Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0136-1694 / 2312-4202
Published by: V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute (10.19047)
Total articles ≅ 351
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E. I. Pankova, I. A. Yamnova, L. F. Nazarova, D. A. Soloviev, V. A. Isaev
The article considers the history of the work of the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute researchers in Uzbekistan, conducted jointly with soil scientists from Uzbekistan. These works were started in 1930–1940s. They were especially active during the Great Patriotic War, when the Soil Institute was evacuated to Tashkent. During these years, both Russian and Uzbek soil scientists participated in joint work. Outstanding scientists can be named among Russian researchers: V.A. Kovda, A.A. Rode, A.N. Rozanov and many others who contributed to the study of Uzbekistan soils. The work of the researchers from the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, performed on the basis of a station in the Hungry Steppe (Mirzacho'l) in connection with the development of saline lands during the creation of new irrigation systems in Central Asia, is analyzed in particular detail. Various work areas of the station researchers are discussed in the article: issues of ameliorative development of saline soils, salinity mapping based on remote sensing methods, detailed study of the reclaimed soils properties using chemical, micromorphological, mineralogical and other research methods for the determination of salinity and gypsum content of soils in the New Irrigation Zone (NIZ) of Hungry and Jizzakh steppes. The results of the work were presented in a series of publications. In the 1990s, cooperation was temporarily ceased, but at the beginning of the 21st century it was resumed.
, , A. G. Bolotov, A. V. Dembovetskiy
At the experimental field of VNIIMZ (Tver region, village Emmauss) laid a series of 8 soil sections. The first three sections of the southern slope are confined to the transit-accumulative, transit and eluvial-transit microlandscape with a complex of gleevate and gleev soils, which changes to an eluvial-accumulative flat-topped section and similar microlandscapes of the northern slope with slightly bent and gleevate sod-podzolic light loamy soils. In samples taken every 10 cm, the particle size distribution of soils was determined by laser diffraction and sieve (>0.25 mm) methods. The differential distribution curves of soil particles are dominated by fractions of fine sand with a maximum content of diameters of 100–150 µm and silt (1–50 µm). Three granulometrically homogeneous layers are distinguished in the soil profile: the upper one with an arable horizon (0–40 cm), medium (up to 70–80 cm) and super-moraine (up to 120 cm). In the middle part of the soil profile of the northern slope, silty fractions prevail; and in the soils of the southern part of the landscape, a relatively high content of the sandy fraction is observed (the fraction of fine sand, 50–250 µm, dominates, and followed by the coarse silt fraction, 10–50 µm), which, apparently associated with the historical processes of profiles development on binary deposits, erosion, and, possibly, with modern agrotechnological processes.
, E. I. Pankova
A comparative assessment of the rehabilitation status of irrigated lands, which are located in different natural areas of the Volgograd Oblast, is presented for 2001–2018. It was found that during the specified period there were recorded significant changes in the condition of irrigated lands: the total irrigation area has dramatically decreased since 2001 (-31%), especially at local runoff (-44.5%), the groundwater level has decreased (the level >5 m remains on 78% of the area). Also on this background, the areas of secondary salinized soils were also decreased (-3.9%). The main problems at the present are: the presence of fallow lands and rain-fed lands initially cultivated for irrigation, the lack of drainage on the most of irrigation systems and significant areas of saline soils requiring rehabilitation. Differences in natural conditions have largely determined the current rehabilitation state of irrigated soils and the intensity of their changes. Thus, the largest areas of secondary saline soils are preserved on irrigation systems located on the initially highly saline, poorly drained soils of the Khvalyn clay plain (Pallasovka, Svetloyarsk irrigation systems). Reconstruction of a number of irrigation systems with areas of secondary saline soils gave a positive result, after which secondary saline soils on reclaimed lands were not detected (Large Volgograd, Tyazhin irrigation systems). Significant areas of saline soils can be found on irrigated lands in the distribution areas of natural saline soils and chestnut, light chestnut saline soils – in the south of the Volga Upland, in the area of the Northern Yergeni and on the Khvalyn clay plain (Gorodishуsche, Generalovskoye, Pallasovka, etc. irrigation systems). Inherent research on the Volga-Don irrigation system with the involvement of remote sensing data has shown that this system reflects the general features of the modern rehabilitation condition of irrigated lands of the Volgograd Oblast – fallow lands, lack of drainage, and widespread saline soils are specific for this area. The use of high-resolution multispectral satellite images (Landsat-8, Sentinel-2) for the purposes of detection of fallow and irrigated lands in the current season demonstrates the possibility of clarifying information on this category of land. The determination of the distribution of salinized and solonetzic soils on irrigated lands of the Volgograd Oblast by remote methods can be carried out indirectly, i. e. according to the state of vegetation: when areas of sparse vegetation cover are being identified on images, targeted routes for soil surveys and soil sampling are selected.
T. I. Borisochkina, А. Д. Котельникова, O. B. Rogova
The analysis of publications on the mass transfer of chemical elements in agrocenosis in the soil – plant system was carried out. Methods for estimating the content of mobile forms of chemical compounds coming from the soil into plants are considered. The phenomena of antagonism and synergism are characterized, and the necessity to consider them while planning fertilizer application is indicated. It is shown that the phenomena of synergism and antagonism of elements can be used in agriculture to regulate the flow of heavy metals or radionuclides into agricultural products. A balance model for mass transfer of chemical elements in agrocenosis is analyzed. It is shown that the introduction of organic fertilizers in soil mostly leads to a positive balance of microelements in the agrosystem. To characterize the efficiency of fertilizer use an assessment of the balance of nutrients in the agrosystem is required. The removal of trace elements by agricultural crops increases with the use of mineral fertilizers in doses that are optimal for the cultivation of crops in the region. In some cases, the input of heavy metals with technogenic fallout may exceed the removal of metals by plants from the soil. It may cause the accumulation of metals in the system. In uncontaminated background areas, the levels of microelement intake from fertilizers and atmospheric fallout in agrocenoses are comparable.
, Yu. I. Blokhin
One of the main stream of digitalization in agriculture is the introduction of Internet of Things technologies, which is expressed in the creation and use of specialized sensors that are placed in the fields. The placement of such sensors within agricultural plot should make it possible to characterize all the microvariability of soil fertility parameters in the field. That is, their number and spatial location should be optimal, on the one hand, in terms of costs of their acquisition and operation, and, on the other hand, in terms of accuracy of interpolation of data obtained with their help to the entire plot. It has been shown that the use of crop condition maps obtained on the basis of satellite data and the separation based on them of management zones can lead to significant errors in the interpolation of monitoring results, obtained in separate points, on the whole plot. An approach for optimization of sensor placement is proposed based on the use of soil fertility mapping, which is the result of refinement, updating and clarification of traditionally drawn soil maps on the basis of high spatial resolution remote sensing data. The possibilities of using the approach are demonstrated by the example of a test plot in Leningrad region of Russia.
A. L. Ivanov, V. S. Stolbovoy, A. M. Grebennikov
The concepts defining the policy of soil protection and rational use (SPRU) in the European Union (EU) are considered. It is found that the focuses of SPRU have evolved significantly since the early 1990s. Initially the SPRU was not considered separately, it was associated with the protection of other environment components, for example, soil соntamination resulting from air pollution or the disposal of industrial and municipal wastes. In 2006 the stand-alone EU Soil Protection Strategy was established. This document was focused on soil protection against physical degradation (erosion, compaction, sealing, etc.) and on preservation of soil functions. The new Soil Strategy 2030 is based on the provisions of the previous Strategy document and is primarily aimed at improving soil health. Special attention is paid to the conservation of soils as a spatial resource and its efficient use in the system of a circular (closed-loop economy) economy. Looking at the evolution of the EU policy towards the SPRU, it can be concluded that the main development has led to an understanding of the importance of soil health and awareness of the need to conserve soil as multi-target spatial and functional basis for human health, wildlife and climate.
T. A. Vasiliev
The possibility of ranking agro-landscape zones (using computer modeling) according to the risks of potential epizootics and epidemics associated with bio-contamination has been demonstrated. The task of agroecological land assessment cannot be conceptually solved without taking into account all forms of contamination. Bio-contamination of agricultural landscapes, both reversible (weeds) and irreversible (for example, anthrax spores Bacillus anthracis), is considered as a form of permafrost soils degradation. The melting of glaciers and permafrost thawing influenced by global warming determine a number of challenges. In particular, the climatically-driven transformation of the Pleistocene biota leads to the release of greenhouse gases, including methane, which is an order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide in terms of its contribution to the greenhouse effect and significantly increases the threat of accelerating warming. This paper examines the consequences of paleobiotic nature: during “thawing of tundra” pathogenic organisms, that were previously in biospheric isolation, pose a threat. It is noted that some of them retain their vital functions when emerging from cryobiosis. Such organisms are capable of causing soil bio-contamination, both reversible and irreversible, and can cause new outbreaks of repeated epizootics. It is proposed to identify and assess the risk zones of paleo-bio-contamination by the method of geometric stratification. The method allows identification and designation of the risk zones of pathogen infestation in specific geographical regions. This paper presents an assessment of such risk zones for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infection with a highly pathogenic anthrax causative agent (Bacillus anthracis) in relation to the administrative units (regions) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The zoning results obtained in this way not only characterize the existing ecological situation and create the basis for its understanding, but can also serve as a basis for the development of recommendations for competent administrative decision-making on the regulation of further use of the studied landscapes.
N. V. Matveeva, E. Yu. Milanovsky, O. B. Rogova
Published: 25 December 2021
Soil samples and granulodensimetric fractions isolated from them ((silt particle size less than 1 µm, light fraction (LF) with a density of less than 2 g/cm3 and a fraction of the residues) of ordinary chernozem from experimental fields of the Kamennaya Steppe agricultural landscape of the Voronezh region were studied. The main differences between the variants of the experiment are introducing or stopping mineral fertilizers, and in the aftereffect of irrigation (13 years). There is an increase in the content of LF when using mineral fertilizers, as well as a change in the composition of sizedensity fractionations, expressed in different content of C and N and hydrophobic-hydrophilic components of humus substances (HS) of soils, silt and LF. The irrigation had practically no effect on the hydrophobichydrophilic composition of the initial soils, while the relative content of the hydrophilic components of the silt fraction of the soil increased, and the hydrophilic composition of HS LF decreased. The use of mineral fertilizers led to a significant variation in the degree of hydrophilicity of HS in silt and LF with a smaller change of this indicator for the HS of the soil as a whole. The abolition of fertilizers application, on the contrary, affected the hydrophobichydrophilic composition of the soil as a whole, and the composition of the soil silt and LF. The increase in the proportion of hydrophilic components in the composition of soil HS, as well as in the composition of HS silt and LF occurred simultaneously with an increase in the hydrophobicity of the surface of the solid phase of soil and with an increase in the carbon content in the soil, which indicates the stability of the system as a whole. Since the physical fractions of soils reacted more intensively to changes in the agrogenic load, compared with native soil samples, and changes in their qualitative composition were traced in two versions of the experiment, monitoring of hydrophobic-hydrophilic components of soil and soil granulodensimetric fractions is advisable to monitor and diagnose soil changes during agricultural use.
A. Yu. Romanovskaya,
Published: 25 December 2021
Dust is a major component of atmospheric aerosols – 75% of the global aerosol load. Natural and anthropogenic sources are listed, as well as dust research methods. According to different estimates, the average mineral dust load in the atmosphere ranges from 20 to 33 Tg, and the annual dust emission is 1 200–5 900 Tg/year. Reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) inform about the total direct radiative forcing of dust ranging from -0.56 to +0.1 W/m2, with little scientific understanding of the processes leading to this result. The particle size, including soil aerosol, is divided into fine (20 μm) dust. Fine dust cools the global climate due to dispersion of solar radiation, while coarse dust (greater than 5 μm) warms the climate by absorbing solar and thermal radiation. However, the coarse dust (above 20 μm) remains poorly investigated, with very little data on its content and emission. Recent studies suggest that coarse dust (17 Tg), missed by the global models, contributes on average 0.15 W/m2 (0.10 to 0.24 W/m2) to atmospheric heating and also affects the global distribution of clouds and precipitation. In addition, soil dust is characterised by a complex and diverse particle shape and structure, heterogeneous mineralogical and chemical composition; due to its dispersion ability and large surface area dust reacts with other types of aerosols, resulting in the formation of different films on the particle surface or internal mixing. All this significantly changes the optical properties of mineral dust and complicates the development of models for its investigation.
T. I. Borisochkina, B. M. Kogut, Sh. A. Khamatnurov
Published: 25 December 2021
The paper assesses the pollution of soils and grounds of green spaces in Moscow with heavy metals and de-icing agents. The analysis of literature sources indicates a decrease in integral pollution index of soils and grounds of green spaces in the city in recent years. The decrease in the integral pollution index is determined by the reduction of emissions from industrial enterprises and by the land reclamation with the replacement of the upper soil layer. At the same time, an observed increase in the lead concentrations in urban landscapes was caused by intensive automobile traffic. The lack of green territories was noted in central part of the metropolis, which is below the norm recommended by WHO (50 m2 of tree plantations per person). The processes of soil salinization and suppression of urban vegetation caused by the use of de-icing reagents are described. The literature data on the anthropogenic transformation of physical and chemical properties of soils and forms of heavy metal compounds in soils are presented. It is indicated that the study of these issues is promising for solving ecological-hygienic problems of the megalopolis. Soils of green spaces in Moscow are proposed to be divided into three groups, taking into account the genesis, ecological and geochemical state: 1) soils on artificial bulk ground of designed landscapes, 2) transformed soils with traces of past anthropogenic impact (postagrogenic soils, soils of post-settlement territories, 3) soils on the territories of parks, forest parks and forests, slightly affected by human activities and retaining the properties of natural zonal soils.
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