Current Developments in Nutrition

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EISSN : 2475-2991
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP) (10.1093)
Total articles ≅ 5,573
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Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 5; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab097

Abstract:
Corrigendum to Oghaz et al. Having Children in the Household Affects Adult Dietary Consumption: Results of a Cross-Sectional Community Survey. Curr Dev Nutr 2021;5(Supp_2):nzab035_37.
, Pamela R Pehrsson
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab102

Abstract:
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a group of cancer chemopreventive sulfur-containing compounds found primarily in Brassica vegetables. The goals of this study were to summarize the current knowledge and discuss the challenges of developing a dietary GSL database for US foods. Systematic literature search was conducted for the period 1980–2020. Thirty papers were found to meet all inclusion and exclusion criteria; 27 GSLs were reported in 16 different vegetables. GSLs identified and quantified ranged from 3 for winter cress to 16 for cabbage. In general, the experimental designs of these 30 studies did not fully consider the factors related to the data quality. Enormous variations of GSLs are observed between different vegetables and in the same vegetables. In conclusion, the studies on GSLs in commonly consumed vegetables are still limited, and some data may be outdated. Current available data are not sufficient to develop a valid GSL database in the US.
Sylvester O Ojwang, David J Otieno, , Rose A Nyikal, Penina Muoki
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab096

Abstract:
Persistent high malnutrition prevalence among poor households in developing countries calls for enhancement of cost-effective nutrition interventions among the vulnerable groups. One responsive way is to promote regular consumption of home-grown biofortified foods, particularly among the micronutrient deficient groups. Previous nutrition interventions have targeted adults with behavior change education, but rarely explored the potential of nutrition education of preschoolers as change agents. This study sought to assess the effect of nutrition education targeting preschool children and their caregivers on their consumption of vitamin-A-biofortified orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) among rural farm households in Homa Bay County, Kenya. A total of 431 preschooler-caregiver pairs from 15 village-level clusters were recruited into a randomized controlled trial. The sample was randomized into one control (3 villages) and 3 treatment groups (4 villages each). Treatments involved channeling nutrition education to preschoolers' through their learning materials (Preschooler Treatment); the caregivers through their mobile phones (Caregiver Treatment); to both preschoolers and their caregivers, simultaneously (Integrated Treatment). Baseline and follow-up household-level surveys were conducted with the caregivers, and consumption data were collected from the preschoolers using a child dietary diversity register. The class teachers sought 24-hour consumption recalls of the preschoolers for 19 consecutive school days. The results of a zero-inflated Poisson regression showed that the phone-mediated and multi-channeled nutrition education approaches significantly increased the number of days of OFSP consumption among the preschoolers. The integrated nutrition education approach significantly increased the preschoolers’ likelihood to consume OFSP, number of OFSP consumption days, and likelihood to consume more than once per week by 11, 77 and 20%, respectively. Nutrition education through OFSP-branded preschoolers' learning materials and phone-mediated messages are effective nudges to the caregivers to feed their preschoolers regularly on OFSP. This may have implications for realizing sustainable nutrition programs in biofortified crop-growing areas.
, Leah E M Bevis, Helen Kuo, Swetha Manohar, Binod Shrestha, Angela Kc, Rolf D Klemm, Rebecca A Heidkamp
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab095

Abstract:
The WHO-UNICEF minimum dietary diversity (MDD) indicator for children aged 6–23 months is a global monitoring indicator used to track multi-year population-level changes in dietary quality, but the influence of seasonality on MDD estimates remains unclear. Examine how seasonality of data collection may influence population-level MDD estimates and inferences about MDD change over multiple survey years. Three countries were selected with three or more consecutive years of MDD data collection including continuous national Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal (2012–2017, N = 12,183) and Peru (2005–16, N = 35,272) and the PoSHAN sentinel site seasonal surveys (covering 3 seasons/year) in Nepal (2013–2016, N = 1309). MDD prevalence (≥5 of 8 food groups) and an 8-item continuous food group score (FGS) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by month and compared for lean and non-lean seasons using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression with dummy variables for year. The national prevalence of MDD was higher in Peru (75.4%) than in Nepal (39.1%) or in Senegal (15.7%). Children in Peru were 1.8% [coefficient: –0.0179 (–0.033, –0.002)] less likely to achieve MDD during the lean season. Similar seasonal magnitudes were observed in Senegal [–0.0347, (–0.058, –0.011)] and for Nepal [–0.0133 (–0.107, 0.081)]. FGS was about 0.1 item lower during the lean season in all three countries. In comparison, MDD increased by an average rate of only 4.2 and 4.4 percentage points per five years in Peru and Senegal respectively. Intake of specific food groups was stable across months in all countries with the provitamin-A rich food group exhibiting the most seasonality. The magnitude of seasonal variation in MDD prevalence was smaller than expected but large relative to longer term changes. If large-scale surveys are not conducted in the same season, biased conclusions about trends are possible.
, Shashi Kant, Partha Haldar, Farhad Ahamed, Archana Singh, Vignesh Dwarakanathan, Sumit Malhotra, Kapil Yadav
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 5; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab078

Abstract:
Effectiveness of intravenous ferric carboxy-maltose (FCM) in quickly raising normal hemoglobin level and replenishing body iron reserve up to 6–12 weeks is known. However, its long-term effectiveness is unknown. In this study conducted in northern India during August 2018 to February 2019, 100 postpartum women within 48 hours of delivery with hemoglobin level between 5.0 to 9.9 gm/dL were included. A single dose of IV FCM was administered. The hemoglobin and serum ferritin level were measured at baseline, and at 6 months. Out of 100 women recruited, 57 (57%) returned for follow-up visit at 6 months. The mean (SD) hemoglobin and serum ferritin level at baseline were 8.6 (1.1) gm/dL, and 15.8 (17.2) ng/ml respectively, and at six months were 12.5 (1.2) gm/dL and 72.0 (52.0) ng/ml. Mean (95% CI) increase, in hemoglobin level was 3.9 (3.5, 4.3) gm/dL (P < 0.001); and for serum ferritin it was 53.8 (41.8, 65.8) ng/ml (P < 0.001).
Sarah J Zyba, Valerie Weinborn, Charles D Arnold, Arlie L Lehmkuhler, Fanny B Morel, Mamane Zeilani, Alyson E Mitchell, Marjorie J Haskell
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab089

Abstract:
Dietary supplements, like small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS), are used in intervention programs to prevent undernutrition among women and young children in low-income countries. An objective marker is needed to track consumption of supplements to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate saccharin and resveratrol as potential adherence markers for tracking recent consumption of a single serving of SQ-LNS in women. Forty-seven healthy non-pregnant women 18–45 y of age were assigned to consume a single dose of SQ-LNS (20 g) containing either 10 mg sodium saccharin or 5 mg trans-resveratrol, under supervision. On the day before and for two days following SQ-LNS consumption, urine samples were collected each day for 24-h as three, consecutive 4-h collections, and one, 12-h overnight collection. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, a resveratrol metabolite, were measured by UHPLC-(ESI-)MS/MS. Urinary concentrations (μmol/L urine) of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate were plotted against time, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the discriminative capacity of each compound, at each post-consumption timepoint compared to baseline, to detect recent consumption of SQ-LNS. Cut-off values to differentiate supplement consumption from non-consumption of each marker were developed using the closest-to-(0,1) corner cut-point approach. Forty-five participants were included in the analysis. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate increased within four hours of SQ-LNS consumption. Urinary concentration cut-off values for saccharin (13.4 µmol/L) and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate (0.7 µmol/L) allowed for 78% and 89% sensitivity, respectively, and 100% specificity in detecting consumption of SQ-LNS within the first 12 h after consumption. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reflect consumption of SQ-LNS containing those compounds during the first 12 h post-consumption with high sensitivity and specificity in healthy women and may be useful objective adherence markers for tracking consumption of SQ-LNS.
, R Kanter, S Chotiboriboon, N Covic, T Delormier, T Longvah, P Maundu, N Omidvar, V Prakash, H Kuhnlein
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab092

Abstract:
Fruit and vegetable consumption is recommended in numerous food-based dietary guidelines and forms a key recommendation in many international statements related to healthy diets. There are thousands of fruit and vegetable species from which to choose, but despite this abundance from nature populations in most countries neither produce nor consume the recommended daily amounts of fruits and vegetables. There is enormous potential to better incorporate the wealth of diverse fruit and vegetable species and varieties into food systems. Known and preserved by indigenous communities, these hidden food treasures can foster collaborative research and learning. This perspective from the Task Force on Traditional and Indigenous Food Systems and Nutrition of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) highlights five key actions that can be taken by individuals, communities and nations to reshape dialogue about traditional and indigenous fruits and vegetables to benefit people and planetary ecosystems.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 5; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab090

Abstract:
Corrigendum to O'Brien et al. The Carbon Isotope Ratio of Breath Is Elevated by Short and Long-Term Added Sugar and Animal Protein Intake in a Controlled Feeding Study. Curr Dev Nutr 2021;5(Supp_2):nzab053_062.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 5; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab088

Abstract:
Corrigendum to Lutz et al. Changes in Nutrition Focused Physical Exam Knowledge and Curriculum Integration of Dietetic Educators in Malaysia Who Have Completed an NFPE Hybrid Training Program. Curr Dev Nutr 2021;5(Supp_2):nzab051_025.
, Esi Foriwa Amoaful, Deepika Sharma, Andrea J Sharma, O Yaw Addo, Xoese Ashigbi, Braima Mumuni, Ruth Situma, Usha Ramakrishnan, Reynaldo Martorell, et al.
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab094

Abstract:
To address the burden of anemia among adolescent girls in Ghana, the Girls’ Iron-Folate Tablet Supplementation (GIFTS) program was established in 2017. An evaluation found that while iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation reached nearly all adolescent girls in schools during Year 1, most girls received fewer than the minimum effective number of tablets over the school year. Barrier analyses highlighted schools as drivers of adherence, though information was incomplete on the reasons for the disparities among schools. Information was also lacking on the implementation of health and nutrition education. At the start of year 3 of an integrated adolescent anemia prevention program with IFA supplementation, the present study sought to illuminate differences in program fidelity among schools and across time and potential factors that drive such differences. After stratifying by school level, size, geographic location, and intake adherence during Year 1, 16 schools were purposively selected. For each school, semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with one coordinator at the district level, three educators at the school level, and one parent leader. Following thematic analysis methods, recorded and transcribed interviews were coded and organized into deductive and inductive themes. Limited training, challenges during distribution of IFA, lack of incentives, and inconsistent health and nutrition education diminished program fidelity. Strong supply chain, widespread awareness promotion, improved acceptability, and intrinsically motivated educators improved program fidelity. After two years of implementation, schools had made program adaptations, and widespread changes in attitudes and beliefs about the IFA tablets had improved their acceptability. However, limitations remained related to supply chain, program ownership, communication between health and education sectors, training, motivation, and resources. The fidelity of Ghana's GIFTS program is strengthened by its supply chain, acceptability, and motivated stakeholders; however, training, curricula, clear communication, and incentives may improve it.
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