Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 01361694 / 23124202
Current Publisher: V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute (10.19047)
Total articles ≅ 136
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S. Papaiordanidis, I.Z. Gitas, T. Katagis
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-36-52

Abstract:High-quality soils are an important resource affecting the quality of life of human societies, as well as terrestrial ecosystems in general. Thus, soil erosion and soil loss are a serious issue that should be managed, in order to conserve both artificial and natural ecosystems. Predicting soil erosion has been a challenge for many years. Traditional field measurements are accurate, but they cannot be applied to large areas easily because of their high cost in time and resources. The last decade, satellite remote sensing and predictive models have been widely used by scientists to predict soil erosion in large areas with cost-efficient methods and techniques. One of those techniques is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). RUSLE uses satellite imagery, as well as precipitation and soil data from other sources to predict the soil erosion per hectare in tons, in a given instant of time. Data acquisition for these data-demanding methods has always been a problem, especially for scientists working with large and diverse datasets. Newly emerged online technologies like Google Earth Engine (GEE) have given access to petabytes of data on demand, alongside high processing power to process them. In this paper we investigated seasonal spatiotemporal changes of soil erosion with the use of RUSLE implemented within GEE, for Pindos mountain range in Greece. In addition, we estimated the correlation between the seasonal components of RUSLE (precipitation and vegetation) and mean RUSLE values.
Oxana Plotnikova, Marina Lebedeva, E. B. Varlamov, Yu. D. Nukhimovskaya, E. V. Shuyskaya
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-83-116

Abstract:The aim of the study was to research the relationship of chemical and micromorphological properties of soils with the growth of Kochia prostrata. The objects of study were the soils on natural pastures of the North-Western part of the Caspian lowland. It was laid 4 soil pits (soils – light solonetz, solonetzic chestnut) with the maximum penetration depth of the main mass of roots of the studied plants. K. prostratais a very plastic forage species that can grow on soils with a wide range of morphological properties, different salt content and their chemical composition. It is revealed that on the background of almost the same content of humus and high content of exchangeable magnesium micromorphological features represent the different degree of manifestation of primary pedogenic processes – humus accumulation, leaching of soluble salts, gypsum accumulation, carbonate enrichment, solonetzization. Despite the different content of exchangeable sodium, in all soils there are fresh clay or humus-clay illuvial coatings, indicating the manifestation of the modern eluvial-illuvial redistribution of fine matter (lessivage or illimerization).
N. I. Sanzharova, A. N. Ratnikov, S. V. Fesenko, D. G. Sviridenko
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-117-132

Abstract:The problems of radioactive contamination of biosphere with the 238U in recent years have attracted a large number of experts in various fields of knowledge. Natural radionuclides are an integral part of the biosphere. They are concentrated everywhere: in rocks, in soil, water, air and food. Various types of phosphorus fertilizers and other natural ameliorants used in agriculture are also an additional source of heavy natural radionuclides. The review describes the behaviour and migration of 238U in biosphere, which depend on various factors acting simultaneously. It is noted that the behaviour of 238U in the soil depends on the forms of its presence in it and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The processes of sorption and desorption of 238U by different soil types are significant indicators.
G. V. Akhmetova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-53-82

Abstract:The geochemically conjugate series of soils (Albic Podzol – Albic Podzol Gleyc – Hystosol) formed on an undulating glaciolacustrine plain in the middle taiga of Karelia was investigated. Surveys for redox conditions showed them to vary from oxidizing in automorphic soils to reducing in soils occupying accumulation-favoring locations. The geochemical coefficients descriptive of the features of accumulation and directions of migration in the studied soils were calculated and analyzed. The distribution of silicic acid and a majority of sesquioxides inside the profile of the studied soils is typical of podzols. The podzolic horizons of the soils occupying interstitial positions have a faster outmigration of elements than in automorphic soils, while their Al-Fe-humic horizons accumulate aluminum, iron, titanium and phosphorus. All the soils are deficient in a majority of microelements as compared to their background levels; very low concentrations were determined for nickel, cobalt and manganese. The content of copper and sometimes zinc is at the background level. The distribution of the studied elements across the soil profile follows the accumulation-eluviation-illuviation pattern, but the scope of variation in the migration of elements varies among topographic positions. In well-drained locations microelements are quite monotonously distributed through the lower part of the soil profile, while soils in transitional landscapes have a higher differentiation of microelements. The differentiation of the catena through lateral migration is of the transient eluviation type, i.e. soils in lower-lying positions are poorer in the studied elements than soils in automorphic positions. This pattern is due to the natural characteristics of the area: low surface slope, homogeneous sandy parent material, low humus content in soil.
D. N. Kozlov, A. P. Zhidkin, Nikolay Igorevich Lozbenev
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-5-35

Abstract:В работе представлены оригинальные разработки по применению эрозионной модели WaTEM/SEDEM для крупномасштабного картографирования эрозионных структур почвенного покрова Среднерусской возвышенности. Оценка участия смытых почв в составе почвенных комбинаций распаханных склонов проведена на основе сопоставления расчетных темпов смыва с результатами почвенно-морфологической диагностики степени эродированности черноземов в 859 точках. При заданных входных параметрах эрозионной модели качественные изменения в структуре почвенного покрова (доля слабосмытых почв более 10%) начинаются с порогового значения водной эрозии 8 т·га-1·год-1. При среднегодовой эрозии 30 т·га-1·год-1 доля смытых почв превышает 50%. Полученные отношения между встречаемостью почв эрозионно-аккумулятивного ряда и интенсивностью смыва использованы для построения карты типизированных комбинаций почв разной эродированности. Сравнение с материалами детальной почвенной съемки показало, что карта отражает пространственное разнообразие и конфигурацию эрозионных почвенных комбинаций. Разработанный подход представляется перспективным для решения фундаментальных и прикладных задач, связанных с изучением структурно-функциональной организации почвенного покрова склонов и проектированием противоэрозионных мероприятий в адаптивно-ландшафтном земледелии.
O. V. Kutovaya, A. K. Tkhakakhova, M. V. Semenov, T. I. Chernov, N. A. Ksenofontova, A. D. Zhelezova, R. G. Gadzhiumarov, R. S. Stukalov, E. A. Ivanova, D. A. Nikitin
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-159-189

Abstract:С помощью метода посева на элективные питательные среды оценена численность и активность таксономических (бактерии, актиномицеты, микромицеты) и функциональных (азотфиксаторы, аммонификаторы, денитрификаторы амилолитики, целлюлолитики) групп микроорганизмов в агрочерноземах Ставропольского края под влиянием различных систем обработки почвы – прямого посева (no-till) и вспашки с оборотом пласта (традиционная обработка). Анализы проводили для вариантов с озимой пшеницей, кукурузой, подсолнечником и соей при внесении/отсутствии минеральных удобрений. Традиционная обработка почвы для большинства сельскохозяйственных культур приводит к росту активности аэробных аммонификаторов, целлюлолитиков, денитрификаторов, актиномицетов и микромицетов. Технология no-till, в свою очередь, повышает интенсивность анаэробных целлюлолитиков и азотфиксаторов, аэробных диазотрофов и амилолитиков. Наиболее отзывчивой культурой, под которой увеличивалась биологическая активность практически всех групп микроорганизмов на полях no-till, стала кукуруза, тогда как озимая пшеница повышала численность микроорганизмов при вспашке. Применение минеральных удобрений повышало биологическую активность почвы под подсолнечником при прямом посеве, в то время как при традиционной обработке значения данного параметра увеличивались на фоне отсутствия минеральных удобрений.
A. F. Smetannikov, A. I. Kosolapova, K. N. Korlyakov, D. V. Onosov, D. S. Fomin, V. R. Yamaltdinova, D. G. Shishkov, E. F. Onosova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-133-158

Abstract:В Пермском федеральном исследовательском центре разрабатывается технология получения и применения новых комплексных удобрений пролонгированного действия из глинисто-солевых отходов переработки K-Mg руд после получения калийных удобрений. Основными процессами в технологии являются обогащение отходов и высокотемпературный обжиг концентрата обогащения. В результате формируется продукт, получивший название огарок, имеющий свойства комплексных удобрений пролонгированного действия, мелиоранта и микроудобрения. Проведены лабораторные и полевые опыты по применению огарка в качестве калийного удобрения. Изучаемые культуры – яровая пшеница, ячмень, картофель. Схема опытов включала варианты: контроль (без удобрений), NP – фон; NP + KCl и NP + огарок. Для зерновых культур (пшеница, ячмень) применение огарка на фоне NP повысило урожайность на 1.7–1.9 т/га по отношению к контролю, применение стандартных удобрений NPK – на 1.8–2.0 т/га, разница – в пределах ошибки опыта (НСР05 = 0.21; 0.38 т/га). Содержание азота, фосфора и калия в зерне и соломе обеих культур в вариантах с применением огарка было на уровне варианта с применением стандартного удобрения и достоверно выше по сравнению с контролем. Различия между вариантами с применением огарка были несущественными. Внесение N90P90 и полного минерального удобрения (N90P90K90) способствовало повышению урожайности клубней картофеля на 1.43–4.51 т/га соответственно. Применение удобрений-огарков на фоне NP не уступало по эффективности использованию хлористого калия. Показатели качества урожая картофеля (содержание сухого вещества и крахмала в клубнях, содержание тяжелых металлов) также не уступали...
A. N. Tkachenko, M. N. Kozachuk, O. V. Tkachenko
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-62-75

Abstract:The results of the study of the morphological properties of underwater soils in the deltas of the Volga, Don and Kuban rivers are shown. This paper is based on field descriptions of profiles of underwater soils found in deltas. Genetic horizons have been identified, their basic properties (pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, grain size composition, organic carbon content) have been studied and the main types of soils, which are formed under different types of sedimentation and under different types of aquatic vegetation, have been described. Names of horizons and types of soils are given due to the classification of underwater soils (aquazems) of the Volga delta, that had been proposed previously. The diversity of underwater soils of three deltas has been studied, and the properties of the same soil types formed in different deltas have been compared. The features of underwater soils formation are described; the difference between the factors of underwater and terrestrial soil formation is discussed. It is shown that the number of occurring soil types depends on the diversity of the emerging types of aquatic landscapes and the contrast of the conditions of migration and accumulation of matter. Necessary conditions for the forming of underwater soils and the possibility of relating bottom sediments to soil formations are discussed. Our results are indicative of the need of studying bottom sediments with soil-like profile from the standpoint of soil science and the inclusion of aquazems into the modern Russian soil classification.
K. V. Shishkin, A. A. Belik, A. A. Kokoreva, Z. S. Ezhelev
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-76-91

Abstract:The assessement of PEARL model adequateness was carried out on the basis of temperature and percolate data obtained by means of MSU Large Lysimeters. Lysimeters are used in experimental soil science mostly for investigating water balance and substance or ions transport from observed horizons or full soil profile. PEARL 4 model, the water prediction block of which is built on the basis of classical SWAP model, uses preferential water flow describing mechanism. Systematical observation of experimental soils in MSU Large lysimeters allowed obtaining extensive data on temperature and soil moisture dynamics, as well as percolate from bottom border. Thеsе measurements are unique and can become the basis for adaptation, verification and setting of mass and energy transfer models. It was shown, that mathematical parametric model requires adjustment for reaching reliable values of percolate from bottom border, moisture and temperature profiles. It can be achieved by selection of water retention curve (WTC) approximation parameters. It was noticed that the error for all predicted parameters increases in winter period. Thereby, the use of such matter transfer models in soil are problematic for long-term prognosis. For example, due to the annual error accumulation before the spring season such models cannot be applied for estimation of the risk of ground water pollution with agrochemicals.
O. V. Martynenko, V. N. Karminov, E. S. Yugaj, I. R. Mutygullin, P. V. Ontikov
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-5-20

Abstract:The article deals with the features of soil-agrochemical inspection of the nursery area with the use of geoinformation technologies. The purpose of this work was to conduct a soil survey of arable sod-podzolic medium - or light-loamy soils of the territory of the forest nursery, as well as estimation of production area contamination with weeds. The peculiarity of this study was the fact that the process of collection, systematization and processing of all compiled information was focused on the use of modern geographic information systems. Survey points were chosen in coordination with the administration of the nursery and were precised according to the actual space images. Geographical reference of testing points was carried out using global positioning technologies (GPS, GLONASS) based on the NextGIS mobile application (Android OS). Photofixation of nursery fields was performed by means of geotagging technologies, which allow implementation of the obtained graphic information directly into the geographic information system (GIS). The soil samples collected in the field were analyzed in the soil laboratory in order to determine the main indicators of soil fertility. On the basis of the received data the cartograms were developed by means of GIS, which provide information on the main nutrients content in the soil of nursery fields as well as on the most important indicators characterizing the soil absorbing complex (soil acidity, degree of base saturation, etc.). The study of weed infestation allowed developing the thematic map representing the weeds propagation on the nursery fields. All collected information was combined into a comprehensive geographic information system developed on the basis of Quantum GIS shell. As a result, the developed GIS will contribute to operational monitoring of soil fertility and ensure informational support for agricultural machinery applied in the nursery for growing planting material.