Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin

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ISSN / EISSN : 0136-1694 / 2312-4202
Current Publisher: V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute (10.19047)
Total articles ≅ 190
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N. V. Matveeva, E. Yu. Milanovsky, O. B. Rogova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-49-76

Soil samples and physical size-density fractions isolated from them (silt particle size less than 1 µm, light fraction (LF) with a density of less than 2 g/cm3 and a fraction of the residue) of ordinary chernozem were studied in three contrasting variants of the experimental fields of the Kamennaya Steppe agrolandscape of the Voronezh region: mowed steppe, long-term permanent bare fallow and permanent corn – the main differences of which are in tillage (cultivated and not cultivated lands) and in the supply/absence of plant residues and root secretions. The LF content changes in the series: “mowed steppe” > “permanent corn” > “permanent bare fallow”, which corresponds to the direction of changes in the total carbon content of the soil and a decrease in the value of the contact angle of wetting (CA) of the surface of the solid phase of the studied chernozems. The determination of the total C and N content revealed the change in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the size-density fractions for different land use cases. Chromatographic fractionation of alkaline extractions of humus substances (HS) of chernozem samples and size-density fractions revealed an increase in the degree of hydrophilicity of HS while simultaneously increasing the hydrophobicity of the solid phase surface and the carbon content in the soil. HS of LF of the “mowed steppe” turned out to be by 63% more hydrophilic than HS of LF of “permanent bare fallow” and by 47% more hydrophilic than HS of LF of “permanent corn”. While the hydrophilicity of the HS silt differed by 16 and 27%, respectively. The hydrophilicity of the HS of the original soil in the plot of the “mowed steppe” was by 41% higher than the hydrophilicity of the HS in the soil in the plot of “permanent bare fallow” and by 24% higher than in the soil of the plot of “permanent corn”. In addition, changes in the hydrophilicity of HS of size-density fractions are more intense than the HS of the soil, so the change in the degree of hydrophilicity of HS of size-density fractions is an indicator of soil degradation under different agrogenic pressue.
V. I. Roslikova, L. A. Matyushkina
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-105-129

The article is based on a long-term study of floodplain soils of the Amur River valley within the north-eastern part of the Middle-Amur Lowland. The results of field work on the soil-geomorphological profile across the Slavyansky Island, located 200 km from Khabarovsk down the Amur River, are discussed. The study analyzes the occurrence of the island's floodplain soils on riolkas[1] and their properties, with an emphasis on morphology and lithological and particle-size composition. The features of soil formation on riolkas of different genesis – alluvial and aeolian – are shown. On sandy and sandy-loam deposits of alluvial riolkas (“meadow-forest” ridges) poorly developed sod gley soils are formed. On heavy loam and clay alluvium of the “meadow“ ridges, annually flooded by river waters, sod-meadow gley soils develop under the woodreed grass stand. Sand deposits of high aeolian riolkas are characterized by a homogeneous fine-grained structure without interlayers, signs of organic matter and with a significant amount of mica. They describe poorly developed sod-forest soils under high-trunk oak forests. The formation of texture-differentiated soils on all types of riolkas was not revealed. When the floodplain reaches the position of the first terrace above the floodplain, the differences in the lithological composition and particle-size distribution, soil texture, height above the water edge and the nature of vegetation on the inherited riolkas provide a multidirectional evolution of soil formation. At the same time, the development is taking place in accordance with the zonal types of soils (sod-forest, brown-earth, texture-differentiated – soil with a bleached horizon (podbel)). The last are mainly formed on clay-loam alluvium, which can overlay not only alluvial, but also some aeolian riolkas. [1]Riolkas are ancient, relatively high sand ridges (extended dunes) with plant cover found in Amur region (Russian Far East).
V. I. Savich, V. V. Gukalov, A. E. Sorokin, M. D. Konakh
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-163-175

This paper assesses the relationship between the physico-chemical and agro-chemical properties of sod-podzolic soils in the Moscow region and ordinary heavy-loamy chernozems in the Krasnodar region within the catenas and down the soil profile. Soil properties changed significantly through seasonal dynamics. From the end of April to the middle of June in the soil solution of sod-podzolic soils, the value of Eh varied from 534 to 759 mv, the ratio of NO3/NH4 – from 0.2 to 15.4; the content of water-soluble manganese – from 4.0 to 10.1. At the same time, there was a delay in change of soil properties, as humidity and temperature varied. It is shown that in different intervals of soil properties between individual indicators of fertility, the effects of synergism and antagonism are manifested. The degree of mutual influence of soil properties depended on both the degree of soil fertilization and the degree of their cultivation. Information relationships were manifested not only between the soil properties, but also between the processes. Temporary excessive moistening of the soil led to acidification of the soil in the washing type of water mode, and to alkalinization in the non-washing type. It is proposed to account for the relationship of soil properties with humidity, temperature, pH, and Eh to adjust the components of farming systems.
O. A. Gordienko, E. A. Ivantsova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-77-104

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E. I. Kravchenko, , I. N. Gorokhova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-5-48

The current state of salinity of irrigated soils in the area of the Sarpinskaya hollow in the Caspian lowland has been studied, using the example of the Duboovrazhny irrigated plot in the Volgograd region. At the peak of irrigation in the 85-90s of the last century, forage grasses were cultivated on the plot, irrigation was carried out by sprinkler irrigation, the groundwater level remained satisfactory, and there were no foci of secondary soil salinization. Currently, the plot is a private farm, where melons and vegetables are grown using drip irrigation, the groundwater level remains satisfactory with local formation of temporal water saturated layer. To identify the features of the process of salinization in irrigated soils in the Sarpinskaya hollow based on the materials of the field work performed in 2018–2019, a model of two-dimensional distribution (depth, distance) of the activity of ions (Ca2+, Cl–, Na+) over several profiles along weakly concave low ranges and elongated hollows between them and across relief wave was created. It was revealed that natural soil salinization predominates in the study plot mainly deeper than 1 m, and results from shallow bedding of Khvalynian chocolate clays at ranges. Solonchakous soils occur in elongated hollows between ranges where surface and subsurface runoff water is accumulated and natural drainability is low. Residual traces of soil secondary salinization expressed in the presence of calcium chloride in the soil solution were found. The maximum values of salts and exchangeable sodium are concentrated in the deeper part of the soil profile.
A. Yu. Romanovskaya, K. B. Shumakova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2021-106-130-162

Based on the results of field experiments carried out in the nursery of Michurin garden of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A. Timiryazev, rational irrigation schedules for apple-tree seedlings of different age (1-, 2- and 3-year-old) were developed and scientifically substantiated. Excess water was diverted from the experimental plot by underground drainage system, and the drip irrigation system was used for watering plants. With its characteristic low rate of water usage and highly frequent irrigation applications it allows the moisture content to be maintained within a narrow range. The effectiveness of irrigation schedules was evaluated by the response of seedling – their biometric characteristics, determining the productivity of apple trees in orchard in future, such as average plant height, stem diameter at 20 cm height, leaf surface area, which were measured. The amount of high-quality planting stock was recorded in each variant as well. In order to btain 1-year-old apple seedlings it is recommended to maintain soil moisture within the range of 70–90% of field capacity (FC). This irrigation schedule results in the maximum amount of standard planting stock (1-st and 2-nd category) – 25.9 thousand seedlings per ha, with the average leaf surface area of 1 468 cm2, trunk diameter – 1.8 cm, plant height – 140 cm. For 2- and 3-year-old seedlings the differentiated irrigation schedule was developed, whereby the moisture content and depth of the wetted layer varies as the root system grows. In the first year of growth soil moisture should be maintained within the range of 70–90% FC in 0–30 cm layer because of the poorly developed root system; for 2- and 3-year-old nurslings soil moisture can be reduced to 60–80% FC in 0–40 cm and 0–50 cm layer respectively. The height of 2-year-old seedlings was on average 174 cm, leaf surface area – 3 715 cm2, stem diameter at 20 cm height was 2.3 cm, the amount of standard planting stock was 25 thousand seedlings per ha. The 3-year-old seedlings reached the height of 214 cm, were characterized by leaf surface area of 5 973 cm2, stem diameter at 20 cm of 2.8 cm, the yield of standard seedlings was also 25 thousand seedlings per ha. Moreover, for two variants of irrigation (60–80% FC and 70–90% FC) moisture distribution contours immediately after irrigation, 24 hours after irrigation and before the next irrigation application were designed. The areas of segments with different moisture content in vertical section of contours were calculated, thus, revealing the character of moisture distribution down the soil profile and allowing performance of comparative characteristic of irrigation schedules. The obtained wetting contours indicate the absence of unproductive losses of irrigation water for infiltration into the underlying horizons when the considered drip irrigation schedules were applied.
P. G. Grubina, ,
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2020-105-146-172

Проведен анализ возможности использования результатов тепловой съемки для детектирования параметров плодородия серых лесных и аллювиальных пахотных почв на примере ключевого участка в Тульской области. Совместно с отбором 25 образцов почв из слоя 0–10 см проводилась съемка открытой поверхности почв с использованием тепловизора FLIR VUE 512 и измерение спектральной отражательной способности почв. По результатам корреляционного анализа было установлено, что наиболее тесные связи наблюдаются с такими параметрами плодородия почв: содержание гумуса, азота, обменных магния и калия. Коэффициент корреляции между содержанием гумуса и отражением в видимой и ближней ИК-областях, а также со средним значением показаний тепловизора превышает 0.81. В разных диапазонах видимого спектра корреляция отражения с содержанием обменного магния и калия ниже, чем в тепловой области, где коэффициент корреляции с содержанием обменного магния составляет 0.81, а с содержанием обменного калия – 0.65. Построены степенные регрессионные уравнения для детектирования по отражению в тепловой области спектра таких параметров плодородия почв как содержание гумуса (R2 = 0.74), обменного калия (R2 = 0.68) и обменного магния (R2 = 0.72). Регрессии, полученные с данными тепловизора и с данными отражения в видимом и ближнем ИК-диапазонах, близки по качеству для детектирования содержания гумуса и обменного калия, а для детектирования обменного магния немного выше. Полученные результаты показывают, что тепловая съемка применима для детектирования наиболее значимых параметров плодородия почв тестового поля и может быть использована в качестве основы для их оперативного дистанционного мониторинга.
P. A. Ryazantsev
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2020-105-57-90

The article considers the role of GPR in solving problems of soil science, as well as the accuracy of tracking soil horizons using the example of field data. The study of the current state of the issue has shown that there is significant variability in the electrophysical properties of different types of soil. In this case, the dielectric constant of the soil horizons can both increase and decrease with depth. This fact determines the need for parameterization of the soil profile in GPR studies to prevent errors. Based on a generalizing analysis of practical examples, it has been established that the error in determining individual soil horizons by a GPR is on average 2–10 cm, depending on the frequency of the GPR antenna and the structural features of the soil. Experimental and methodological work to substantiate the main conclusions was carried out to trace the soil horizons by the GPR method using the example of typical entic podzol located on the Zaonezhsky Peninsula (Republic of Karelia), the structure and composition of which were described in detail earlier. The survey was carried out by a georadar OKO-2 (Logis-Geotech, Russia) with an antenna unit with a central frequency of 400 MHz. Fieldwork on the study site was carried out along separate transects, according to the reference soil profile. A detailed analysis of the radargrams provided, first of all, tracking the base of the BC horizon. The results obtained showed that the thickness of the soil within the profile varies from 23 to 32 cm, and the average observation error was ± 3 cm. Besides, the influence on the recording of shungite shale fragments and the differentiation of moisture content in the soil horizons was revealed. The presence of shungite shale leads to the formation of diffracted waves and an increase in the amplitudes of the reflected signal, while an increase in humidity is characterized by a decrease in the velocities of the electromagnetic wave.
O. V. Shopina, , , O. L. Komissarova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2020-105-91-108

На территории Плавского плато (Тульская область), подверженного интенсивному воздействию промышленности (в 40 км находится г. Щекино с заводом по производству азотных удобрений и ТЭЦ, в 60 км – г. Тула с крупными металлургическими предприятиями, в 70 км – г. Новомосковск с несколькими химическими предприятиями и ГРЭС) и сельского хозяйства, исследованы запасы химических элементов в трех агроценозах (пшеницы, сои, козлятниково-кострецовой травосмеси) для оценки интенсивности перехода элементов (K, P, S, Mg, Ca, Si, Na, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Sr, Ti, Mo, As, Zr, Pb, Co, Ni, V, Cr) из агрочерноземов глинисто-иллювиальных в сельскохозяйственные растения. Валовое содержание элементов в почвах определено рентген-флуоресцентным методом. Элементный состав растений (после автоклавного разложения смесью концентрированных азотной кислоты и перекиси водорода) и содержание подвижных форм (извлекаемых ацетатно-аммонийным буфером с рН 4.8) элементов в почве оценено атомно-эмиссионным методом с индуктивно связанной плазмой. Общие запасы элементов в 10-сантиметровом слое почв максимальны для Si (40 ± 4 кг/м2), Al (7.0 ± 0.8 кг/м2) и Fe (3.4 ± 0.3 кг/м2), подвижных форм – для Ca (570 ± 48 г/м2), Mg (43 ± 4 г/м2), K (22 ± 6 г/м2). В растениях основные запасы (г/м2) элементов (K, P, S, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Mo) сконцентрированы в надземной части. Наиболее активно растения поглощают подвижные формы K, P, Ti, Mo, As, Zr, V. На основе ресурсного метода оценки качества почв изученные агрочерноземы характеризуются низким уровнем загрязнения Ni, умеренным запасом подвижных форм K при недостатке подвижного P.
E. B. Varlamov, N. A. Churilin, A. E. Kaganova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2020-105-173-207

На основе детального, сопряженного, качественного и количественного анализа глинистых и кластогенных минералов коркового солонца Заволжья рассчитан профильный состав минералов по содержанию стабильного компонента. При этом принята изначальная минералогическая однородность почвенного профиля, определенная методом стабильного компонента – содержания в профиле калиевого полевого шпата. Показатели плотности почвы к расчетам не привлекали. Профильные расчеты минералов проведены на уровне потерь и прибавок их процентного содержания в генетических горизонтах по отношению к породе, выраженных в кг/100 кг породы. Расчетные значения для глинистых минералов отрицательные в надсолонцовом и положительные в солонцовых горизонтах. Для кластогенных минералов отрицательные расчетные значения установлены в надсолонцовом горизонте, с максимумом убыли в солонцовых горизонтах, и положительные – в аккумулятивно-карбонатных горизонтах. Расчетными значениями минералов и масс силикатной части для почвы установлена глубокая проработанность профиля, которая выявлена по отрицательным значениям массы кластогенных минералов и избыточной массе глинистых минералов в иллювиальной части профиля по отношению к калиевым полевым шпатам. Накопление иллита в поверхностных горизонтах объясняется как процессом иллитизации, так и значительным физическим дроблением слюдистых минералов крупных фракций до размера илистых частиц. Проведенные расчеты профильного распределения кластогенных и глинистых минералов позволили иным способом проанализировать элювиально-иллювиальную дифференциацию минеральной части почвы. Однако наличие литологической неоднородности профиля с определенным искажением влияет и на объемы изменений в минералогии почвы.
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