Current Developments in Nutrition
Latest articles in this journal
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa106
Background Liver metabolite levels have the potential to be key biomarkers of systemic metabolic dysfunction and overall health. However, for most conditions we do not know the extent to which genetic differences regulate susceptibility to metabolic responses. This limits our ability to detect and diagnose effects in heterogeneous populations. Objective Here, we investigated the extent to which naturally occurring genetic differences regulate maternal liver metabolic response to vitamin D deficiency, particularly during perinatal periods when such changes can adversely affect maternal and fetal health. Methods We used a panel of eight inbred Collaborative Cross mouse strains, each with a different genetic background (72 dams, 3–6 per treatment group, per strain). We identified robust maternal liver metabolic responses to vitamin D depletion before and during gestation and lactation using a vitamin D deficient (0 IU/kg vitamin D3, VDD) or sufficient diet (1000 IU/kg vitamin D3, VDS). We then identified VDD-induced metabolite changes influenced by strain genetic background. Results We detected a significant VDD effect by OPLS-DA (Q2 = 0.266, pQ2 = 0.002), primarily, altered levels of 78 metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism (VIP ≥ 1.5). Metabolites in unsaturated fatty acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched (FDR < 0.05). VDD also significantly altered levels of putative markers of uremic toxemia, acylglycerols, and dipeptides. The extent of metabolic response to VDD was strongly dependent on genetic strain, ranging from robustly responsive to nonresponsive. Two strains (CC017/Unc and CC032/GeniUnc) were particularly sensitive to VDD, however, each strain altered different pathways. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate that maternal VDD induces different liver metabolic effects in different genetic backgrounds. Strains with differing susceptibility and metabolic response to VDD represent unique tools to identify causal susceptibility factors and further elucidate the role of VDD-induced metabolic changes in maternal and/or fetal health for ultimately translating findings to human populations.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa004
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa089
Inconsistent associations between lipids and circulating markers of fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid status have been reported. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to examine the contribution of the LC-MS-based lipidome, characterized by lipid class, carbon count, and the number of unsaturated bonds, to the interindividual variability in circulating concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and phylloquinone in 35 overweight and obese, but healthy men. A sparse partial least-squares method was used to accomplish this aim. Highly abundant phospholipids and triglycerides (TGs) contributed to the interindividual variability in phylloquinone, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol. Interindividual variability in lycopene concentrations was driven by concentrations of low-abundant TG. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, retinol, and the other carotenoids were not influenced by lipids. Except for lycopene, evaluation of lipids beyond class does not appear to further explain the interindividual variability in circulating concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa091
Background The WHO currently recommends a daily sodium intake of 2 g and has established the goal of a 30% reduction in mean salt intake by 2025. Objective We sought to estimate sodium intake in study participants according to the locations of where they consumed meals and their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and practices related to salt consumption. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 2574 individuals aged ≥10 y who answered the 2015 Campinas-Brazil Nutrition Survey. Mean sodium intake was estimated using a 24-h recall log and associations with the independent variables were tested using generalized regression analysis stratified by age group. Results Sodium intake was higher in male participants as well as adolescents and adults who reported eating ≥1 meal outside the home (6.07% and 7.06% increase, respectively). Per meal, sodium was consumed more outside the home at breakfast, during an afternoon snack, and at dinner among adolescents. No significant differences were found in the analysis by type of meal among the adults and seniors. Conclusions Sodium intake exceeded the WHO recommendation in all age groups analyzed. Having ≥1 meal outside the home was associated with greater sodium intake among adolescents and adults. Measures to regulate the food industry and dietary/nutritional education strategies targeting consumers are important to reducing the sodium intake of the population.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 71-71; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_071
Objectives Optimal bone health is maintained through a remodeling cycle consisting of resorption followed by formation. Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) are biomarkers of bone metabolism that capture changes in bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. This study aimed to identify unique metabolic pathways related to bone turnover markers (BTMs) in healthy young adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 34 healthy, young adults (19 females, average age 27.8 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting plasma was analyzed using dual column liquid chromatography and ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry for metabolomics. Serum levels of P1NP and CTX were measured with ELISA. Linear regression and pathway enrichment analyses were used to identify metabolic pathways related to the BTMs. Results All participants had a normal whole-body BMD T-score. Metabolites significantly associated with P1NP (at P < 0.05) were significantly enriched in pathways linked to the TCA cycle, pyruvate metabolism, and metabolism of B-vitamins important for energy production (e.g., niacin, thiamin). Other nutrition-related metabolic pathways associated with P1NP were amino acid (proline, arginine, glutamate) and vitamin C metabolism, which are important for collagen formation. Metabolites were associated with CTX levels (at P < 0.05), which were enriched within lipid and fatty acid beta-oxidation metabolic pathways, as well as fat soluble micronutrients pathways including, vitamin D metabolism, vitamin E metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis. Conclusions High-resolution metabolomics identified several distinct plasma metabolic pathways, including energy-yielding metabolic pathways and pathways related to fatty acid, amino acid, and micronutrient metabolism that were associated with markers of bone formation and bone resorption. Characterizing these metabolism-related pathways associated with BTMs in healthy adults is an important step towards understanding the metabolic perturbations that lead to low bone mass in older and clinical populations. Funding Sources National Institutes of Health and Emory University.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 24-24; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_024
Objectives The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of common bean phenolic extract to exert anti-aging and antioxidant effect by inhibiting the collagenase, elastase, tyrosinase enzymes and free radicals. Methods 18 varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Chiapas, Mexico, were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (ACN). Supercritical fluid (SCF) and leaching extractions were used for phenolic compounds extraction. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using DPPH and ABTS scavenging assay. The inhibitory potential of the extract was evaluated for tyrosinase from mushroom, collagenase type-1 from Clostridium histolycum and elastase from porcine pancreas enzymes. Results The TPC ranged from 3.8–34.33 mg GAE/g coat and ACN ranged from 0.04–9.41 mg C3GE/g coat among the 18 common bean varieties (P < 0.05). The cultivar selected for this study was black bean with a TPC of 27.45 ± 0.7 mg GAE/g coat and ACN of 5.3 ± 0.1 mg C3GE/g coat. The best extraction conditions for the obtention of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were SCF water-ethanol 50% as cosolvent, obtaining 66.60 ± 7.4 mg GAE/g coat (TPC) and 7.3 ± 0.6 mg C3GE/g coat (ACN). TPC and ACN content between each extraction process were statistically different (P < 0.05). For DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 for the black bean extract was 0.32 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g coat, and 0.40 ± 0.03 mg GAE/g coat for ABTS assay. Finally, the IC50 for the enzymatic inhibition assays of tyrosinase, collagenase and elastase were 10.44 ± 1.32, 8.33 ± 0.65 and 0.11 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g coat, respectively. Conclusions Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extract presents high antioxidant capacity and inhibitory potential for tyrosinase and metalloproteinases such as collagenase and elastase. Black bean phenolic extracts could be used in cosmeceutical products related to preventing oxidative stress and aging. Funding Sources Author David Fonseca Hernández was supported by a scholarship from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología CONACyT-México, number 901,000. CONACYT-FORDECYT GRANT.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 16-16; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_016
Objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and prevalence have been reported to be higher in men than women, however, the effects of sexual dimorphism on NAFLD risk and progression have not been adequately examined. Our lab has previously shown that a liquid high-refined carbohydrate diet (HRCD) induced more severe hepatic steatosis compared to an isocaloric high fat diet in male mice. Also, HRCD-induced reduction in sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent deacetylase protein, has previously been implicated in NAFLD pathogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether there were sexually dimorphic responses to a liquid high-refined carbohydrate diet (HRCD) in male and female, wildtype and SIRT1-deficient mice. Methods Male and female 10–12-week-old wildtype (SIRT1 +/+: n = 12; M = 6, F = 6) and mice carrying a heterozygous H355Y SIRT1 point mutation (SIRT1 +/y: n = 14; M = 7, F = 7) were both fed a HRCD (Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet supplemented with maltose dextrin; 47% energy from refined carbohydrate, Dyets, #710,260) for 5 weeks and 9 weeks. Hepatic gene expression was examined using qRT-PCR. Plasma ALT (alanine transaminase) and hepatic MDA (malondialdehyde) levels were determined using colorimetric assay kits. Hepatic steatosis scoring was conducted by analyzing Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stains. Results 9 weeks of HRCD induced significantly less hepatic steatosis in female mice irrespective of genotype compared to male mice as determined by grading of H&E stains (P < 0.05). Furthermore, liver expression of several fatty acid oxidation genes (CPT1, ACOX1) was significantly higher in females (P < 0.05), which potentially suggests increased fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, female mice had significantly increased antioxidant gene expression (GPX4, SOD1, SOD2, Catalase) and significantly lower hepatic MDA (P < 0.05), which indicate an increased capacity to mitigate oxidative stress. Lastly, plasma ALT levels were significantly lower in females compared to males after 9 weeks of HRCD (P < 0.05). Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that female mice are moderately protected against HRCD-induced NAFLD compared to male mice, potentially through increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and superior mitigation of oxidative stress due to increased antioxidant system gene expression in the liver. Funding Sources HNRCA, USDA/ARS Grants.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 214-214; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa043_065
Objectives Chronic stroke survivors tend to be inactive, often with sarcopenia, and have decreased physical function and activities of daily living. Muscle atrophy and weakness differ between sarcopenia patients and stroke patients. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate physiotherapy and intervention for sarcopenic patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to identify muscles that cause muscle weakness and muscle atrophy in stroke sarcopenia patients. Methods The subjects were 117 chronic stroke survivors who were 65 years or older. Subjects were determined using the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in 2019 to determine the presence of sarcopenia and were classified into sarcopenia group (SG, n = 60) and non sarcopenia group (nSG, n = 57). Atrophy assessments obtained unaffected lower limb muscle thickness (iliopsoas, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, hamstrings, quadriceps femoris, tibialis anterior, triceps surae) using B-mode of transverse ultrasound imaging. Strength assessments obtained unaffected lower limb muscle strength (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, external rotation and internal rotation of hip joint, flexion and extension of knee joint, planter flexion and dorsiflexion of ankle joint) using handheld dynamometer. We conducted a Student's t-test to compare the two groups. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to show statistical significance for all analyses. When the significance level is less than 0.05, the power is also calculated, and it is considered that the significant difference can be secured when P < 0.05 and power >0.8. We conducted with the approval of the ethics committee of Aichi Saiseikai Rehabilitation Hospital (201,908). Results SG had muscle atrophy in all muscles compared to nSG (P < 0.05, power >0.8). SG had muscle weakness in all joint direction compared to nSG (P < 0.05, power >0.8). In particular, extension of knee joint and planter flexion of ankle joint muscle weakness, quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscle atrophy occurred (P < 0.01, power >0.8). Conclusions Assessment and intervention of skeletal muscle in stroke sarcopenia patients should focus on the knee joint and ankle joint. Funding Sources The authors declare no conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 196-196; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa043_047
Objectives Louisiana ranks 4th among US states for adult obesity, and 5th highest for physical inactivity. The Healthy Communities Initiative is a novel effort led by Cooperative Extension (CE) and SNAP-Ed staff in Louisiana to change the policy, systems, and environment (PSE) in target communities to encourage increased physical activity and healthier eating behaviors. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify community members’ perceived impacts of the Healthy Communities Initiative on their community according to the Community Capitals Framework using ripple effect mapping. Methods Local CE staff hold community forums where residents identify and prioritize strategies for PSE changes, then recruit community coalition members to collectively address needs identified at the forum. PSE strategies are different for each community targeted, with short-term impacts most effectively evaluated using qualitative methods. Ripple effect mapping is a community participatory qualitative evaluation method which allows evaluators to capture the effects of innovative interventions. Evaluators facilitate a focus group session in which community members create a map of the multiple impacts of an intervention according to the constructs of the Community Capitals Framework. We held a ripple effect mapping session with 15 participants in one Healthy Communities coalition to evaluate their progress after one year of PSE change work. Results Community members identified program impacts in each of the constructs of the community capitals framework. Participants most often identified program impacts that were improvements to the community's political capital, such as an improved ability to advocate for change. Participants identified the most impactful outcomes of the program, which included an increased awareness of inequity in the community, increased access to fresh produce for community members, and making connections with agencies and organizations which stretched across organizations’ “silos.” Conclusions The Louisiana Healthy Communities Initiative is an innovative strategy to encourage the adoption of PSE changes for obesity prevention. Ripple effect mapping proved to be an effective method for assessing community members’ perceptions of program impacts. Funding Sources SNAP-Ed.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 62-62; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_062
Objectives To determine whether familial history is linked for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes, and examine if a relationship exists between years since diagnosis and understanding of diabetes management and blood glucose testing. Methods Adults aged fifty and older were asked to complete a survey that included family history of diabetes and AD. The survey asked respondents to self-identify diabetes status, their understanding of diabetes management, and the frequency of their blood sugar monitoring. Surveys were distributed in person and online via social media and email. Data were entered into SPSS 26, and Pearson correlations were run to determine whether a significant relationship was present between the variables of interest. Results There was not a significant relationship between the number of blood relatives with AD and the number of relatives with diabetes (r = 0.140, P = 0.226), but a weak between the total number of relatives with diabetes and self-reported diabetes status (r = 0.278, P = 0.003). While there was not a significant relationship between years since diabetes diagnosis and self-rated understanding of diabetes management (r = 0.197, P = 0.325), there was a strong relationship between years since diagnosis and total number of blood sugar tests taken per week (r = 0.565, P = 0.004). Conclusions The relationship between number of relatives with diabetes and having diabetes oneself is in line with previous research. Additionally, while diabetics monitor their blood sugar more closely as time goes by, Future efforts are needed to inform diabetics about best practices for blood glucose management. Funding Sources None.