Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian

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ISSN / EISSN : 0216-1192 / 2541-4054
Total articles ≅ 144
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Ita Yustina, Ana Nurhasanah, Ss. Antarlina
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.37-44

Abstract:
By processing sorghum grains into flour, the use of sorghum grains to support food diversification can be made more varied. The research objective was to determine the physical and chemical properties of sorghum muffins and changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage. The research uses a completely randomized design with two factor, grain soaking duration (hours) and ratio of concentration of whole sorghum flours with gluten flour (%) and consists of nine treatments combination. The result shows that treatment has a significant effect on the power expansion, degree of brightness, fat, and preference for organoleptic properties. The best treatment was 24-hours of soaking, 25% whole sorghum flour, 75% gluten flour that produces expanded power at 138,83%, degree of brightness (L) at 67.03, redness (a) at +4.33, yellowness (b) at +27.37, water content of 12.59%, protein content of 6.95%, fat content of 2.46%, score of color at 3.20, texture score at 3.13, aroma score at 3.16, taste score at 3.24, and for overall acceptance at 3.53 (like). Changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage for 3 days can be explained with the linear equation. For all parameter (weight loss, volume loss, brightness loss), the value of constant a in the equation of sorghum muffin was lower than control muffin that indicated quality loss of sorghum muffins is higher than control muffin. Increasing the concentration of sorghum flour resulted a decrease in the quality of the muffins. The soaking treatment of the seeds in making sorghum flour can maintain the quality of the muffin.
Zukryandry Zukryandry, Beni Hidayat, Shintawati Shintawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.21-30

Abstract:
Part of the cassava that can be used as a food product is usually starch and and the waste is cassava bagasse. Fermented cassava bagasse flour is a modified semi-solid fermentation product using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has almost the same quality as modified cassava flour (mocaf), but fermented cassava bagasse flour has advantages compared to mocaf flour, namely high protein content and cheaper production costs. Fermented cassava bagasse flour has various functions which can be used as raw material for the manufacture of various processed products, one of which is cassava stick. The research objective was to see the formulation of fermented cassava bagasse flour to the sensory characteristics of the resulting cassava stick. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) including 5 treatment methods, namely cassava starch substituted by fermented cassava bagasse flour 5% (B1), 10% (B2), 15% (B3), 20% (B4) and 25% (B5), each treatment was repeated 3 times. Based on the sensory results, it was obtained that 15% (B3) fermented cassava bagasse flour substitution treatment was the best choice of cassava stick product by panelists. The results of the analysis of cassava stick products were hardness test 3,77 µ (kg / cm2) ; swelling ratio 18,33% ; moisture content 2,20% ; ash content 0,14% ; protein content 10,00% ; fat content 21,00% ; fiber content 0,17%; carbohydrate content 66,49% and total dietary fiber 21,24%.
Fenny Aprilliani, Dheni Atmiasih, Andika Ristiono
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.1-8

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between the maturity level of avocado and color changes using simple device such as smartphone camera. Avocado with 3 different maturity level A1:<80%, A2:80-85%, and A3:>85% were collected from local farmer in Bandungan, Central Java. The quality evaluation was carried out on 99 avocado (weight of 366±16 g) which included the evaluation of mass loss (%), firmness (kg/mm2), total soluble solids (°brix), and color changes (picture of fruit were taken using smartphone camera and analyzed using Photoshop CC 2019 from Adobe and converted into HSI values). The data were analyzed using two-factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with factor design are the level of maturity and storage time of the avocado. The results indicated that the maturity level were significantly different (p≤0.05) for mass loss, firmness and total soluble solids (TSS) of avocado during storage. The relationship between maturity level and color changes shows the MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value for hue, saturation, intensity ranges between 3,31-6,11%; 11,12-15,79%, and 6,10-6,49% with the light intensity of 527,77 lux. The results indicate that the image processing on smartphone camera is able to describe the level of maturity based on the color changes of avocado during storage with the same treatment conditions.
Adnan Nur Avif, Ardhi Billih Yaqhsa
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 31-36; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.31-36

Abstract:
Ketepeng cina Senna alata L. is one of the plant species growing in the tropical climate whose leaves have various bioactive components. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. Ketepeng cina has been cultivated in several regions in Indonesia and the results are exported abroad to be used as medicinal raw materials. So far, the plant extraction process is still using the maceration method. This method is simple but has weaknesses in time consumption making it less efficient. The extraction method by ultrasonic waves promises more efficient extraction process than the maceration method. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in extraction techniques and solvent concentration on the concentration of phytochemical constituents in ketepang cina leaves. The research design used a completely randomized design with two factorial patterns. The first factor was the technique of extracting Ketepeng cina leaves (maceration, ultrasonication), and the second factor was the concentration of solvent/ethanol (40%, 70%, 96%) The observation parameters included analysis of the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. The results showed that the use of the ultrasonication technique provided efficiency in extraction time compared to the maceration technique. The use of 70% ethanol resulted in higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (28,17 mgGA/g) and (17,61 mgQE/g), but the highest concentration of tannins produced by 96% ethanol solvent was 6,78 mgAT/g.
Sri Wahyuni, Ranti Selvina, Puspa Julistia Puspita, Haryo Tejo Prakoso, Priyono Priyono, Siswanto Siswanto
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.45-56

Abstract:
Black Soldier Fly (BSF) farming showed an increasing trend in the past 5 years. The production process generates a leftover, that is the exuviae which are still untapped. BSF exuviae contain chitin and chitosan which can be utilized in various fields, one of which is fruit preservatives. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) is known to have many benefits and has a content of vitamins A, B, C, and E but it has a short shelf life. The purpose of this study was to characterize chitosan from BSF exuviae and choose the best edible coating method to be applied to grapes to prolong the grape’s storage time. Characterization includes physical condition, percent solubility, degree of deacetylation, and yield of the chitosan. Then, edible coating tests were carried out with 2% acetic acid solvent followed by two different methods, namely dyeing method with 5, 10 and, 15 minutes immersion time and spray method with a chitosan solution concentration of 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, 2 %, and 2,5%. The results showed that chitosan extracted from BSF exuviae produced a physical appearance in the form of white brown powder with 55% solubility and a degree of deacetylation of 91,88%. The chitin yield is 16,2%, followed by the chitosan yield of 4,8%. The best edible coating method which can maintain the physical appearance of grapes and inhibiting fruit decayed was obtained by dipping method at a concentration of 2,5% for 10 minutes. Based on the overall observations, however, the results obtained from the dip and spray method were not significantly different.
Stp Ermi Sukasih, Nfn Widaningrum, Nfn Setyadjit, Winda Haliza
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 9-20; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.9-20

Abstract:
The banana of CV. Mas Kirana off-grade can be processed into banana flour with high resistant starch content which functions as a prebiotic. This study aims to optimize the content of resistant starch (RS) type 3 in the produce of banana flour. Modified banana flour cv. Mas Kirana with highest RS content will then be used to substitute skim milk in making prebiotic banana yogurt and are analyzed for its sensory properties. Data were processed using design expert 11.0 with three factors, namely X1 (Lactic acid bacterial concentration (LAB), X2 (fermentation time), X3 (retrogradation time). The optimization result was 109 CFU/mL of lactic acid bacteria concentration, 24 hours of fermentation time, and 37,60 hours of retrogradation time. The resulting banana flour cv Mas Kirana has 83,95% of resistant starch, 29,24% of yield, 3,60 of logarithmic lactic acid bacteria, and 4,49 of pH value. Its application to the production of banana yoghurt prebiotic replacing 80% skim milk, was acceptable to panelists in terms of color, aroma, viscosity, taste, and overall acceptance.
Wisnu Broto, Sari Intan Kailaku, Irpan Badrul Jamal, Rahmawati Nurjanah, Enrico Syaifullah
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 165-176; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.165-176

Abstract:
Mangga (Mangifera indica, L.) cv. Gedong merupakan salah satu kultivar unggulan Jawa Barat,dengan daya saing tinggi di pasar domestik dan internasional. Sulitnya mendapatkan kematangan serempak merupakan tantangan yang harus diatasi dengan teknologi pascapanen yang tepat. Penggunaan karbit sebagai pemacu kematangan buah tidak lagi dianjurkan dan perlu diganti dengan bahan lainya seperti etilen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi gas etilen dan lama paparan serta kondisi pemeraman terbaik untuk menghasilkan buah mangga Gedong matang sempurna dengan mutu yang baik. Penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah konsentrasi gas etilen (0, 30, 60 dan 90 ppm) selama 24 jam pada kondisi ambient dan dalam ruangan berpendingin (AC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, perlakuan terbaik untuk mendapatkan mangga cv. Gedong matang sempurna dengan mutu yang baik yaitu penggunaan etilen 30 ppm. Dengan perlakuan tersebut kematangan buah mangga tercapai 2 hari pada suhu berpendingin dan 4 hari pada kondisi ambient lebih cepat dibandingkan mangga tanpa paparan gas etilen. Suhu ruangan pemeraman lebih berpengaruh terhadap mutu buah mangga Gedong matang yang dihasilkan. Pemeraman dengan gas etilen meningkatkan kadar TPT (89,55%), vitamin C (71,31%), dan total fenol (167,23%) serta menurunkan total asam (92,62%) dan total flavonoid (71,67%) dari buah mangga Gedong matang. Konsentrasi gas etilen tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, TPT, total asam dan vitamin C pada buah mangga Gedong matang hasil pemeraman. Gas etilen tidak menyebabkan penurunan mutu berdasarkan parameter fisikokimia yang diamati. Ripening of Mango (Mangifera Indika L.) CV. Gedong Using Ethylene GasMango (Mangifera indica, L.) CV. Gedong is one of the leading cultivars in West Java, with high competitiveness in the domestic and international markets. The difficulty of obtaining simultaneous ripe fruits is a challenge that must be overcome with the right postharvest technology. The use of carbide as a ripening booster is no longer recommended and needs to be replaced with ethylene gas which has been practiced internationally. This study aims to obtain the best ethylene gas concentration and exposure time and ripening conditions to produce perfectly ripe Gedong mangoes with good quality. The research was conducted with a completely randomized factorial design. The treatment applied was the concentration of ethylene gas (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm) for 24 hours in ambient conditions and in an air conditioned room. The results showed that, the concentration of 30 ppm ethylene gas was the best treatment to produce fully ripe mangos with good quality, where maturity was obtained 2 days (air-conditioned room) to 4 (ambient condition) days earlier compared to those without ethylene gas exposure. The temperature of the ripening room has more effect on the quality of the ripe Gedong mango produced. Ripening with ethylene gas increased levels of TPT (89.55%), vitamin C (71.31%), and total phenols (167,23%) and decreased total acid (92.62%) and total flavonoids (71.67%) from ripe Gedong mangoes. Ethylene gas concentration had no effect on water content, TPT total acid and vitamin C in ripened mango Gedong. Ethylene gas did not cause deterioration based on observed physicochemical parameters.
Kun Tanti Dewandari, Joni Munarso, Rahmawati Rahmawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 154-164; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.154-164

Abstract:
Hanjeli adalah salah satu tanaman potensial untuk diversifikasi pangan. Karbohidrat dan pati dalam biji hanjeli mirip dengan sereal lainnya seperti gandum, sorgum, jagung. Produk olahan sereal salah satunya adalah berondong yang diperoleh dengan metode puffing. Puffing adalah proses pengolahan pangan yang menyebabkan perubahan struktur sehingga terjadi penggembungan atau perluasan volume akibat pengaruh suhu dan tekanan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses puffing pada biji hanjeli menggunakan microwave dengan perlakuan A (Tingkat Energi) dan B (Waktu proses) dengan 3 kali ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa energi gelombang mikro yang digunakan dalam proses pengujian popping hanjeli memiliki dampak nyata dengan nilai signifikan <0,05 terhadap kadar air, lemak, karbohidrat. pengujian konten dan organoleptik pada parameter warna dan tekstur dengan tingkat energi sedang. Perlakuan terbaik yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini merupakan produk berondong hanjeli dengan tingkat energi medium dan waktu proses 2,5 menit. Berondong hanjeli tersebut memiliki hasil analisa fisik pada densitas kamba 0,30 %. Berondong hanjeli memiliki hasil analisa kimia pada kadar air 3,59%, kadar abu 0,13%, kadar protein 14,60%, kadar lemak 1,14%, kadar karbohidrat 80,54%, kadar amilosa 11,09%, kadar amilopektin 60,22%. Physicochemical Properties Of Popping Hanjeli (Coix Lacryma-Jobi L)Utilitization of Hanjeli plant has not been done yet because of society’s lack of knowledge. The carbohydrate and starch in Hanjeli seeds are similar to other cereals’ content such as wheat, sorghum, corn and barley. The brunch cereal is the result of puffing process. In this research, the puffing process was done by using the microwave. One of the benefits of this research is to ascertain of puffing process by using the microwave towards Hanjeli seeds. This research used the experimental method with two factors of Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) which consists of factor A (Power Level) and factor B (Time process) with three times repetition. Analytical techniques that were used were variance or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued to Post-Hoc Test with Tukey’s test method. Analysis of physical properties which was conducted is bulk density. Analysis of chemical properties which was conducted are water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose and amylopectin. Organoleptic analysis which was conducted are acceptance test (hedonic) and hedonic quality test. Based on the research result of change in the physicochemical properties, the microwave energy which was used in the puffing process to test the popping hanjeli has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality on the tests of water, fat, carbohydrate content and organoleptic testing on color and texture parameters with medium energy levels. Time usage of popping hanjeli using the microwave has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality on the tests of water, fat, carbohydrate content and organoleptic testing on color and texture parameters with medium energy level. There is a different interaction between the energy level and time process, it has the real impact with a significant value < α (0.05) towards the popping hanjeli’s quality which at the medium energy level with a time process of 2,5 minutes.
Damat Damat, Joko Susilo Utomo, Anas Tain, Devi Dwi Siskawardani, Ayu Rastikasari
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 134-145; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.134-145

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus merupakan penyakit kronis yang disebabkan oleh defisiensi insulin. Salah satu cara untuk mencegah penyakit tersebut adalah dengan banyak mengkonsumsi makanan kaya antioksidan. Salah satu jenis makanan yang potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah beras analog kaya antioksidan dari campuran pati garut, mocaf dan puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisiko-kimia dan organoleptik beras analog kaya antioksidan dari pati garut, tepung mocaf dan puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan 2 faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf, terdiri dari 3 level 25:75, 50:50, dan 75:25%. Faktor kedua, kosentrasi puree rumput laut yang terdiri dari 4 level yaitu 0; 1; 2; dan 3%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara proporsi pati garut dan tepung mocaf dengan kosentrasi puree rumput laut terhadap kadar air, lemak, protein, karbohidrat, total kalori, intensitas warna, densitas kamba, bobot 1000 butir, dan kenampakan beras analog. Berdasarkan hasil pada penelitian diketahui bahwa kadar air tertinggi pada perlakuan proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf 75:25 dengan persentase rumput laut 0%, yaitu sebesar 8,62%, kadar karbohidrat tertinggi pada perlakuan proporsi pati garut: tepung mocaf 75:25 dengan persentase rumput laut 1%, yaitu sebesar 90,61%, sedangkan aktifitas antioksidan tertinggi beras analog diperoleh pada perlakuan kosentrasi puree rumput laut 3% yaitu sebesar 15,547%. Perbedaan perlakuan juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil uji organoleptik, baik kenampakan, tekstur, rasa, aroma, maupun kesukaan. Perbedaaan rasio pati garut:tepung mocaf dengan konsentrasi puree rumput laut Gracilaria sp berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisiko-kimia dan organoleptik beras analog.High Antioxidant Analogue Rice Characterization Based on Proportion of Arrowroot Starch (Maranta arundinaceae L.): MOCAF (Modified Cassava Flour) and Seaweed Puree Concentration (Gracilaria sp)Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by insulin deficiency. The solution to prevent this disease is through high antioxidant foods consumption. The high antioxidant analogue rice based on arrowroot starch, MOCAF (Modified Cassava Flour) and seaweed puree Gracilaria sp. is potential food that could developed. This study used randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors. The first factor was proportion of arrowroot starch and MOCAF consisted three levels (25:75, 50:50, and 75: 25%). The second factor was seaweed puree concentration that consisted four levels (0; 1; 2; and 3%). The result indicated that there was interaction between proportion of arrowroot starch and MOCAF, with seaweed puree addition to the chemical (water, fat, protein, and carbohydrate content), and physical characteristics (total calories, color intensity, bulk density, 1000-grain weight, and appearance). The highest water content was 8.62% due to treatment arrowroot starch: MOCAF (75%: 25%), without seaweed puree (0%). While the highest carbohydrate was 90.61%, due to proportion 75%: 25% of arrowroot starch: MOCAF and 1% seaweed puree. Furthemore, the highest antioxidant level was 15.547% obtained from 3% seaweed puree. The treatment also affected on the organoleptic test (appearance, texture, taste, aroma, and tendency). Therefore, it can concluded that proportion of arrowroot starch: MOCAF, and seaweed puree concentration give significantly effect on the physical-chemical, and organoleptic characteristics of analogue rice.
Rifa Nurhayati, Ika Agustin, Ervika Rahayu Novita Herawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 17, pp 146-153; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v17n3.2020.146-153

Abstract:
Coklat adalah produk yang diformulasi dari massa kakao, dicampur dengan atau tanpa penambahan gula, susu, atau bahan makanan lain yang diizinkan. Kakao kaya akan polifenol, terutama katekin dan procyanidin. Kakao juga mengandung berbagai mineral seperti magnesium dan zat besi. Berbagai manfaat kakao membuat coklat tidak hanya menjadi makanan pilihan tetapi juga memiliki nilai fungsional bagi mereka yang mengkonsumsinya. Salah satu diversifikasi coklat olahan adalah fortifikasi dengan jahe atau bubuk kayu manis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik, kimia, dan mikrobiologis coklat yang difortifikasi dengan jahe dan kayu manis. Analisis fisik yang dilakukan adalah uji tekstur dan warna, analisis kimia dengan uji proksimat (kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, kadar protein dan kadar karbohidrat by different), uji kadar fenol total dan uji antioksidan (DPPH) sedangkan analisis mikrobiologis dilakukan dengan total plate count. Hasilnya menyebutkan bahwa penambahan jahe dan kayu manis meningkatkan nilai kekerasan, cohesiveness dan gumminess dalam coklat. Kadar fenol meningkat dari 4,83 mg GAE/mg di coklat original menjadi 6,77 mg GAE/mg di coklat kayu manis dan 6,83 mg GAE/mg di coklat jahe. Antioxidant Activity And Total Phenolic Content of Chocolate Enriched With Cinnamomum verum And Zingiber officinaleChocolate is a product that is produced from the cocoa mass, mixed with or without the addition of sugar, milk or other food ingredients that are permitted. Cocoa is rich in polyphenols, especially catechins and procyanidins. Cocoa also contains various minerals such as magnesium and iron. The various benefits of cocoa make chocolate not only a preferred food but also has functional value for those who consume it. One diversification of processed chocolate bars is fortification with ginger or cinnamon powder. This study aims to determine the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of chocolate bars added with ginger and cinnamon. Physical analysis performed was texture and color test, chemical analysis with proximate test (water content, ash content, fat content, protein content and carbohydrate content by difference), total phenol content test and antioxidant test (DPPH) while microbiological analysis was carried out with total plate count. The results mentioned that the addition of ginger and cinnamon increased the value of hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess parameter in chocolate. However, phenol levels increased from 4.83 mg GAE/mg in original chocolate to 6.77 mg GAE/mg in cinnamon chocolate and 6.83 mg GAE/mg in ginger chocolate.
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