Advances in Research

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EISSN : 2348-0394
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 859
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, T. B. Adebayo, O. E. Onofua
Advances in Research pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i330333

Abstract:
Eutrophication, salinization, hypoxia, and toxic algae, among other environmental damages are costly consequences of agricultural drainage water (ADW), and therefore poses a threat to ecological biodiversity, food security and agriculture sustainability. This work aimed to assess the adsorption efficiency of rice husk (RH) modified by chemical and thermal treatments for sulphate minimization from ADW. RH obtained from a local rice mill was washed in distilled water, oven-dried at 105 ˚C for 24 h, milled and sieved into 0.3–1.18 mm particle sizes. The optimum condition for carbonization was determined by varying the temperature- 200, 300 and 400 ˚C and time- 1, 1.5, and 2 h, respectively. The RH was activated by chemical (H3PO4 and ZnCl2) and thermal treatment. Batch experiments were carried out varying temperature (40-60 °C), adsorption time (15–140 min) and adsorbent dose (1 and 2 g) in an ADW with known sulphate concentration, 30 mg/L. The carbonization yield at 400, 300 and 200 ˚C varies within 18.91- 27.48%, 27.39- 32.82 % and 81.94- 95.75% respectively. It was observed that the percentage of carbon converted into silica increases with burning time; hence, the optimum temperature of 350 ˚C for 2 h was used for carbonization. Also, sulphate adsorption rate increased with contact time and dosage suggesting that the process is controlled by surface and pore diffusion. Based on the temperature study, adsorption was favourable at lower temperatures. H3PO4 and ZnCl2 treated adsorbents have similar removal efficiency; however, ZnCl2 treated adsorbent has a higher efficiency due to its ability to enhance the stability and mesoporosity of carbonaceous material. Modified RH is a potential adsorbent that could be of noble use in ADW quality minimization. However, the huge gap between literature studies and field application needs to be bridged by good extension services and appropriate policy.
, Abdullahi Omar Ahmed, Mbasani Rogious
Advances in Research pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i330331

Abstract:
Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) remains widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) despite its low sensitivity and specificity. Recently, Annexin A2, a highly expressed protein in HCC and almost undetectable in normal liver cells has been studied as a potential alternative. Objective: To synthesize evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of annexin A2 as an alternative to AFP in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (chkd-cnki) databases were searched without time constraints up to 2022. Meta-analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software. Results: 6 studies were meta-analyzed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for Annexin A2 were 84% [95% CI :( 80 – 87)], and 78% [95% CI :( 71 – 84)] respectively, while AFP was 70% [95% CI :( 66 – 74)] and 79% [95% CI :( 72 – 85)] respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 20.35 [95% CI :( 9.76 – 42.42)] for Annexin A2, and 9.71 [95% CI :( 5.27 – 17.88)] for AFP. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 for Annexin A2 and 0.82 for AFP. Conclusions: Annexin A2 is significantly more sensitive than AFP for HCC diagnosis but less specific. A combination of Annexin A2 and AFP could improve accuracy.
J. A. Akuezuilo, C. U. Mbachu,
Advances in Research pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i330332

Abstract:
Aims: This study examined academic interest and self-esteem as correlates of secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language in Nigeria. Study Design: Correlational survey Place and Duration of Study: Anambra State, Nigeria, conducted between December 2021 and March 2022. Method: The accessible population for this study comprises 18,297 senior secondary school two SS2 students from 261 secondary schools situated in the six education zones in Anambra state, the sampling technique adopted was the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. This was use to select 2,160 SS 2 students. The instruments adopted for data collection are: students’ academic interest scale, self-esteem scale and students’ academic achievement scores in English language. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were statistical tools adopted for data analysis. Results: Table 1, 2 and 3 revealed a moderate positive relationship between secondary school students’ academic interest, self-esteem jointly with their academic achievement in English language. Similarly, hypothesis in Table 4, 5 and 6 reports that at 0.05 level of significance and 2158df, the t-test statistic value 15.95 with a Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, hence the second hypotheses is rejected. This implies that the relationship existing between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language in Anambra State is significant. Furthermore, at 0.05 level of significance 3df numerator and 2045df denominator, the F statistics value 314.12, with Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, the third null hypothesis is rejected. This goes to show that the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is significant. Conclusion: This study concludes that the joint relationship existing among academic interest, self-esteem jointly with the academic achievement of secondary school students in English language was reported to be moderate and also positive. This implies that the coefficient was close to 1.00 (perfect relationship). Justifying this, it could be likened to the fact that students only spend 45 to 90 minutes per day in school with each teacher, so it is nearly impossible for them to unconsciously transmit all of the knowledge they need to get to them within that time frame. So therefore, there is need for parents as well to fulfil their first job, which is to be a teacher to their children. In the same vein, the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is statistically significant.
, Meliha Povlakić-Hadžiefendić, Nihada Čolić
Advances in Research pp 55-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i230330

Abstract:
The study was conducted on a sample of 70 deaf children, chronologically aged from 10 to 18 years. Letters of deaf respondents on topics of their choice were used as a measurement instrument. The goals of the research are: To examine the homogeneity of variance of content understanding of written form of expression based on measurements of applied language constructions and content within language discourse, and to determine the statistical significance of content understanding of written form of expression using language constructions within language discourse. The second goal of the study was to examine the connection of language constructions in the applied measurement space of the number of used written expressions in the content understanding of written communication, and to determine the statistical significance of the connection of language constructions in the number of used written expressions in content understanding of written communication. The results of the research showed that the deaf population is characteristic and homogeneous in the way, style of writing and content understanding of the written text observed through linguistic discourse in written dialogue. In the written form of exchange of communication content, a significant degree of communication competence has been achieved, or the comprehensibility of the written form of expression in terms of content understanding. Deaf persons achieve very modest linguistic competence. The reduced ability of deaf children to achieve linguistic competence is reflected through the simplicity of statements in the substantive sense of preferring statements, as one of the characteristics of the linguistic competence of the deaf population.
, Vida Nyagre Yakong, Edwina Pwamang, Cynthia Apawo Awe, Freda Alowri
Advances in Research pp 39-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i230329

Abstract:
Introduction: Unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion have become serious public health concerns around the world, particularly among female students in both developed and developing countries. The general objective of this study was to investigate the utilization of emergency contraception among final-year female students of a public university in Ghana. Methods: A stratified random sample was used to enroll 199 female university students for descriptive cross-sectional research. SPSS version 25 was used to analyze the data. To compare categorical variables, Chi-square analysis was employed, and a p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority (88.4%) of the respondents demonstrated sufficient knowledge, and 84.4% had a favorable attitude towards emergency contraceptives (ECs). On the indications for EC; after unprotected sex (65.3%), after a missed period (22.6%), when one is raped (83.4%), unwanted pregnancy (75.9%), and rupture of condoms (88.9%) were identified. The majority (59.3%) of students have used EC, with most of the students (43.7%) using Postinor-2. The overall attitude towards EC and Residence (X2=7.5; p=0.023), Religion (X2=6.2; p=0.042), and marital status (X2=17.1, p=0.001) were statistically significant. There was a significant association between the use of EC and Residence (X2=10.9; p=0.004) and marital status (X2=8.6; p=0.035). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that students had a high level of knowledge and favourable attitude towards EC, with a significant number of the respondents likely to utilize it in the future. This may aid in the treatment of female students' sexual and reproductive health issues and prevent dropping out of school as a result of unwanted pregnancy. Also, there is the need to engage opinion leaders to address their concerns to allow for the effective utilization of emergency contraceptives.
, Omali Aurelius Ojaina, Kadiri Umar Afegbua, Iduma Kelvin Uche
Published: 16 February 2022
Advances in Research pp 23-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i230327

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the actual causes of earth tremors in Central Nigeria using geophysical technique. Since 1933 till date (over 88 years), small to moderate magnitude earthquakes have either been observed or instrumentally recorded in Nigeria. However, the specific causes of the intra plate earthquakes in Nigeria is still not well known. In this study therefore, a high-resolution aeromagnetic data analysis was performed to evaluate the various theories proposed as the causes of tremor activity in central Nigeria with a view to ascertaining the actual causes of earthquakes in the West African country that lies on a stable crust. The total magnetic intensity data acquired from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) in the Central Basement complex of Nigeria, was processed and filtered using the tilt derivative, lineament analysis, and advanced Analytic Signal- Hilbert Solution filter. To define the trends of both major and minor structure, a lineament plot was extracted and plotted. The analysis revealed a dominant NE-SW and NW-SE trending structure that is distributed throughout the study area. The regional North Atlantic Romanche fault system, which extends from the offshore (Niger Delta) into the continental crust, was mapped and is thought to extend from Gwagwalada in the study area's south, through Gwarinpa and Mpape, to Kwoi, and beyond Kafanchan.Findings from our study have indicated that, areas prone to Earth tremors are linked to the Romanche fault by numerous NE-SW and NW-SE faults that act as conduits for seismic energy that causes tremor. Using lineament density analysis, tremor active areas have been interpreted to be highly deformed; thus, seismic energy induced into the environment would result in tremors. This study demonstrates that the regional North Atlantic Romanche fault system is the primary source of seismic energy that causes the earth tremors in central Nigeria.
Published: 11 February 2022
Advances in Research pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i230326

Abstract:
College students can make inappropriate food choices owing to a lack of nutritional knowledge and understanding of dietary requirements. Increasing physical inactivity among college students is also a serious public health problem. To assess dietary habits and physical exercise among nursing students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In 2018, this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at a single college in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with a convenience sample of 104 level-4—or second year—undergraduate nursing students. Data were collected using a three-part self-assessment questionnaire. More than one-third of the students were overweight; two-thirds consumed unhealthy snacks, and most failed to drink enough water and were physically inactive. The prevalence of overweight and obesity suggests the significance of frequent educational campaigns and seminars on healthy eating and physical activity. Also, further research is needed to assess college students’ knowledge and attitudes about healthy diet and the importance of regular physical exercise.
, U. Okieke
Published: 7 February 2022
Advances in Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i230325

Abstract:
The application of good electrical earthing system is inevitable in every electrical installation. This study was carried out to evaluate the earth’s electrical properties of an undeveloped area of Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro, Nigeria. The soil resistance of the study area was determined according to Wenner Four Point method, while the soil resistivity was calculated from the soil resistance obtained. Six locations (A, B, C, D, E and F) were tested across the area; while five probe distances (3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m and 15 m) were adopted at each testing location. Results obtained from the soil test revealed that, the soil resistance and resistivity varied widely across the study area. It was observed that the northern part of the area generally had lower soil resistance and resistivity than the southern part of the study area. The soil resistance ranged between 3.2 Ω and 4.8 Ω at the northern part of the study area; while the soil resistance ranged between 5.1 Ω and 17.2 Ω at the southern part of the study area. In term of the soil resistivity, the results revealed that the northern part of the area had the lowest soil resistivity, compared to the southern part of the area. The soil resistivity ranged from 96.15 Ωm to 324.25 Ωm at the southern region of the area, while at the northern region of the area, the soil resistivity ranged from 60.33 Ωm to 90.49 Ωm. Furthermore, the result established that the northern region of the study area will be suitable for electrical earthing without any soil treatment.
N. G. Alo, A. A. Adetunji
Published: 27 January 2022
Advances in Research pp 46-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i130324

Abstract:
Background: With always dwindling resources in mitigating against various negative effects of female genital mutilation among girls/women in Nigeria, identifying factors that encourage the practice is highly imperative. Aim: This research assesses the Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) practice and knowledge practice among states in the South-West of Nigeria. Methods: Data were collected across states in the South-West using a structured questionnaire. The hierarchical sampling technique is used to select a locality in each of the 18 senatorial districts across six states in the region. The convenience sampling technique is then used to select respondents. Results: It was found that the age, resident, wealth status, and educational background of respondents are significant factors in the circumcision status of respondents. The odds of being circumcised is highest among respondents from Ekiti state, followed by those from Osun state while it is lowest in Ogun state. The highest percentage of respondents who had their daughters’ circumcised used the help of traditional practitioners while removal of the clitoris is the most prevalent form of mutilations among residents in states in the South-West.
Published: 23 January 2022
Advances in Research pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2022/v23i130323

Abstract:
Cancer is a common disease affecting many people. It is considered that 1 out of 3 people will be diagnosed with cancer in the course of their lives. The current treatments for different types of cancers are conventional radiation and chemotherapy. However, their use becomes limited due to the adverse side effects caused by using overwhelming amounts of radiation or drugs. Targeted drugs look promising since they can reduce the required dose by orders of magnitude and minimize the damage done to normal cells. Targeting the cancer cells is accomplished by using targeted delivery vehicles that specifically recognize the affected cells. The vehicles are functionalized by coupling ligands such as antibodies, peptide, or aptamers. This review paper describes the main FDA approved or in clinical trials formulations of liposomes, aptamers, and aptamer-liposomes. Aptamer-liposomes seem to be very attractive systems for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of various types of cancer.
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