Advances in Computed Tomography

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21692475 / 21692483
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 62
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Latest articles in this journal

Shoaa G. Shetewi, Bander S. Al Mutairi, Saeed M. Bafaraj
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 9, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/act.2020.91001

Abstract:
Background: Neurological disorder is identified as a severe cause of mortality among the patients. Given the severity of the disorder, various tools have been developed for the effective scanning of the symptoms and causes. Objective: The study intends to compare the two advanced neuroimaging tools i.e. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing the patients of the possible brain, stroke, and neurological disorders concern their neurological symptoms and signs. Method: The retrospective study was conducted and medical records of 151 patients were assessed statistically. Chi-square test was applied to the collected data. Results: The results of the study provided that multiple seizures (15.2%) served as the major cause of examination, followed by a headache (9.9%), visual complaint (7.9%), single seizure (5.3%), gait abnormality (3.3%) and altered consciousness (2.6%); whereas, speech difficulty remained low (1.3%). CT scan findings of the patients reported parieto-temporal area and development of acute hypo densities as the prime concerns, where its results remained insignificant (0.29). Using MRI, unremarkable MRI was majorly reported, followed by lateralized to one side, stable MRI feature, bilateral symptoms, and ischemic disease. The results of MRI were significant (0.00). Conclusion: The study concludes that magnetic resonance imaging is more effective for the evaluation of the neurological disorders as compared to CT scan.
Xiezhang Li, Jiehua Zhu, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Ga, USA╃Jiehua Zhu$Department of Mathematical Sciences, Usa
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 8, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/act.2019.81001

Suleman Modu Ngaram, Ibrahim Baba Mohammed
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 8, pp 37-45; doi:10.4236/act.2019.83004

Abstract:
The use of computed tomography (CT) has increased over the past decades and has resulted in a concurrent increase in medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Several recent studies have examined the link between medical radiation and the risk of cancer, especially in children. Results are presented in terms of the volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for head, chest and abdomen. The 75th percentile of adult CTDIvol for head, chest and abdomen are 85 mGy, 13.34 mGy and 13.29 mGy respectively and the corresponding DLP values 1437.47 mGy·cm, 417.49 and 656.02 mGy·cm. However, the paediatric head based on age group 0 - 1 yr, 1 - 5 yrs, 6 - 10 yrs and 11 - 15 years are 28.18 mGy, 32.12 mGy, 32.13 mGy and 28.20 mGy and corresponding DLP values 399.75 mGy·cm, 514.38 mGy·cm, 578.42 mGy·cm and 487.11 mGy·cm respectively and for paediatric abdomen from 1 - 5 years to 11 - 15 years are 3.98 mGy, 4.26 mGy and 5.92 mGy and the corresponding DLP 99.36 mGy·cm, 160.84 and 235.85 mGy·cm. The finding shows considerably high CTDIvol and DLP values for adult head comparable to the international standard thus optimization is required. Reduction in radiation doses for both adult and paediatric patients involve training of staff and optimize CT protocols.
Kenji Nakamura, Katsuhiko Maeda, Masao Tanooka, Shuhei Aoyama, Reiichi Ishikura, Noriko Kotoura
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 8, pp 24-35; doi:10.4236/act.2019.82003

Abstract:
Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to assess for cerebral hemorrhage and acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the accuracy of CT using a low tube voltage technique in acute ischemic stroke. We compared the standard deviation (SD), contrast between gray and white matter, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between three groups (120 kV 500 mAs, 100 kV 850 mAs, and 100 kV 750 mAs using hybrid iterative reconstruction) in 50 patients without lesions, and visual evaluation using the normalized rank approach was also performed. The mean value of SD was 4.02, 4.22, and 4.04, respectively, and the contrast between gray and white matter was 7.08, 8.66, and 8.68 HU, respectively; in addition, the CNR was 1.77, 2.06, and 2.15, respectively. The difference between the 100 kV and 120 kV groups was significant (p 0.01). Visual evaluation showed a significant difference between the 100 and 120 kV groups (p 0.05).
Nobuo Tomizawa, Hiroaki Arakawa, Kodai Yamamoto, Shinichi Inoh, Takeshi Nojo, Sunao Nakamura
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 8, pp 11-23; doi:10.4236/act.2019.82002

Abstract:
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of estimated energy loss (EEL) calculated using a simplified Bernoulli formula at coronary computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to diagnose ischemia-causing stenosis by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods: We retrospectively included 43 patients who underwent coronary CT, SPECT, and FFR measurement by catheter within 3 months. When an intermediate stenosis (40% - 70%) was present at CT, EEL was calculated using the following parameters: lesion length, diameter stenosis, minimal lumen area, and the myocardial volume. An EEL > 1.17 or diameter stenosis > 70% was determined ischemic. Stress-induced ischemia by SPECT was determined when a perfusion defect at stress was accompanied with a fill-in at rest. An FFR ≤ 0.80 or diameter stenosis >70 % was determined as ischemic by catheter. Results: A total of 26 vessels were determined as ischemic by catheter exam. The per-vessel sensitivity and specificity of EEL and SPECT were 81% vs 42% and 92% vs 91%, respectively. The accuracy of EEL to diagnose stenosis causing ischemia was significantly higher than SPECT (90% vs 81%, p = 0.04). The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics curve was also significantly higher for EEL than SPECT (0.86 vs 0.67, p < 0.005). Conclusions: EEL showed higher accuracy than SPECT to diagnose ischemia-causing stenosis by improving the sensitivity.
Xudong Liu, Haoxiang Lei, Sicun Han
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 8, pp 47-56; doi:10.4236/act.2019.84005

Abstract:
Convolutional neural network (CNN), a class of deep neural networks (most commonly used in visual image analysis), has become one of the most influential innovations in the field of computer vision. In our research, we built a system which allows the computer to extract the feature and recognize the image of human lungs and to automatically conclude the health level of the lungs based on database. Here, we built a CNN model to train the datasets. After the training, the system could do certain preliminary analysis already. In addition, we used the fixed coordinate to reduce the noise and combined the Canny algorithm and the Mask algorithm to further improve the accuracy of the system. The final accuracy turned out to be 87.0%, which is convincing. Our system can contribute a lot to the efficiency and accuracy of doctors’ analysis of the patients’ health level. In the future, we will do more improvement to reduce noise and increase accuracy.
Jung Wook Seo
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 6, pp 21-27; doi:10.4236/act.2017.64004

Abstract:
Epiploic appendages can become ischemic and infarcted, which can present acute abdominal pain that mimics other diseases, such as diverticulitis or appendicitis. Particularly, inflammation of an epiploic appendage attached to the vermiform appendix is a very rare cause of acute abdominal pain, and it is difficult to diagnose this condition preoperatively. We present a case of epiploic appendagitis of the vermiform appendix that was identified with a typical radiologic image and was pathologically confirmed. In addition, we review the literature of similar cases and analyze the clinical and radiologic features of EA of the vermiform appendix.
Jung Wook Seo
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 6, pp 7-15; doi:10.4236/act.2017.62002

Abstract:
Purpose: To assess the efficacy of endovascular management for ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP). Methods: Six cases of HAP in five patients (four men and one women; mean age, 50; range, 28 - 62) were treated with transcatheter arterial coil embolization using microcoil (Boston Scientific, Watertown, MA, USA) and Tornado Coil (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA) with or without stent graft between January 2007 and September 2008. They were analyzed with regard to the clinical presentation, radiological findings with procedure, and clinical and radiologic outcomes. Results: All patients presented with epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding. The pseudoaneurysms were ranged from 0.6 to 4.4 cm in size and located in the common hepatic artery (n = 1), junction between proper and right hepatic artery (n = 1), proper hepatic artery (n = 2), the left hepatic artery (n = 1), right hepatic artery (n = 1). Embolization was performed with microcoils in all pseudoaneurysmal sac with or without both afferent and efferent segment. A self-expandable stent (n = 1) was also used. Overall technical success was 100% (6 of 6) and complete occlusions of HAPs were achieved in 5 out of 6 cases, 83.3% of clinical success rate. Re-bleeding occurred in one case of stent graft at proper hepatic artery following coil packing for pseudoaneurysmal sac. Clinical success rate of embolization for both afferent and efferent segment was 100% (3 of 3). Procedure-related minor complications happened in 2 of 5 patients, and they were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Transcatheter coil embolization for ruptured HAP is sufficiently effective and additional embolization in both afferent segment and efferent segment can improve clinical success rate.
Tianqi Zhang, Xueli Han, Xudong Wang, Shili Yu, Jianhua Liu, Bo Li
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 6, pp 17-20; doi:10.4236/act.2017.63003

Abstract:
Leiomyoma of the round ligament of the liver is a very unusual tumor, and it shows nonspecific manifestations both in symptom and radiographic characterization. Herein, we report the case of leiomyoma which CT post-processing technique can directly exhibit the origin of the lesion. With radiological diagnosis, laparoscopic excision of the leiomyoma is carried out. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the leiomyoma of the round ligament. This case presents information to expand our knowledge focusing on the role of the CT post-processing technique before laparoscopic excision.
Sungjun Hwang, Jung Wook Seo
Advances in Computed Tomography, Volume 6, pp 28-33; doi:10.4236/act.2017.64005

Abstract:
Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) arising from common bile duct (CBD) is a rare disease entity, whose origin is currently in discussion with various theories. We present a case of well-defined solid, exophytic and arterial hypervascular mass arising from CBD with relatively mild dilated central intrahepatic bile ducts in 50-year-old man, which was surgically confirmed to be extrahepatic biliary NET, and reviewed radiologic features of extrahepatic biliary NET in previous literature.
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