Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian

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ISSN / EISSN : 0216-1192 / 2541-4054
Total articles ≅ 132
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Wisnu Broto, Sari Intan Kailaku, Irpan Badrul Jamal, Rahmawati Nurjanah, Enrico Syaifullah
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 165-176; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.165-176

Abstract:
Mangga (Mangifera indica, L.) cv. Gedong merupakan salah satu kultivar unggulan Jawa Barat,dengan daya saing tinggi di pasar domestik dan internasional. Sulitnya mendapatkan kematangan serempak merupakan tantangan yang harus diatasi dengan teknologi pascapanen yang tepat. Penggunaan karbit sebagai pemacu kematangan buah tidak lagi dianjurkan dan perlu diganti dengan bahan lainya seperti etilen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi gas etilen dan lama paparan serta kondisi pemeraman terbaik untuk menghasilkan buah mangga Gedong matang sempurna dengan mutu yang baik. Penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah konsentrasi gas etilen (0, 30, 60 dan 90 ppm) selama 24 jam pada kondisi ambient dan dalam ruangan berpendingin (AC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, perlakuan terbaik untuk mendapatkan mangga cv. Gedong matang sempurna dengan mutu yang baik yaitu penggunaan etilen 30 ppm. Dengan perlakuan tersebut kematangan buah mangga tercapai 2 hari pada suhu berpendingin dan 4 hari pada kondisi ambient lebih cepat dibandingkan mangga tanpa paparan gas etilen. Suhu ruangan pemeraman lebih berpengaruh terhadap mutu buah mangga Gedong matang yang dihasilkan. Pemeraman dengan gas etilen meningkatkan kadar TPT (89,55%), vitamin C (71,31%), dan total fenol (167,23%) serta menurunkan total asam (92,62%) dan total flavonoid (71,67%) dari buah mangga Gedong matang. Konsentrasi gas etilen tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, TPT, total asam dan vitamin C pada buah mangga Gedong matang hasil pemeraman. Gas etilen tidak menyebabkan penurunan mutu berdasarkan parameter fisikokimia yang diamati. Ripening of Mango (Mangifera Indika L.) CV. Gedong Using Ethylene GasMango (Mangifera indica, L.) CV. Gedong is one of the leading cultivars in West Java, with high competitiveness in the domestic and international markets. The difficulty of obtaining simultaneous ripe fruits is a challenge that must be overcome with the right postharvest technology. The use of carbide as a ripening booster is no longer recommended and needs to be replaced with ethylene gas which has been practiced internationally. This study aims to obtain the best ethylene gas concentration and exposure time and ripening conditions to produce perfectly ripe Gedong mangoes with good quality. The research was conducted with a completely randomized factorial design. The treatment applied was the concentration of ethylene gas (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm) for 24 hours in ambient conditions and in an air conditioned room. The results showed that, the concentration of 30 ppm ethylene gas was the best treatment to produce fully ripe mangos with good quality, where maturity was obtained 2 days (air-conditioned room) to 4 (ambient condition) days earlier compared to those without ethylene gas exposure. The temperature of the ripening room has more effect on the quality of the ripe Gedong mango produced. Ripening with ethylene gas increased levels of TPT (89.55%), vitamin C (71.31%), and total phenols (167,23%) and decreased total acid (92.62%) and total flavonoids (71.67%) from ripe Gedong mangoes. Ethylene gas concentration had no effect on water content, TPT total acid and vitamin C in ripened mango Gedong. Ethylene gas did not cause deterioration based on observed physicochemical parameters.
Kun Tanti Dewandari, Joni Munarso, Rahmawati Rahmawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 154-164; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.154-164

Abstract:
Hanjeli adalah salah satu tanaman potensial untuk diversifikasi pangan. Karbohidrat dan pati dalam biji hanjeli mirip dengan sereal lainnya seperti gandum, sorgum, jagung. Produk olahan sereal salah satunya adalah berondong yang diperoleh dengan metode puffing. Puffing adalah proses pengolahan pangan yang menyebabkan perubahan struktur sehingga terjadi penggembungan atau perluasan volume akibat pengaruh suhu dan tekanan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses puffing pada biji hanjeli menggunakan microwave dengan perlakuan A (Tingkat Energi) dan B (Waktu proses) dengan 3 kali ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa energi gelombang mikro yang digunakan dalam proses pengujian popping hanjeli memiliki dampak nyata dengan nilai signifikan <0,05 terhadap kadar air, lemak, karbohidrat. pengujian konten dan organoleptik pada parameter warna dan tekstur dengan tingkat energi sedang. Perlakuan terbaik yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini merupakan produk berondong hanjeli dengan tingkat energi medium dan waktu proses 2,5 menit. Berondong hanjeli tersebut memiliki hasil analisa fisik pada densitas kamba 0,30 %. Berondong hanjeli memiliki hasil analisa kimia pada kadar air 3,59%, kadar abu 0,13%, kadar protein 14,60%, kadar lemak 1,14%, kadar karbohidrat 80,54%, kadar amilosa 11,09%, kadar amilopektin 60,22%. Physicochemical Properties Of Popping Hanjeli (Coix Lacryma-Jobi L)Utilitization of Hanjeli plant has not been done yet because of society’s lack of knowledge. The carbohydrate and starch in Hanjeli seeds are similar to other cereals’ content such as wheat, sorghum, corn and barley. The brunch cereal is the result of puffing process. In this research, the puffing process was done by using the microwave. One of the benefits of this research is to ascertain of puffing process by using the microwave towards Hanjeli seeds. This research used the experimental method with two factors of Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) which consists of factor A (Power Level) and factor B (Time process) with three times repetition. Analytical techniques that were used were variance or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued to Post-Hoc Test with Tukey’s test method. Analysis of physical properties which was conducted is bulk density. Analysis of chemical properties which was conducted are water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose and amylopectin. Organoleptic analysis which was conducted are acceptance test (hedonic) and hedonic quality test. Based on the research result of change in the physicochemical properties, the microwave energy which was used in the puffing process to test the popping hanjeli has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality on the tests of water, fat, carbohydrate content and organoleptic testing on color and texture parameters with medium energy levels. Time usage of popping hanjeli using the microwave has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality on the tests of water, fat, carbohydrate content and organoleptic testing on color and texture parameters with medium energy level. There is a different interaction between the energy level and time process, it has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality which at the medium energy level with a time process of 2,5 minutes.
Damat Damat, Joko Susilo Utomo, Anas Tain, Devi Dwi Siskawardani, Ayu Rastikasari
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 134-145; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.134-145

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus merupakan penyakit kronis yang disebabkan oleh defisiensi insulin. Salah satu cara untuk mencegah penyakit tersebut adalah dengan banyak mengkonsumsi makanan kaya antioksidan. Salah satu jenis makanan yang potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah beras analog kaya antioksidan dari campuran pati garut, mocaf dan puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisiko-kimia dan organoleptik beras analog kaya antioksidan dari pati garut, tepung mocaf dan puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan 2 faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf, terdiri dari 3 level 25:75, 50:50, dan 75:25%. Faktor kedua, kosentrasi puree rumput laut yang terdiri dari 4 level yaitu 0; 1; 2; dan 3%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara proporsi pati garut dan tepung mocaf dengan kosentrasi puree rumput laut terhadap kadar air, lemak, protein, karbohidrat, total kalori, intensitas warna, densitas kamba, bobot 1000 butir, dan kenampakan beras analog. Berdasarkan hasil pada penelitian diketahui bahwa kadar air tertinggi pada perlakuan proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf 75:25 dengan persentase rumput laut 0%, yaitu sebesar 8,62%, kadar karbohidrat tertinggi pada perlakuan proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf 75:25 dengan persentase rumput laut 1%, yaitu sebesar 90,61%, sedangkan aktifitas antioksidan tertinggi beras analog diperoleh pada perlakuan kosentrasi puree rumput laut 3% yaitu sebesar 15,547%. Perbedaan perlakuan juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil uji organoleptik, baik kenampakan, tekstur, rasa, aroma, maupun kesukaan. Perbedaaan rasio pati garut:tepung mocaf dengan konsentrasi puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisiko-kimia dan organoleptik beras analog.High Antioxidant Analogue Rice Characterization Based on Proportion of Arrowroot Starch (Maranta arundinaceae L.): MOCAF (Modified Cassava Flour) and Seaweed Puree Concentration (Gracilaria sp)Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by insulin deficiency. The solution to prevent this disease is through high antioxidant foods consumption. The high antioxidant analogue rice based on arrowroot starch, MOCAF (Modified Cassava Flour) and seaweed puree Gracilaria sp. is potential food that could developed. This study used randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors. The first factor was proportion of arrowroot starch and MOCAF consisted three levels (25:75, 50:50, and 75: 25%). The second factor was seaweed puree concentration that consisted four levels (0; 1; 2; and 3%). The result indicated that there was interaction between proportion of arrowroot starch and MOCAF, with seaweed puree addition to the chemical (water, fat, protein, and carbohydrate content), and physical characteristics (total calories, color intensity, bulk density, 1000-grain weight, and appearance). The highest water content was 8.62% due to treatment arrowroot starch: MOCAF (75%: 25%), without seaweed puree (0%). While the highest carbohydrate was 90.61%, due to proportion 75%: 25% of arrowroot starch: MOCAF and 1% seaweed puree. Furthemore, the highest antioxidant level was 15.547% obtained from 3% seaweed puree. The treatment also affected on the organoleptic test (appearance, texture, taste, aroma, and tendency). Therefore, it can concluded that proportion of arrowroot starch: MOCAF, and seaweed puree concentration give significantly effect on the physical-chemical, and organoleptic characteristics of analogue rice.
Rifa Nurhayati, Ika Agustin, Ervika Rahayu Novita Herawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 146-153; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.146-153

Abstract:
Coklat adalah produk yang diformulasi dari massa kakao, dicampur dengan atau tanpa penambahan gula, susu, atau bahan makanan lain yang diizinkan. Kakao kaya akan polifenol, terutama katekin dan procyanidin. Kakao juga mengandung berbagai mineral seperti magnesium dan zat besi. Berbagai manfaat kakao membuat coklat tidak hanya menjadi makanan pilihan tetapi juga memiliki nilai fungsional bagi mereka yang mengkonsumsinya. Salah satu diversifikasi coklat olahan adalah fortifikasi dengan jahe atau bubuk kayu manis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik, kimia, dan mikrobiologis coklat yang difortifikasi dengan jahe dan kayu manis. Analisis fisik yang dilakukan adalah uji tekstur dan warna, analisis kimia dengan uji proksimat (kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, kadar protein dan kadar karbohidrat by different), uji kadar fenol total dan uji antioksidan (DPPH) sedangkan analisis mikrobiologis dilakukan dengan total plate count. Hasilnya menyebutkan bahwa penambahan jahe dan kayu manis meningkatkan nilai kekerasan, cohesiveness dan gumminess dalam coklat. Kadar fenol meningkat dari 4,83 mg GAE/mg di coklat original menjadi 6,77 mg GAE/mg di coklat kayu manis dan 6,83 mg GAE/mg di coklat jahe. Antioxidant Activity And Total Phenolic Content of Chocolate Enriched With Cinnamomum verum And Zingiber officinaleChocolate is a product that is produced from the cocoa mass, mixed with or without the addition of sugar, milk or other food ingredients that are permitted. Cocoa is rich in polyphenols, especially catechins and procyanidins. Cocoa also contains various minerals such as magnesium and iron. The various benefits of cocoa make chocolate not only a preferred food but also has functional value for those who consume it. One diversification of processed chocolate bars is fortification with ginger or cinnamon powder. This study aims to determine the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of chocolate bars added with ginger and cinnamon. Physical analysis performed was texture and color test, chemical analysis with proximate test (water content, ash content, fat content, protein content and carbohydrate content by difference), total phenol content test and antioxidant test (DPPH) while microbiological analysis was carried out with total plate count. The results mentioned that the addition of ginger and cinnamon increased the value of hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess parameter in chocolate. However, phenol levels increased from 4.83 mg GAE/mg in original chocolate to 6.77 mg GAE/mg in cinnamon chocolate and 6.83 mg GAE/mg in ginger chocolate.
Nfn Hernani, Tatang Hidayat, Nfn Risfaheri
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 126-133; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.126-133

Abstract:
Lada putih bubuk mempunyai sifat sangat higroskopis, sehingga mudah mengalami kerusakan, baik fisik, kimia ataupun mikrobiologis. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah menentukan mutu lada putih bubuk, baik secara fisik, kimia dan mikrobiologi dari pasar tradisional dan modern di wilayah Bogor dan Jakarta serta mendapatkan informasi awal/indikasi adanya pencampuran bahan lain pada lada putih bubuk. Metodologi penelitian terdiri atas beberapa tahapan, yaitu metode pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak sederhana (simple random sampling), dari pasar tradisional yang dijual secara curah, dan pasar modern yang dikemas dalam botol plastik, masing-masing 3 lokasi dan 3 ulangan. Untuk masing-masing sampel yang diambil dari pasar tradisional dan modern adalah 300 g. Pengujian fisiko-kimia sesuai dengan metode yang dikeluarkan oleh IPC (International Pepper Community), yaitu kadar air, abu, abu tak larut asam, minyak atsiri, piperin dan logam timbal (Pb). Untuk uji mikrobiologis terdiri dari TPC (Total Plate Count), kapang, jamur, Salmonella dan Escheria coli. Selain itu, dilakukanan analisis SEM (Scanning Electrone Microscope) untuk melihat profil morfologi permukaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa untuk kadar air, abu, minyak atsiri masih memenuhi kriteria SNI 01 3717 1995, kecuali kadar abu yang tidak larut asam dan kadar piperin. Cemaran mikrobiologi (TPC, kapang dan jamur) memenuhi kriteria, kecuali E. coli dan jamur pada sampel dari pasar tradisional Bogor. Salmonella memenuhi kriteria SNI untuk semua sampel, yaitu negatif. Cemaran logam berat (Pb) masih memenuhi ketentuan kriteria SNI. Deteksi pencampuran lada putih bubuk dengan bahan lain menggunakan metode kombinasi sifat fisiko-kimia dan SEM baru bisa mendeteksi adanya indikasi pencampuran, dan belum bisa menentukan jenis bahan percampurnya. Evaluation Of Quality of White Pepper Powder on Trade in Traditional and Modern Markets in Bogor and Jakarta.White pepper powder has very hygroscopic properties, so it is easily damaged, physically, chemically, or microbiologically. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of white pepper powder, physically, chemically, and microbiologically from the traditional and modern markets of Bogor and Jakarta and to obtain information of mixing white pepper powder using other ingredients. The research methodology consists of several stages, namely sampling from traditional markets that are sold in bulk, and modern markets, which are packaged in plastic bottles; the sample has taken from 3 locations and 3 replications. For each sample taken from traditional and modern markets was 300 g. The physico-chemical tested according to the methods issued by the IPC, especially for moisture, ash content, acid insoluble ash, essential oil, piperine and timbal (Pb). The microbiological was tested, including TPC, mold, fungus, Salmonella and Escheria coli. In addition, an SEM analysis was performed to see the surface morphology profile. The results showed that moisture, ash content, ash insoluble in acid, volatile oil still meets the criteria of Indonesian National Standard, except for ash insoluble in acid and piperine content. Microbiological contamination fulfilled SNI criteria except E. coli and mold in samples from PT Bogor. Salmonella was fulfilled SNI criteria for all samples, which are given negative. Heavy metal (Pb) still fulfils the requirement in SNI criteria. Detection of mixing white pepper powder with other ingredients using a combination of physico-chemical properties and SEM can detect the indication of mixing and has not been able to determine the type of mixing material.
Andi Nur Faidah Rahman, Muhammad Asfar, Nurhadi Suwandi
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 177-183; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.177-183

Abstract:
Beras merupakan makanan utama orang Indonesia. Oleh sebab itu produksi beras yang bermutu sangat penting untuk memenuhi asupan gizi masyarakat. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang berjudul pengaruh perkecambahan terhadap peningkatan mutu beras, bahwa perkecambahan gabah sebelum digiling menjadi beras dapat meningkatkan nilai gizi beras. Namun belum diketahui efek dari perkecambahan gabah terhadap rendemen, kualitas fisik dan nilai sensori beras. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perkecambahan gabah terhadap rendemen, kualitas fisik (persentase beras kepala, beras patah, dan beras menir) dan nilai sensori (warna, aroma, rasa, dan tekstur) nasi dari beras yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap satu faktorial. Apabila data hasil analisis statistik berbeda nyata maka akan dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rendemen beras setelah dikecambahkan mengalami penurunan. Panjang kecambah berpengaruh sangat nyata pada taraf 1% terhadap kualitas fisik beras seperti persentase beras kepala, beras patah dan beras menir, dan berpengaruh nyata pada taraf 5% terhadap parameter warna dan rasa nasi. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian adalah semakin panjang kecambah gabah, maka rendemen, kualitas fisik dan nilai sensori beras cenderung menurun. The Effect of Grain Germination on Yield, Physical Quality, and Rice Sensory ValueRice is the main food for Indonesians. Therefore the quality of rice production is very important to fulfill the nutritional intake of the community. Based on the results of research cited about effect of germinatioan to improve rice quality that germination of grain before milling into rice can increase the nutritional value of rice. However, the effect of grain germination is unknown on the yield, physical quality and sensory value of rice. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of grain germination on the yield, physical quality (percentage of head, broken, and groats of rice) and rice sensory (colour, flavour, taste, and texture) value of rice produced. This research uses a completely factorial completely randomized design. If the results of the statistical analysis differ significantly, it will be continued with Duncan tests. The results showed that the yield of rice after germination had decreased. Sprout length has a very significant effect on the level of 1% on the physical quality of rice such as percentage of head, broken, and groats of rice and has a significant effect on the level of 5% on the colour and flavour parameters of rice. The conclusion of the research is the longer the grain sprouts, the yield, physical quality and sensory value of rice tends to decrease.
Sri Widowati, Nur Asni, Farida Nuraeni
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 95-107; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.95-107

Abstract:
Nasi kuning instan menjadi salah satu alternatif menu sarapan pagi karena memiliki waktu penyajian yang singkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menghasilkan formula terbaik produk nasi kuning instan dengan waktu rehidrasi yang optimum dan menentukan karakteristik fisikokimia produk nasi kuning instan. Faktor yang diuji adalah formulasi bumbu (kontrol dengan menggunakan bumbu instan, formula A menggunakan 1 paket bumbu nasi kuning, formula B menggunakan 1,25 paket bumbu nasi kuning dan formula C menggunakan 1,50 paket bumbu nasi kuning) dan kadar amilosa beras (rendah, sedang dan tinggi). Hasil uji analisis one way anova menunjukkan bahwa antara formulasi dan kadar amilosa beras berbeda secara nyata dari karakteristik fisikokimia nasi kuning instan (p<0,05). Formula dan nasi kuning instan yang terpilih adalah formula 1,25 paket bumbu nasi kuning dari beras Sintanur dengan kadar amilosa rendah adalah waktu rehidrasi 4,59 menit, rendemen 90,23%, volume pengembangan 30,89%, daya serap air 49,68%, densitas kamba 0,62 g/mL, nilai °Hue diatas 90%, dan nilai kekerasan 74,03%. Produk ini mengandung kadar air 8,07%, abu 3,35%, protein 9,19%, lemak 2,08%, karbohidrat 76,32%, dan kadar pati 64,11 %. Formulation, Characterization, and Optimization of the Rehydration of Yellow Rice Instant.Instant yellow rice is an alternative to breakfast because it has a short testing time. The purpose of this study was to produce the best formula for instant yellow rice products with optimum rehydration time and determine the physicochemical characteristics of instant yellow rice products. Factors tested were seasoning formulations (control using instant seasoning, formula A using 1 package of yellow rice seasoning, formula B using 1,25 package of yellow rice seasoning and formula C using 1,50 packages of yellow rice seasoning) and amylose content of rice (low, medium and high). One way ANOVA analysis results showed that between the formulation and amylose content of rice was significantly different from the physicochemical characteristics of instant yellow rice (p <0,05). The formula and instant yellow rice selected were formula 1,25 package of yellow rice seasoning from Sintanur rice with low amylose content, rehydration time 4,59 minutes, yield 90,23%, development volume 30,89%, water absorption 49,68%, kamba density 0,62 g/mL , the ° Hue value is above 90%, and the hardness value is 74,03%. This product contains 8,07% water content, 3,35% ash, 9,19% protein, 2,08% fat, 76,32% carbohydrate, and 64,11% starch content.
Laras Putri Wigati, Sutrisno Suro Mardjan, Emmy Darmawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 68-76; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.68-76

Abstract:
Penanganan pascapanen adalah hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan oleh seluruh aktor di suatu rantai pasok hingga sampai ke tangan konsumen. Evaluasi penerapan penanganan pascapanen sesuai standard operating procedure (SOP) perlu dilakukan agar dapat menemukan pada tahap-tahap mana saja yang perlu diperbaiki sehingga mutu produk lebih dapat terjaga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi penanganan dan penerapan SOP pascapanen tomat, serta mengidentifikasi permasalahan penanganan pascapanen tomat yang dihadapi oleh aktor. Aktor yang terlibat pada rantai pasok adalah petani, pengepul, pedagang eceran dan konsumen. Metode pemilihan responden awal menggunakan purposive sampling yakni pemilihan petani di Desa Perbawati, Sukabumi dan dibedakan menjadi tiga tipe petani berdasarkan luas lahan yang dimiliki. Pemilihan responden selanjutnya menggunakan metode snowball sampling hingga responden akhir yakni konsumen. Penerapan SOP diperoleh dari wawancara dan observasi lapang. Parameter yang digunakan adalah membandingkan penanganan pascapanen yang dilakukan oleh aktor dan dibandingkan dengan SOP yang telah disusun oleh Direktorat Budidaya dan Pascapanen Sayuran dan Tanaman Obat, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura Kementerian Pertanian dan dilakukan perhitungan persentase kesesuaian dan upaya perbaikan yang diperlukan. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan kesesuaian penerapan SOP sebesar 54,44% dan diperlukan perbaikan sebesar 45,56%. Hal ini menunjukkan kesesuaian antara SOP dan pelaksanaan di lapang pada tingkat petani, pengepul, maupun pedagang eceran kondisi lingkungan panas menjadikan produk terpapar sinar matahari secara langsung serta kebersihan yang kurang dijaga membuat kualitas produk mudah menurun. Study Implementation of Standard Operating Procedure on Post-Harvest Tomato and Problems Faced by Actors in the Supply Chain.Postharvest handling is an important part that needs to be considered by actors in a supply chain until it reaches consumers. Evaluation of the implementation of postharvest handling according to the standard operating procedure (SOP) needs to be done to be able to find at what stages need to be improved so the product quality can be maintained well. This study aimed to identify the handling and the SOP implementation postharvest tomatoes, also identify the problems of handling postharvest tomatoes faced by the actors. The actors involved in the supply chain are farmers, collectors, retailers, and consumers. The first actors as respondents selected by the purposive sampling method were farmers in Perbawati Village, Sukabumi, and divided into three types of farmers based on the area of land they have. The next respondents selected by the snowball sampling method to the consumer as final respondents. The application of SOP obtained from interviews and real observations. The parameters used were comparing postharvest handling carried out by the actors and compared with SOP that has been published by the Directorate of Vegetable and Postharvest Cultivation and Medicinal Plants, Directorate General of Horticulture, Ministry of Agriculture and calculating the percentage of suitability and the percentage of improvement needed. In this study, the suitability of SOP implementation was 54.44% and 45.56% improvement was needed. These results showed the compatibility between the SOP and the implementation in the field at the level of farmers, collectors, and retail that high temperature of environmental conditions made the product exposed to direct sunlight and low maintained hygiene made the quality of the product easy to decrease.
Eko Kuncoro Pramono
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 88-94; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.88-94

Abstract:
Penentuan tingkat kematangan buah pisang cavendish biasanya dilakukan secara manual dengan membandingkan warna kulit buah pisang dengan bagan warna standar. Hal ini mempunyai kekurangan yaitu tidak konsisten dan sangat subyektif tergantung dari keahlian operator. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan hasil pengukuran tingkat kematangan buah pisang cavendish yang lebih akurat, mudah dan tidak merusak (non destruktif). Pengukuran kematangan buah pisang dilakukan berdasarkan faktor reflektansi cahaya, yaitu cahaya hijau (500-560 nm), jingga (580-610 nm), dan merah (600-650 nm) yang diperoleh dari LED. Sebuah spektrofotometer pada rentang spektrum 350-700 nm digunakan sebagai pembanding dalam penelitian ini, dengan sumber cahaya berasal dari lampu halogen untuk dapat memenuhi rentang panjang gelombang pada spektrofotometer. Hasil terbaik didapatkan dari pengukuran nilai reflektansi dengan cahaya merah (600-650 nm), dimana didapatkan nilai reflektansi sebesar 30%-39%, 39%-49%, 49%-59%, 59%-67% dan di atas 67% untuk tingkat kematangan 2,3,4,5 dan 6. Pengujian dengan menggunakan 71 sampel pada tingkat kematangan 2 sampai dengan 6 menghasilkan pengukuran 55 benar (77%), 11 kurang matang satu tingkat (16%) dan 5 lebih matang satu tingkat (7%). Sistem pemindaian (scanning) pada seluruh permukaan kulit pisang atau penggunaan citra kamera digital juga dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan akurasi hasil pengukuran. Measurement of Cavendish Banana Ripeness Stage Based on LED Light ReflectanceThe determination of the ripeness stage of cavendish bananas is usually done manually by comparing banana peels with a standard color chart. This has the disadvantage of being inconsistent and very subjective depending on the expertise of the operator. This research was conducted to obtain the results of the measurement of the ripeness stage of cavendish banana which is more accurate, easy and not destructive. The ripeness stage measurement of banana was based on the light reflectance factor, which were green light (500-560 nm), orange (580-610 nm), and red (600-650 nm) obtained from the LEDs. A spectrophotometer in the spectrum range 350-700 nm was used as a comparison in this study, with light sources coming from halogen lamps to be able to meet the wavelength range of the spectrophotometer. The best results were obtained from the measurement of reflectance values with red light, where the reflectance values were 30%-39%, 39%-49%, 49%-59%, 59%-67% and above 67% for the maturity level of 2, 3 , 4, 5 and 6. Testing using 71 samples at maturity level 2 to 6 resulted in a prediction of 55 correct (77%), 11 less mature one level (16%) and 5 more mature one level (7%). A scanning system on the entire surface of a banana peel or the using image of digital camera can also be done to improve the accuracy of the measurement results.
Ayu Dian Pratiwi P, Siti Nurdjanah, Tanto Pratondo Utomo
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 117-125; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.117-125

Abstract:
Pengolahan ubi kayu segar menjadi tepung merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi sifat fisiologis ubi kayu yang mempunyai umur simpan yang relatif singkat. Akan tetapi, pada umumnya tepung ubi kayu yang diproses secara tradisional dari gaplek memiliki beberapa kelemahan. Kelemahan ini antara lain kurang mengembang pada tingkat proporsi yang tinggi, tekstur produk relatif keras, serta aroma apek (musty) ubi kayu kering yang terbentuk karena reaksi lanjut dari proses kerusakan fisiologi pasca panen saat penjemuran gaplek. Komponen aroma musty ini sering kali masih terbawa ketika diaplikasikan pada produk olahannya. Upaya untuk memperbaiki kualitas tepung umbi-umbian telah banyak dilakukan termasuk penggunaan panas. Blansing dalam air panas telah dilaporkan dapat memperbaiki kualitas produk kering berbasis hortikultur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi pengaruh perbedaan suhu dan lama blansing dalam terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan morfologi granula tepung ubi kayu. Metode blansing menggunakan air panas bersuhu 50C, 55C dan 60℃ selama 5 menit, 7,5 menit dan 10 menit sebelum pegeringan dan penepungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suhu dan lama pemanasan berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisikokimia tepung ubi kayu. Semakin tinggi suhu dan semakin lama pemanasan menyebabkan penurunan kadar air, kadar abu, kadar amilosa, meningkatkan kelarutan dan swelling power, serta menyebabkan perubahan morfologi granula atau butiran tepung. Effect of Temperature and Heating Time During Blanching Process on Physicochemical and Morfologi Properties of Cassava FlourProcessing of fresh cassava into flour is one alternative to overcome the physiological properties of cassava which has a relatively short shelf life. However, in general, traditionally processed cassava flour has several disadvantages such as low dough development, less acceptable texture and flavor when used as main material in bakery products, as well as other food products. Many efforts to improve the quality of cassava flour have been carried out, including the use of heat treatments. Hot water pretreatment has been reported to be beneficial for improving quality of dried horticulture commodities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and length of blanching on physicochemical properties of cassava flour. The method was carried out by blanching cassava chip in hot water at 50C, 55C and 60℃ for 5,7,5 and 10 minutes before drying and milling. The results showed the temperature and duration of heating affected the physicochemical properties and granular morphology of cassava flour. The higher the temperature and the longer the blanching cause a decrease in water content, ash content, amylose content, increase solubility, increase swelling power, and slightly changed the granular structures.
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