Journal of Management and Sustainability

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 19254725 / 19254733
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 459
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Latest articles in this journal

Suresh Chandran, Murugan Anandarajan
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p83

Abstract:
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in June 2015, took a step toward regulating carbon emissions from airlines, following an assessment that airlines contribute to climate change. On July 25, 2016, the final endangerment finding (Note 1) under section 231(a) (2) (A) of the Clean Air Act for aviation emissions was issued by the EPA. The European Union had issued a similar finding previously and had proposed implementing an emission trading scheme in which the airlines would be required to participate in a cap and trade scheme for emissions from jet fuel. Traditional jet fuel is derived from petroleum, whose price is volatile and depends on geopolitical stability. Fuel burn is a significant cost for airlines and affects their profitability and value. Fuel burn is also a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. An investigation of alternatives to jet fuel and switching from conventional jet fuel based on varying emission profiles, production costs and varying carbon prices is therefore timely. We use a simple decision support system to examine the link between the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of a range of fuels, economic costs of production and varying carbon prices. This analysis should be of interest to regulators, traders, risk managers and executives in the airline industry as well as practitioners of sustainability management.
Tan Seng Teck, Selvamalar Ayadurai, William Chua, Tan Peng Liang, Shahryar Sorooshian
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p66

Abstract:
The world has witnessed corporate scandals of monstrosity magnitude. The Enron Scandal, the Nike Sweatshop scandal and the recent Johnson and Johnson baby talc in 2018 are some dishonors that reshaped the business world and reinvigorated the importance of business ethics. Indeed, supranational and national movements such as the Global Reporting Initiatives have responded to these scandals by imposing stricter corporate reporting to instill greater transparency and corporate responsibility. Ironically, despite unwavering efforts, corporations are still blatantly flouting regulations. The Volkswagen “diesel dupe” crisis is a stark reminder of the inherent weakness of current regulations. Despite Volkswagen’s staunch adherence to those stringent reporting guidelines, they breached ethics to the core, creating a tsunami of vehicle recalls, massive social, political and legal repercussions. Volkswagen’s cheat device is a ‘creative destruction’ that challenged the fundamental usefulness of corporate reporting. Corporate social responsibility has evolved tremendously, now taking the form of positivistic reporting patterns. Corporations are measured by their ecological, social and economic performance where they flamboyantly table those data and information to garner stakeholders’ support and legitimacy. However, a pragmatic approach towards corporate social responsibility is self-defeating. It erodes and dilutes a corporation’s ability to make sense, communicate and adapt to their externalities. Instead, corporations boast of their corporate prowess and triple bottom line. Using Volkswagen as a subject, this paper exposes the inherent weaknesses of a positivistic corporate reporting approach to social responsibility. A positivistic approach such as this cannot engender a truthful, honest and open posture in business corporations. Instead, this paper exemplifies that a meaningful sensemaking corporate social responsibility instills reflexive organisation change and moral transpose within corporations. This paper underlines this reflexive organisational change and moral transpose in Volkswagen as they encounter the diesel crisis. This study is novel and greatly enhances previous literatures in corporate social responsibility by instilling an appropriate model to underline these momentous reflexive organisational changes and moral transformations in Volkswagen.
Tan Seng Teck, Selvamalar Ayadurai, William Chua, Tan Peng Liang, Nanthakumar Karuppiah
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p54

Abstract:
Studies and writings on corporate social responsibility turned a full cycle with much ink spilled on this topic. From the inception of a divine origin, corporate social responsibility has now become a flamboyant display of numbers and statistics which corporations proudly present them to fulfil their legal obligations. It is ironic that a divine understanding of corporate social responsibility has now transpired to be a complex calculus of statistical tabulations, too often exhibited in annual and sustainability reports. Organisations become grossly mesmerised with the grandiosity of exceeding the prerequisites of ecological, environmental, social and economic performance supported by undisputable, verifiable and measurable data. Corporate social responsibility has become senseless and meaningless. This is not a research paper nor does it entail the rudiments of any research findings. Conversely, this paper alerts and perhaps cautions corporate social responsibility practitioners on the perils of their overarching emphasis on positivism. Corporate social responsibility cannot be quantified merely in numbers but on the contrary, it should involve truthful, honest and transparent dialectic communication with the stakeholders. Many corporations deceived and some still facing the remnants of their mistakes. The Volkswagen ‘diesel dupe’ crisis and Johnson & Johnson’s baby talc powder scandals are reminders of the same. This paper is a solemn reminder that corporations must be ‘awakened’ so that ethics is grounded to its core and not merely in the cosmetic forms of presentable statistics.
Ornella Papaluca, Mario Tani, Ciro Troise
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p38

Abstract:
Especially in recent years, the attention to sustainability is even more felt in the tourism sector where the consequences of indiscriminate behavior in the exploitation of resources on the environment, on human beings and on their economic activities have become increasingly evident (Jaremen, Nawrocka, & Żemła, 2019). Tourism is often considered as a source of natural and cultural resources’ exploitation, but it also contributes to GHG emissions, being one of the main reasons that pushes the world population to move. On the other hand, tourism-related activities, when correctly designed, can be a strong source of sustainable development. Indeed, tourism products should be sustainable as they depend on local area resources: they are complex products which, on the one hand, should use local resources as a differentiation strategy, on the other hand, hey should factor in the needs of several territory’s stakeholders. Researchers and institutions have developed many tools to assess tourism environmental impacts focusing both on the local area as a whole or on a given product. For the tourism sector, social and environmental impacts, responses and indicators fall into five categories (Buckley, 2012): population, peace, prosperity, pollution and protection. Moreover, these tools and measures have not been able to increase sustainability of tourism products and the industry is not yet close to sustainability. In this chapter, we proposed an approach, built around Elkington’s three pillars model (1994), to assess sustainability (Lehtonen, 2004) of tourism products; we focus on products design processes to create a model that help entrepreneurs in assessing if their products are sustainable and where they are their main weaknesses. In order to show how such a simple model can be used to evaluate sustainable tourism initiatives and highlight their weaknesses we have used a multiple case studies approach and we have analyzed three different cases.
Raphael Max, Alexander Kriebitz, Christoph Luetge
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p28

Abstract:
In the ethical discourse about financial markets, the terms “investment”, “speculation” and “gambling” often seem confusing and lack a clear distinction. The inconsistent use of this terminology has concrete consequences for the public perception. We attempt to establish a concept which draws a clear line between these activities and can serve as a baseline for discourse about how to assess investment, speculation and gambling on a normative level. We analyze existing literature and develop a conceptual framework to provide an overview of the differences between investment, speculation and gambling. We conclude that gambling differs structurally from investment and speculation in terms of the classic distinction between risk and uncertainty and the separation between consuming and non-consuming activities. Moreover, we arrive at the conclusion that investment and speculation share too many similarities to be separated in a consistent way.
Malisye Christin Sjioen, Jimmy Pello, Jeny Eoh, Lenny M. Tamunu, Apolonia Diana Sherly Da Costa
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p15

Abstract:
A substantial problem for the economic development of fishermen in Kupang City, Indonesia is that there are 5,955 fishermen who still have a smaller income than the expenditure and limited access to the rights to control fisheries resources. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the implementation of fisheries economic empowerment and economic resilience policies in Kupang City using descriptive qualitative methods focusing on the Sala Model theory proposition from Riggs (1964) within the framework of fishermen economic empowerment development paradigm and the framework of economic resilience and political resilience (capital) which matters to economic geography and its economic sustainable development policy for the fishermen, from (da Costa, 2018). The results have shown that the implementation of fishermen’s economic empowerment policy through the provision of capital assistance, training and infrastructure facilities by the local government in Kupang City was not responsive to fishermen; The political support of the Indonesian government is inconsistent, it appears in the lack of internal control and its systems in the process of using ships by fishing groups; In response to this, the local government of Kupang City through related agencies should make progressive policies based on the Sala Model theory from Riggs (1964) and fishermen’s economic resilience and political resilience (capital) for sustainable development theory from (da Costa, 2018). Its model’s theories have an aim to achieve a productive economy at a high level (sufficient level). In order to achieve a sufficient level of economy, the work specialization is needed and positive political development through policies should not be formalistic. Concretely, an affirmative action is needed, that is, the assistantship is not given to individuals; The fishing unit is given to fishermen according to their wants and needs without going through a project approach, this fact shows that there is a limitation or minimization of the fishermen’s economic resources or resilience in the region. Furthermore, from fishermen’s economic resilience for sustainable development, a policy management and its implementation of the local government in the region is assessed as the top final solution where the fishermen would achieve their long-term of economic resilience (productive or sufficient level) which was supposed to be successful if there was not having a lack of policy from the local government in the region regarding the physical resource i.e., technology policy (ship). The fishermen have been facing this economic problem which means that the analysis of economic resilience is important and promptly. The importance of the economic resilience’s analysis and political resilience (capital) according to da Costa’s (2018, p. 160) Theories align or conform with the Sala Model Theory (Riggs, 1964). Importantly, the ship technology has a function as a medium from the fishermen in accessing the fisheries. However, the result has shown that from the point of views of da Costa (2018) matters about the sufficient or productive level of economic resources (resilience) of fishermen which was not still achieved due to their limited access (man power or capitals) and income, discrimination in granting loans to fishermen as long as insufficiency support of the local government to the fishermen’s economic livelihoods. It implies to economic geography’s perspective which puts forward fishermen’s knowledge and skills (ability or endeavor: human or individual resilience) to reach a longer term of economic resilience in the region. Finally, this study emphasizes on the future fishermen’s policy actions which should be viewed as a mandatory action to be implemented by the local Government in Indonesia. Thus, the economic empowerment and resilience of fishermen in the region i.e., Kupang City, Indonesia can be effectively and productively or sufficiently implicated in increasing the ability of the regional economy as it supports a sustainable development in the region.
Kristina Mjörnell
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jms.v10n1p1

Abstract:
The paper discusses the role of trans-disciplinary research networks tackling the challenges of sustainable renovation such as; environmental impact of substitute building materials and waste, relocation of tenants, lack of skilled labor, rent increase due to high renovation costs, and provides a detailed perspective on the effects in terms of both new forms of collaboration and research results obtained by the researchers and practitioners within the network. The research network Sustainable Integrated Renovation SIRen has become a platform for researchers and actors such as building owners, housing companies, facility managers, contractors, consultants, architects, building conservationists, authorities and tenants’ organisations to meet and work together on technical, environmental, economic, social and cultural historical aspects on renovation of buildings, as well as to identify and discuss new challenges. A multi-aspect process covering all aspects that must be considered by the various actors during different stages of the renovation process has been developed and implemented in four ‘Living Labs’ in real renovation projects. This involved using new modes of work in early stages to place the focus on sustainability aspects and work on new dialogue methods and using methods to evaluate the various renovation options based on technical, environmental, economic, social and cultural historical perspectives.
André Batalhão, Denilson Teixeira, Maria De Fatima Martins, Hans Michael Van Bellen, Adriana Cristina Ferreira Caldana
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jms.v9n2p173

Abstract:
Sustainability is a topic that has gained importance in several fields of knowledge, including the public, private and society spheres, based on the discussions that involve the definition of several public policies. Sustainability Indicators (SI) are metrics that seek to measure the level of sustainability and compile information for better decision-making concerning policies, programs, projects and actions related to sustainability. Demonstrated their relevance to public policies the SI appears as an essential tool for evaluating development goals as a sustainable proposal. In this way, this research aimed to discuss the main challenges and methodological limitations found in the use of SI, emphasizing the main fragilities identified in the literature. In methodological terms, the research has exploratory characteristics, supported by the mixed methods approach using a theoretical-empirical analysis, from the available literature on the subject and the methodologies used and the experience of researchers about the topic addressed. The main results demonstrated that Sustainability Indicators are tools that should be used to define, implement, evaluate and monitor public policies at all levels, considering the potentialities/weaknesses and priorities of each context.
Federica Gasbarro, Tiberio Daddi, Fabio Iraldo
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jms.v9n2p162

Abstract:
With the increasing occurrence and intensity of weather and climate extremes, adaptation to climate change has become an imperative for all the societal actors, including companies. Business adaptation behavior is influenced by specific internal and external conditions. Based on a multiple case study of Italian companies within the project Life IRIS (Improve Resilience of Industry Sector), the paper examines the interaction of multiple physical risk drivers and organizational factors that trigger a change in the adaptation behavior of companies to climate change, from a deferred behavior to a reactive one and, then, to a pre-emptive behavior over time. In particular, the study shows how past experience with a single climate event can trigger a comprehensive strategy to deal with multiple climate events. Implications for management practice and policymakers are discussed at the end of the paper.
Evelyn Xiao
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jms.v9n2p204

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Management and Sustainability, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2019.