul-Wahab, Felicia Maltiba Asaana, Grace Adinga, ,
Advances in Research pp 26-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430308

Abstract:
Background: Against the background of the worldwide harm caused by breast cancer, as well as the benefits of early detection through simple techniques such as breast self-examination, this study investigated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among, midwifery undergraduate students of the University for Development Studies, Tamale-Ghana. Methods: The study is an institutional-based descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted among second-year female students at the Midwifery Department of the University for Development Studies. The data was collected through a pre-tested structured paper based-questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptively and presented in frequencies, percentages, tables and figure. Results: The study recruited 100 participants with an age range between 20 and 39 years with the majority within 20-24 years. The overall knowledge score was 73.0%, a majority of the participants indicated practising breast self-examination (81.0%), but with a low practice score of (49.0%). The study found significant associations between practices of breast self-examination, age (p= 0.022) and marital status (p=0.001) of study participants. Conclusion: The study found high knowledge of breast self-examination with the majority of study participants saying that they practise breast self-examination. However, the overall practices score of breast-self-examination was relatively low. Additional efforts by the directorate of health services at universities including our study setting are needed to increase knowledge and practices of breast self-examination among students, irrespective of their programme of study.
, Olufunso O. Abosede
Advances in Research pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430307

Abstract:
Background: This study investigated the effect of games teaching approach on students’ academic performance in IUPAC inorganic nomenclature in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental design, specifically pre-test post-test control groups was adopted. The sample comprised 93 Senior Secondary 2 and 3 chemistry students Methods: The instrument was IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Performance Test validated by two Science Education Lecturers and one expert in Measurement and Evolution. The reliability coefficient of 0.87 of the instrument was determined by test-retest method. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Variance. Results: There was a significant difference in the performance of students taught IUPAC inorganic nomenclature with games approach and those with lecture method. Students taught with games approach performed significantly better in the performance test than those taught with lecture method. There was no significant gender based difference in performance, however, significant difference based on class level was obtained. It was recommended among others that, chemistry teachers should incorporate suitable educational games in teaching chemistry and also motivate students towards learning of chemistry.
Abu Noman Faruq Ahmmed, Al-Amin Islam, Fatema Begum,
Advances in Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430306

Abstract:
Aims: To identify the causal organisms of anthracnose disease of Aloe vera in Bangladesh and to manage this disease in field condition. Study Design: The experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The field experiments were conducted in Natore, Bangladesh and the laboratory experiments were carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January, 2017 to December, 2018. Methodology: The causal organism Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated by tissue plating method and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics and that was confirmed by pathogenicity test. Infested farmer’s fields were selected in rainy season under natural epiphytic condition to evaluate the efficacy of eleven treatments. Results: Among the treatments, Bordeaux mixture gave best result against this disease. Moreover, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC and Garlic bulb extract showed better effect against the disease than the other treatments. Lime also has moderate effect against anthracnose disease of A. vera. In 2017, after 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (58.33%) which was statistically identical with Folicur (64.58%), Tilt (64.58%) and Garlic bulb extract (66.67%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (3.55) followed by Folicur (5.67%), Tilt (6.67%) and Garlic bulb extract (7.67%). Similar result also found in 2018. After 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (38.58%) which was statistically identical with Lime (41.66%) and Garlic bulb extract (45.83%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (0.20%) followed by Lime (0.25%) and Garlic bulb extract (0.36%). Conclusion: Garlic bulb extract could be used as eco-friendly approach. Moreover, use of Bordeaux mixture is better than the traditional use of lime. From chemical pesticides, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC could be used for controlling the disease as the last option.
Advances in Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430305

Abstract:
After more than one year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the disaster predicted in Africa by experts has not occurred. The present review aimed to discuss factors which may have played an important role in this low incidence. The analysis of data provided by the WHO database and the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control) was made. Using explicit reasoning and existing data, the most significant factors were listed and discussed. We found that Africa had the lowest percentage of COVID-19 cases per population (0.33%) and various factors such as rapid reactions, effective preventive measures, demographics, the impact of previous epidemics, genetic and immunity factors may have played an important role in this low incidence of the pandemic in Africa. It appears that Africa is globally less affected. Most of the factors discussed may have played an important role, but the genetic hypothesis and the potential undercount of cases, less studied to date, should be investigated.
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