Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie

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ISSN / EISSN : 2222-0836 / 2311-3685
Published by: Tomsk State University (10.17223)
Total articles ≅ 634
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Galina S. Gultyaeva
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 127-138; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/10

Abstract:
Chinese folk painting nianhua (literal translation, “New Year’s picture”) is a kind of Chinese graphic art, which received a wide popularity in the late XIX – early XX centuries. On the eve of the New Year in China everywhere decorated interiors of living rooms with colorful pictures containing New Year’s greetings, they were pasted on windows, doors, gates. Decorative pictures had a utilitarian and cultic purpose: images of mythological characters and gods symbolized happiness, longevity, prosperity, protected from disasters and misfortunes. At the beginning of the 20th century, nianhua was produced in the woodcutting shops in a woodcut way, since the middle of the 20th century have been used modern technologies, including printing. New Year’s paintings significantly different from national academic painting. The philosophical concept of New Year’s painting was to reflect the spiritual life of the people, moral values, and artistic tastes. The images were built on the basis of folklore motifs, a rhythmic combination of bright colors created a decorative effect, so nianhua is a valuable material that demonstrates the aesthetic representations of the Chinese people, their folk traditions and symbols. The themes of the New Year’s paintings are extremely diverse and includes the following: scenes from classical literature, religious and symbolic and benevolent drawings, genre art painting, calendars depicting 12 cyclic signs of animals, agricultural calendars and advertising pictures. During the history of its existence, the New Year’s picture plays an important political and ideological role. Traditional paintings propagated the foundations of the orthodox Confucian ideology about social and ethical relationships, including hierarchy in the family and society: “Wu lun – the five principles of relationships”, “Xiao – filial piety”, “Ren – patience”. In the second half of the XX century, the New Year's picture is developing as an agitational poster. Under the influence of European painting and modern political processes in Chinese society, artists began to use a new artistic method - revolutionary realism on purpose to illuminate sociopolitical events, propagandize government tasks and resolutions. The basic principles of painting the New Year’s picture are the decorative character (the brightness of colors, the rhythmic combination of color spots), the hyperbolism and idealization of images, the folklore basis of plots and the conventional symbolic-metaphoric language.
Ivan S. Karachentsev
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 234-239; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/20

Abstract:
For the first time in the museum literature, the article traces the influence of university charters on the museum business in Russian universities in the XIX – early XX century. Using the original act documents extracted from the “Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire”, the author showed that the charter of 1804 and all subsequent legislative acts provided for the formation of auxiliary educational institutions in universities – offices, assemblies, anatomical theaters. It is particularly stipulated that the charter of 1804 did not use the term “museum”, since it was not widely used in Russia at that time. In the act documents at the beginning of the XIX century, the word “cabinet” was used, which was in some sense a synonym for it and was used in the sense of storage, collection. But the work prescribed by legislative acts on the selection, description and preservation of exhibits, tools, and other objects necessary for teaching, allows us to talk about the birth of museum functions in universities. Starting in 1835, the charters introduced the term “museum”, they expanded the list of educational materials and aids. Taking into account the obvious lack of knowledge on the subject under study, the author gives the entire list of educational and auxiliary institutions listed in the statutes. These are the cabinets: physical, mineralogical, botanical, zoological, technological, and the collection of machines and models for applied mathematics, collections – architectural models, pharmacological, surgical instruments, obstetrical instruments, anatomical theater and collection of exhibits, zootomic theater, and collection of exhibits, as well as the Museum of Fine Arts and Antiquities. The statutes prescribe ways to replenish university collections, including through the unhindered discharge of benefits from abroad. In the university charters and staff schedules attached to the charters, it was mandatory to specify monetary amounts, determine their distribution for the maintenance of offices and museums, as well as the heads and general staff of these university departments. The article emphasizes that the charter of 1863 spelled out in detail the procedure for approving the position of curators of cabinets and museums, and in addition, their pension provision was separately prescribed. The charter of 1884 provides an expanded list of university museums, establishes the number of employees, and addresses issues of museum management. At the end of the article, it is quite appropriate to conclude that the university charters defined the legislative foundations of the museum business in Russian universities of the XIX-early XX century
Elena V. Vodopiyanova, Larisa A. Korobeynikova
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/3

Abstract:
Based on the analysis of official documents of the European Union, and, in particular, introducing the content of the supranational initiative “Creative Europe” for 2021–2027, the article examines the latest trends in the organization of management of Old World culture. It is shown that in the era of formation of the information society, digitalization is becoming a basic tool not only for preserving cultural heritage, but also for promoting modern culture in the region. At the same time, it is established that this digital paradigm is now inseparable not only from the EU's innovation and technology strategies, but also seeks to develop in line with the classical postulates of European values. It is shown that in the modern European information society, digitalization is gradually becoming the main means of broadcasting culture. Thus, it is connected with the cultural system by feedback links, since it is generated by the information society and its determinants, and then it begins to exert almost a determining influence on the nature and pace of cultural dynamics. The study revealed that the digitalization of creativity, accessible to all, is now as fundamental a change as the industrial revolution in the industrial era, and the current Framework programs (including in the field of culture) are aimed at continuing these traditions in the post-industrial era. Most of these initiatives are at least partially implemented in a digital format, when it comes to informing potential participants about them, the application procedure, their subsequent examination and further promotion of the project within the EU and beyond. The author emphasizes that in the current environment, digitalization has a huge impact on how cultural products and processes are created, managed, distributed, consumed and commercialized, changing the values that prevailed in the analog era. It is established that specialists in this field must transform from “analog” to “digital” in order to compete with the culture and creativity available in the networks and at the same time offer digital versions of traditional audiovisual products. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation and expansion of the potential audience of creative industries and cultural heritage is now impossible without innovative formats. And of course, digitalization plays a leading role in them, allowing us to realize the needs primarily in various types of remote cooperation and communication. It is emphasized that this evolution is contradictory: in digital technologies, flexibility is initially programmed. EU directives declaring digitalization, however, are repeatedly agreed at all levels of government, which means that they are objectively late in meeting the needs of time and the aspirations of professionals and consumers in the cultural and creative sphere. However, this contradiction is the key to the progress of modern Creative Europe as a combination of real and virtual activities of Europeans in this area, as well as EU megaproject.
Yuliya А. Kuzovenkova
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/5

Abstract:
The author describes the role of girls in the graffiti community and street art movement. The situation in the United States and in Russia are compared. Russian research results are based on interviews with girls from Samara, Novosibirsk, Gratifying, and Moscow. According to American researchers, the legal and personal dangers and the rebellious nature of writing graffiti are factors that writers conceptualize as male and use as achievements attesting to their masculinity. The purposeful exclusion of female writers is thus essential to the development of a (male) writer's identity. There were just a few women who penetrate the subculture during the 1980s, and they did with some difficulty. The women are typically characterized by male writers as “slutty”. Still, this fact has not deterred female writers but it has affected their numbers and the recognition (or lack thereof) of their work. Beginning with the pioneering work of NYC female writers, women's presence in the male-dominated world of graffiti has greatly expanded to our days. Today's female writers approach their writing from two opposite angles. Some take advantage of the anonymity of writing to disguise their sex or at least not call attention to it, while others are keen to make their work, through subject matter, colour, and style, appear blatantly feminine. In the Russian graffiti subculture, as well as in the American one, there is a gender asymmetry. This is due to the fact that the ideology, values and norms of behavior of this subculture are pronounced masculine in character. Ideology promotes the illegal nature of the activities of graffiti artists which is associated with a high level of danger. Therefore, girls rarely go in this area. In most cases, girls begin to draw graffiti, if their boyfriend is also engaged. They become a mentor and guarantor of security for girls. But girls rarely see graffiti as a way of self-realization. Graffiti for them is a way to expand the range of common interests with their boyfriends. Thus, graffiti for girls often has value not in itself, but as a tool that helps to build relationships with boys. Graffiti attracts girls who have a tendency to creative activity. The opportunity to creatively realize themselves attracts girls to street art: they use it as a means of professional self-realization, as in this art practical artistic abilities are valued, not the physical abilities and danger. Girls choose style in accordance to their aims. The mood inside the graffiti community doesn't affect it. There are no specific female roles in the subculture. Femininity in graffiti is seen as a weakened variant of masculinity.
Michael A. Kornienko
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 48-58; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/4

Abstract:
The author analyzes the prerequisites for the formation of a theological and philosophical school, founded in 990 by Bishop Fulbert in Chartres, which flourished during the years of the Episcopal ministry of Yves of Chartres (1090–1115), a recognized intellectual center of Western Europe. The role of the Chartres Cathedral School as a citadel of metaphysical, cosmological and natural-scientific Platonism in the era of early scholasticism is revealed. The philosophical orientation of the Chartres school (orientation to the ideas of Neoplatonism), as shown in the work, is the result of a combination of the ideas of Plato, aristotelism, stoicism, pythagoreanism, Eastern and Christian mysticism and religion. The body of ideas characteristic of the Neoplatonism tradition is analyzed, the account of which is essential in understanding the specifics of the Chartres school ideological platform: the ideas of a mystically intuitive knowledge of the higher, the stages of transition from “one and the universal” to matter, the idea of comprehension of pure spirituality. The thesis is substantiated that the time of the highest prosperity of the Chartres school, its highest fame is the XII century, which went down in the history of civilization as the era of the cultural renaissance taking place in France. The specificity of the 12th century renaissance, as shown in the study, lies in the growing interest in Greek philosophy and Roman classics (this also determines the other name of the era – the Roman Renaissance), in expanding the field of knowledge through the assimilation of Western European science and the philosophy of the ancient Greeks. The thesis in which the specifics of the entry of Greek science into the culture of Western Europe is also identified. This entry was carried out through the culture of the Muslim world, which also determined the specifics of the cultural renaissance of France of the XII century. Radical changes are revealed that affect the sphere of education and, above all, religious education; the idea of reaching the priority positions of philosophy and logic is substantiated – a situation that has survived until the end of the Middle Ages. This situation, as shown in the work, was facilitated by the rare growth rate of the translation centers of Constantinople, Palermo, Toledo. It is shown that scholasticism in its early version is oriented towards religious orthodoxy. In the teaching of philosophy, the vector turned out to be biased towards natural philosophy, which was due, as shown in the work, to the spread of the ideas of Aristotle and Plato. In its educational program, the school synthesized the teachings of Plato and Aristotle. Elements of natural philosophy are inherent in the works of Bernard of Chartres, Gilbert of Poitiers, Thierry of Chartres representing the Chartres school. Deep studies on the problem of universals ensured the invasion of logic in the field of metaphysical constructions of the Chartres school.
Darya D. Rodionova, Pavel I. Balabanov
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 265-271; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/23

Abstract:
On the basis of publications of recent years, the authors identify a number of discussed problems related to the theory and practice of museum affairs. The article attempts to describe the delegation of such characteristics to the museum space as metric and topological, substantiates their use at the present stage of museum development. The authors come to the conclusion that in the axiological aspect, the topology of the museum space represents fundamental properties, and the metric represents the applied nature of the science of museology. The museum space in the aspect of museology, by analogy with its interpretation in philosophy and science, can be delegated such characteristics as metric and topological. Topological characteristics include “contact” and “limitation” of objects, the order of their arrangement, interpretation of the boundary of space, its discreteness and continuity, the number of dimensions, symmetry, etc. The topological properties of space are its qualitative characteristics. They are primary and are determined in relation to metric – quantitative: by the distance between places, the length of objects, their shape, etc. This article does not raise a question from the sphere of philosophy and natural science. In our case, the idea of space acts as a methodological research tool. In museology, such properties appear as a principle, which has already been declared above by the application of the analogy procedure, i.e. focusing on the similarity of objects and processes in any properties of real space and museum. The analogy is plausible, its confirmation by museum practice provides an experience that replenishes the body of knowledge in the body of museology. The authors refer to the topological properties of the museum space as an analogy of the real is its multidimensionality – an analogue of three dimensions. And the multidimensionality of the museum space includes the following aspects: philosophical (ideological), social (sociological), sociocultural (aspect of continuity), semantic-symbolic, historical, etc. The identified aspects of the museum space – topological and metric – based on the method of analogy at the same time indicate the continuity of the topological and metric properties of the museum space and their unity. But this is not a unity of two equal values. The primary role in it belongs to topology, since topology captures qualitative and defining properties, and the metric has a phenomenological character, which allows you to perceive, describe, interpret the nature of the museum area. From the point of view of axiology, the topology of the museum space represents the fundamental properties, and the metric represents its applied nature. The authors are convinced that a museum specialist of a new generation is needed to reveal the full content of the museum space. This specialist can be obtained when creating integrative joint programs, universities providing training for museologists and established scientific schools.
Ilya N. Zuev, Igor L. Musukhranov, Ekaterina G. Romanova
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 225-233; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/19

Abstract:
The development of Altai dance is closely related to the history of the Altai people. Modern Altai people, like other Turkic peoples of Southern Siberia, have not preserved traditional dances in the form in which they were performed in everyday life. The reason for this was that the art of dance has a spatially – temporal character and it is difficult to record it. It is necessary in the analysis of folk dance to use the instrumentation of all fields of art science, to apply a systemic and interdisciplinary approach. It is in this that the authors see a further research horizon. In modern conditions, when the self-consciousness of each people increases, choreographic art, as part of the spiritual culture of the people, responds to all the events of life. The relevance of this study is due to the modern trend of the revival of the national and cultural heritage of the Altai Republic. One of the pressing problems of modern choreography, its theoretical understanding, is the study of the origins of folk stage dance. The fact that lacunae exist in this area of historical and cultural knowledge is evidenced by the lack of textbooks, incomplete complexes of educational and methodological literature. Choreographers, both in the educational process and in staging practice, are faced with the need for a clear theoretical design, the development of a scientific apparatus in this matter. In folk dance, closely connected with the life and life of the people, the peculiarities of its character, feelings, temperament, manner of artistic thinking are especially pronounced, that is, a kind of “choreographic portrait of the nation” is created. Folk dance, plastically expresses ethnic historical experience, is a kind of artistic embodiment of the historical memory of the nation, and thus affects the strengthening of national identity. The importance of the theoretical understanding of folklore in the development of choreography (as in musical or decorative art) is difficult to overestimate. He is a source of ideas, expressive means, often becomes an aesthetic standard in the creative activities of the modern choreographer. The national identity of the dance culture of the people is connected with the stable historical community of language, territory, economic life, psychological warehouse, culture of life, customs and traditions. National art bears both the originality of what it reflects and how it reflects. All this is reflected in folk dance, affects the nature of plastic. From here, the dances of one people are not similar to those of another, and even one ethnic group, divided geographically, dances differ. For example, Russian folk dance has common features characteristic of Russian dance in general, but at the same time it also has bright regional features. Dance culture in geographically distant territories varies in character, manner of performance, and originality of drawing, and subject matter. The main difficulty in studying this issue is the difficulty of “translating” the plastic language into speech discourse. Hence the difficulty in fixing and writing the description of choreography. There may be discrepancies and misinterpretations of the records of researchers of the past due to the lack of an agreed methodology and categorical apparatus.
Daria A. Edakina, Eduard I. Chernyak
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 215-224; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/18

Abstract:
This article is dedicated to the urgency topic of preservation and study of cultural heritage. Because of the limitlessness of the cultural heritage area, the authors took the opportunity to structure the cultural space. They singled out the complex of architecture and urban planning and defined it as an architectural heritage. The named complex includes buildings and structures that incorporate the high construction and artistic skills of their creators and form the surrounding inhabited space. Using the scientific works of N.M. Karamzin, D.S. Likhachev and other investigators, some written and visual sources, the authors of the article reveal the features of the architectural appearance of such medieval cities as Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda. It must be note that the close relationship between urban practices and the natural environment as the most important characteristic of architectural heritage is defined. So reviewing historical materials about the ancient Novgorod, academician D.S. Likhachev wrote that unforgettable image of the developed, inhabited country was created. It is important to note that the article contains materials about the death and destruction of architectural monuments, which required their protection. An overview of the monument protection activity in Russia made known that the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society, established in 1846, was pioneered in it. It is noted that the Moscow Archaeological Society achieved the greatest success in the protection and restoration of monuments of church and civil architecture in the middle of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Its creators and leaders, spouses A.S. and P.S. Uvarov, had the right to permit or prohibit the restoration and conversion of ancient structures in many cities of the country, and they used this right actively. The events of the 1917 Revolution changed the situation in the architectural heritage area. Identification and protection of architectural monuments was transferred to the state structures. A department for museums and protection of art and antiquities was established as part of the National Education Commissariat (Narcomat of Education). Units of this department formed around the country were called as committees for museums and protection of monuments of art and antiquities. The article reports on the results of the identification and preservation of architectural monuments in Siberian cities Tomsk and Kuznetsk. It is known that in the 1930s many church monuments and civil structures were destroyed in Russia. Still in 1940–1990s the monument protection activity received serious legislative support from the state power. So facts and their interpretation taken together allow the authors to talk about architectural heritage as a phenomenon of Russian history, requiring study and preservation.
Irina A. Kuklinova
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 240-247; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/21

Abstract:
This paper discusses the history of the use and specific understanding of one of the new museology terms – mediation. The terms of museology as an academic and university discipline still need perfecting, and this is vividly manifested in the use and treatment of the notion of mediation. The term originated in the French-speaking world, and it entered the Russian language in the 2010s. Currently, it is being developed by theoreticians and is also often used by practical workers describing the experience of a museum’s interaction with the surrounding world, there is training in this field for a master’s degree in many higher educational establishments in France (over 1,000 graduates every year). It has been noted that mediation is becoming urgent when a museum finally stops being an “ivory tower” focused on its inner life and opened for an exclusive circle of the initiated. In the second half of the 20th century, the museum turned into an institution opened to the general public. In recent decades, society has been deeply transformed, and cultural institutions in this environment can and should play a special role. Society views them as significant public spaces capable of being a place supporting a certain number of values, inherited from previous generations, and establishing new common values. At the same time, changes in society have touched museums as cultural institutions. They were significantly updated, and a new communicative strategy determined by the term mediation replaced traditional forms of working with visitors. Interactions of the museum with society are becoming more socially focused. And the original understanding of a mediator’s importance as an arbitrator dealing with irreconcilable conflicts, harmonizing the dialogue between individuals and organizations plays an important role in this environment in comprehending the special features of intermediary functions traditional for museums in the context of museum items, individual visitors, and various communities. Various forms of cultural mediation both inside the museum and beyond it are reviewed. They are intended for big audiences and single functions if they are such popular parts of events in modern society. Or they are focused on the long-term interaction of a museum with a limited circle. They can be both the traditional for a museum’s educational services audience (e.g. children) and previously marginalized population groups (convicts, migrants), with whom the museum had had no dialogue in the past.
Daniil O. Ryabchenko
Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.17223/22220836/41/6

Abstract:
The article analyzes the process of formation of Class X, a new class called creative. It is shown that the need to form a creative class and a creative economy is due to the creative limits of the organizational era. Creativity is becoming a driving force. Knowledge has been declared a tool and working material of creativity; innovation has been turned into a product of creativity, acquiring various forms, such as a new technology, a new model of social relations, new forms of scientific and artistic practice. Referring to the Theory of Class X, set forth by P. Russell, the author explores the features that determine belonging to the Class X, highlighting among the indicators of these features the talent index, the creativity index, and the new creative ethos. As shown in the study, the economic function of the creative class determines the social and cultural decisions of creative professionals and their way of life. It is shown that the creative class consists of those who produce economic values in the processes of creative activity. The composition of the creative class is diverse, but the principle of unification of the Class X is its real role in the economy. In this case, the economic function, as stated in the article, plays the role of the foundation on which the identity of the representatives of the creative class is built. The author notes that the ability of representatives of Group X to refuse to interpret the designated group as a single and integral one is a specific property of the creative class, although the platform connecting the creative class is determined by tastes, interests, and preferences. This idea underlies the statement about the value system corresponding to the creative class. In comparison with the traditional one, it has undergone a radical transformation, including as the dominant values those of them on which the creative identity of Class X is based – the values of the system of an economy of abundance and economic stability (“the post-scarcity era”). Among them are the values of the way of life, which is defined by analysts as a transit from the values of survival to the values of “selfexpression” (the priority range of value preferences includes the categories “quality of life”, “standard of living”, “lifestyle”). The system of designated values (“post-materialistic values”) is classified in the article on grounds such as individual originality, personal abilities and merit, any manifestations of diversity (individuality, meritocracy, diversity and openness).
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