World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-5329 / 2164-5337
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 640
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Sylvain Chanseaume, Mazou Ngou Temgoua, Lise Camus, Enver Hilic, Thierry Comte, Aline Billebault, Nouhoun Diallo, Assi Sami, Gislain Beyina, Joel Noutakdie Tochie
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 45-51; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.111006

Abstract:
Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently considered as a benign disorder. We present an atypical form with cardiogenic shock that was managed by interventional cardiology measures. Case presentation: A 58 years old female patient with a past history of hypertension, obesity and multiple sclerosis was admitted at the Hospital Center of Montlucon for septic shock of urinary origin. During hospitalization in intensive care unit, the patient presented a markedly increasing of troponin levels with a diffused ST-segment elevation. Transthoracic Echocardiography showed an altered left ventricular ejection fraction at 35% with hypokinesia of apex and lateral ventricular segments in conjunction with compensatory hyperkinesis of the base; these findings were strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Despite concomitant anemia, renal failure and sepsis, all adequately treated with complete remission, the patient developed frequent episodes of ventricular tachycardia that prompted an emergency coronarography. During this procedure, the patient presented a cardiogenic shock and bradyasystole that were successfully managed by intra-aortic balloon pumping and temporary transvenous pacing. Finally, there were no coronary lesions and ventriculography confirmed a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Given the unstable hemodynamic status of this patient, she was addressed to the University Teaching Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand for more specialized care. Conclusion: This case alerts the physician to be more vigilant when managing all patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, because some cases could be fatal. In severe cases, intra-aortic balloon pumping and temporary epicardial pacing can be life-saving.
Francisco J. González-Ruiz, Emmanuel A. Lazcano-Díaz, Zuilma Y. Vásquez-Ortiz, Fernanda Bernal-Ceballos, Rodrigo Gopar-Nieto, Consuelo Orihuela-Sandoval, José P. Hernández-Reyes, Edgar García-Cruz, Eduardo Bucio-Reta, Ángel Ramos-Enríquez, et al.
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 113-125; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.112013

Abstract:
Background: Cardiac involvement and the consequences of inflammation induced by SARS-CoV2 infection could have catastrophic long-term consequences. Left ventricular mechanics could identify a specific pattern of myocardial fiber damage in patients infected with COVID-19. To our knowledge there are no publications referring to the global description of ventricular mechanics in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To describe left ventricular mechanics in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 40 hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnostic of COVID-19, from April 11, 2020, to September 6, 2020. Demographic and laboratory data, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were collected, as well as events during hospitalization. Left ventricular deformation was analyzed and reported. Results: Subclinical dysfunction was observed in 82.5% (left ventricular longitudinal strain [LVGLS] -17.05% and global circumferential strain [GCS] -18.6%) of the patients, likewise, the mean twist and apical rotation were preserved, and even increased as part of the compensating mechanism to maintain the ejection fraction. Conclusion: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite having a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, subclinical myocardial damage was found, manifested by a decrease in Global Longitudinal Strain (GLS) and Global Circumferential Strain (GCS). This behavior is similar to that of cardiomyopathies in the early stage of the disease, and given the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease, its long-term consequences should be monitored and evaluated.
Liliane Mfeukeu Kuaté, Mazou Ngou Temgoua, Hamadou Ba, Chris Nadège Nganou, Doriane Mbono, Bidias Ndongo, Joel Nouktadie Tochie, Eugene Sobngwi
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 126-134; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.112014

Abstract:
Background: In-hospital mortality is high in low-income countries. Currently, little is known in Cameroon concerning the characteristics of patients who die in cardiology units. Our objectives were to determine the in-hospital mortality rate; describe the general characteristics of death patients, and factors associated with mortality. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study by reviewing the medical records of all patients admitted to the cardiology unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital (CHY) between January 2018 andJanuary 2019. The files of all death patients were studied for socio-demographical, clinical and therapeutical variables. Bivariate analysis was conducted to order to check the association between independents variables and time of death. A p-value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total number of 860 patients were admitted in the cardiology unit of CHY during the study period. Amongst the 860 patients admitted 78 had a fatal outcome, hence, an in-hospital mortality rate of 9.06%. The male gender was predominant amongst the deceased patients (n = 45). The mean age at death was 69 ± 15.19 years. The median time before death was 6 days and they ranged between 1 to 25 days. Hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (65.4%). Stroke was the principal cause of admission (40.3%), whereas the main presenting complaint was dyspnea (26.9%). Before being admitted to the cardiology department, the majority of the deceased patients were from the emergency department. The major clinical sign of death was respiratory distress (39.74%). Shock on admission was the sole factor found to be associated with the mean time of death (p = 0.012). The patients with deep venous thrombosis compared to other diagnoses were less like to die early (r = 16, p = 0.016). Conclusion: The patient admitted in the cardiology unit of Yaoundé Central Hospital died mainly from stroke and the death is earlier when the patient has signs of shock on admission. These results emphasize the need for a good primary evaluation at the emergency room, to better manage patients with cardiovascular diseases in the cardiology ward.
Jinguo Zhu, Hongbo Hu
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 58-68; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.111008

Abstract:
Background: Type B aortic intramural hematoma (IMH-B) is recognized as a subset of aortic dissection. The evolution of uncomplicated IMH-B is very difficult to predict. How and when to deal with this disease is unclear. The present study constructed two models to explore this problem. One is the morphology evolution model, which explored the risk factors and predictors for the IMH-B patients. Another is the predictive model confirmed the predictors and the time for invasive treatment of uncomplicated IMH-B patients. Objective: To explore the evolution predictors and detect the time for invasive treatment of uncomplicated IMH-B patients. Methods: Themorphology evolution model demonstrated that all 81 patients were diagnosis with CTA images. The initial and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. The evolution data were collection and measurement from initial and follow-up CTA images data. The predictive model showed that predictors of progression were detected with cox regression analysis. Results: All 81IMH-B patients were followed-up ranged from 1.2 to 36 months (median, 22 months). 26 patients accepted invasive treatment (24 underwent TEVAR and 2 underwent Surgery). 55 patients received medical treatment. Invasive treatment (IT) group overall events are 1/26 (3.8%); medical treatment (MT) group overall events are 33/55 (60.0%); IT group vs. MT group: p . Moreover, we found that most events related aorta occurred within 30 days. Multivariate Cox regression analysis MDAD (hazard ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.25- 5.78; p - 7.84; p - 5.63; p Conclusions: MDAD > 45 mm, MDAHT > 10 mm, and IMH with PAU may be the important predictors for uncomplicated IMH-B patients. Most adverse aorta related events occurred within 30 days. It would be careful follow-up, closely observe for these patients within 30 days, and take necessary treatment strategies in time.
Özge Çetinarslan, Arda Payas, Ibrahim Taskin Rakici
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 52-57; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.111007

Abstract:
A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare malformation which affects approximately 0.3% - 0.5% of the population and it is presented along with a right-sided superior vena cava in 82.2% of the cases reported [1]. Clinicians diagnose it incidentally by difficulties with pacemaker implantation, central venous catheterization or screening for another etiologies when it is not accompanied by other anomalies it is typically asymptomatic. W. Schummer et al. described the embryogenesis and the anatomic variations of persistent LSVC according to the positioning of a central venous catheter on the chest radiograph: type I, normal; type II, only PLSVC; type IIIa, right and left superior vena cava with connection; type IIIb, right and left superior vena cava without connection [2]. In 92% of individuals with PLSVC, the PLSVC drains into a dilated coronary sinus (CS) and rest 8% drain directly into the left atrium. PLSVC is caused by a failure in the closure of the left anterior cardinal vein during embryogenic development [3]. The coronary sinus (CS) is a vein that transmits venous blood to the right atrium though atrioventricular groove. The CS wall contains atrial myocardium. Thus, its size extensively depends on variability of blood flow and pressure. We present a variant PLSVC with unknown prevalence and a mild platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome after recovery of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Wael Ali Khalil, Mohamed Abdou Abdelhamed, Ahmed S. Eldamanhory
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 82-97; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.111010

Abstract:
Background: Terminal QRS distortion and fragmentation (fQRS) with elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) were linked to poor cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to investigate these parameters in early prediction of coronary artery disease severity based on SYNTAX score and in-hospital adverse events in STEMI patients. Methods: A total of 215 patients with first STEMI admitted for primary PCI were included in the study. They were divided according to the admission ECG into group I with QRS distortion or fQRS, group II with combined QRS distortion and fQRS, and group III without QRS distortion or fQRS. Myeloperoxidase and troponin I levels, ST resolution ratio, left ventricular EF%, and severity of coronary artery lesions using SYNTAX risk score were measured. Results: MPO level, SYNTAX score, and in-hospital mortality were higher in group I and II and were higher in group II compared to group I. By regression analysis, QRS distortion, fQRS, and MPO > 412 ng/ml were independent predictors of both CAD severity and in-hospital mortality. DM was an independent predictor of CAD severity (OR: 2.851, P 0.012) while high SYNTAX score was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR: 6.113, P 0.001). Adding MPO level to any QRS configuration pattern increased predictive value for the detection of CAD severity that was more evident in the combined QRS distortion and fragmentation. Conclusion: Terminal QRS distortion, fragmentation, or combined QRS distortion and fragmentation have a significant value in predicting in-hospital adverse events and CAD severity as assessed by SYNTAX score in association with plasma myeloperoxidase level in STEMI patients. Combined QRS distortion and fragmentation, in spite less common, could be more helpful for early risk stratification and management.
Hongxia Song, Jianhong Qiao, Yunfeng Li, Mei Han
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 153-166; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.113017

Abstract:
Background: Patients waiting for heart transplantation (HT) have complex physiological and psychosocial problems. Factors such as psychological state, behavior, social relationships, and cultural background of patients influence the HT process, such as causing psychotic disorder, difficult decision and close dependence. Care during the waiting period needs to be aimed at not only treating the symptoms but also the specific status. Purpose: To describe the physical and psychosocial experiences of the patients waiting for HT in one general hospital in the northern part of China. Methods: A qualitative approach was used in this study. Fifteen patients waiting for HT were selected based on purposive sampling, and semi-structured interviews were carried out. Results: In the analysis process, reported experiences of the participants were categorized into five main themes as follows: 1) feeling the impact; 2) uncertainty about the future; 3) difficult to make decisions; 4) negative emotions and 5) request support. Conclusion: This study provides an in-depth description of patients waiting for HT who haveexperienced many physical, psychosocial, and familial problems due to disease and their cultural background. It found that Chinese patients have some special experiences due to their psychosocial background. This study suggests that nurses should focus on not only physical but also psychosocial problems of these patients, and provide understandings to develop more effective strategies to solve their problems. Relevance to Clinical Practice: This study focused on the special patients who are waiting for heart transplantation, and got the special results about the feelings and experiences. The results can help the doctors and nurses to help the patients pass the special period smoothly.
Amr Kamal, Soha Nazmy, Mostafa Nawar, Mahmoud Hassanein
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 305-318; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.116030

Abstract:
Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) results in improved morbidity, mortality, symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and exercise capacity, in appropriate chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Moreover, combined exercise training (ET) and CRT maximize these improvements in these patients. The study evaluated the effect of ET on these patients in terms of QOL, functional class, exercise capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results: There were significant improvements in the QOL, functional class, exercise capacity, and LVEF compared with the Control Group. Comparison of both groups confirmed the cumulative effects of ET with CRT. The QOL improved by the end of training in the exercise group (p = 0.001), compared to the Control Group (p = 0.850). NYHA functional class improved significantly in the Exercise Group (p = 0.013). Percent-predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) had significantly improved in the trained (p 0.001) versus the untrained CRT Group (p= 0.596). There was a mean percent rise of the ejection fraction from 39.2 ± 12.86 to 44.40% ± 14.42% in the Exercise Group compared to a non-significant change in the Control Group. Conclusion: ET in resynchronized CHF patients is feasible and further enhances QOL and exercise tolerance in addition to the improvements seen after CRT. The study therefore recommends for the prescription of ET after implantation in order to maximize the expected benefit.
Mara Escudero-Salamanca, Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 342-346; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.117033

Abstract:
Background: Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) are caused by a lack of development in atrioventricular endocardial cushions. Its spectrum varies from partial to transitional, or intermediate forms with a common AV valve and 2 orifices, or even the complete form. Aim: The aim of this study is to present a case of a woman in the fifth decade of life with Down syndrome and a transitional AVSD, diagnosed with echocardiography. Case presentation: This is a patient in the fifth decade of life with Down syndrome, transitional AVSD, and severe pulmonary hypertension. Her vital signs were normal, oxygen saturation of 89% on room air. Auscultation revealed pronounced pulmonary component of the second heart sound, diastolic murmur in se- cond left intercostal space, and moderate holosystolic heart murmur that radiated to axilla. The diagnosis was made with a transthoracic echocardiogram. The patient is receiving only medical treatment and since her last consult she has New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the natural history of a patient in her fifth decade of life with down syndrome and complex congenital heart disease, despite having received only medical treatment, she is in functional class II. Echocardiography is the noninvasive technique of choice in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with congenital heart diseases, as seen in this case.
Mariam Sako, Massama Konaté, Boubacar Sonfo, Samba Sidibé, Nouhoum Diallo, Fatoumata Diarra, Mamadou Diakité, Coumba Adiaratou Thiam, AsmaO Keita, Ibrahima Sangaré, et al.
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 11, pp 20-24; doi:10.4236/wjcd.2021.111003

Abstract:
Objective: The work aimed to describe the etiological and evolutionary aspects of cardiogenic shock in the intensive care unit of the cardiology department (USIC) of the G-spot hospital in Bamako, Mali. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from January 1, 2018 to April 30, 2019 that included all patients admitted to the USIC during this period. Each patient benefited from individual data support with systematic recording of socio-demographic, clinical, complementary and therapeutic data and analyzed with the SOFTWARE SPSS 20.0 French version. Results: The study involved 40 patients out of 311 patients hospitalized in USIC, representing a hospital frequency of 12.86%. Males were the most affected (60%) with a sex ratio of 1.50. The modal class was 41 - 60 years with extremes at 18 years and 89 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were dominated by HTA (27.50%), diabetes and tobacco, each with 22.50%. The general signs were tachycardia (90%), oxygen desaturation (77.50%), impregnable blood pressure (62.50%), agitation (52.50%) and an oliguria (70%). At the electrocardiogram the rhythm was sinus (80%), it was an atrial fibrillation (15%), a ventricular tachycardia (10%) and signs of coronary ischemia (necrosis in 35% and ST over shifted in 20% of cases). At cardiac doppler ultrasound,the left ventricle was dilated (50%), the right cavities dilated (30%), segmental kinetic disorder (40%), the left ventricular systolic function (FEVG) impaired (75%) and valve disease (10%). Biology noted hyper-creatinemia (65%), hyper-glycemia (12.50%), anemia and hyponatremia with 20% frequency each. Among etiology, ischemic heart disease accounted for 57.50% followed by pulmonary embolism 20%, dilated valve cardiomyopathy 7.50% and chronic pulmonary heart 2.50%. The trend in the majority of cases was unfavorable with 60% of deaths. Chronic pulmonary heart and pulmonary embolism were the deadliest with a frequency of 100% and 87.50% respectively. Conclusion: Cardiogenic shock is an infrequent condition with a high mortality of a prognosis. Ischemic heart disease is the most common etiology of the disease.
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