Processes

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EISSN : 2227-9717
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 2,819
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Yue Zhang, Sigrid Kusch-Brandt, Sonia Heaven, Charles Banks
Published: 26 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111351

Abstract:
The effect of pasteurisation and co-pasteurisation on biochemical methane potential values in anaerobic digestion (AD) was studied. Pasteurisation prior to digestion in a biogas plant is a common hygienisation method for organic materials which contain or have been in contact with animal by-products. Tests were carried out on food waste, slaughterhouse waste, animal blood, cattle slurry, potato waste, card packaging and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW); pasteurisation at 70 °C for 1 h was applied. Pasteurisation had increased the methane yields of blood (+15%) and potato waste (+12%) only, which both had a low content of structural carbohydrates (hemi-cellulose and cellulose) but a particularly high content of either non-structural carbohydrates such as starch (potato waste) or proteins (blood). With food waste, card packaging and cattle slurry, pasteurisation had no observable impact on the methane yield. Slaughterhouse waste and OFMSW yielded less methane after pasteurisation in the experiments (but statistical significance of the difference between pasteurised and unpasteurised slaughterhouse waste or OFMSW was not confirmed in this work). It is concluded that pasteurisation can positively impact the methane yield of some specific substrates, such as potato waste, where heat-treatment may induce gelatinisation with release of the starch molecules. For most substrates, however, pasteurisation at 70 °C is unlikely to increase the methane yield. It is unlikely to improve biodegradability of lignified materials, and it may reduce the methane yield from substrates which contain high contents of volatile components. Furthermore, in this experimental study, the obtained methane yield was unaffected by whether the substrates were pasteurised individually and then co-digested or co-pasteurised as a mixture before batch digestion.
Luka A. Živković, Tanja Vidaković-Koch, Menka Petkovska
Published: 26 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111354

Abstract:
The Nonlinear Frequency Response (NFR) method is a useful Process Systems Engineering tool for developing experimental techniques and periodic processes that exploit the system nonlinearity. The basic and most time-consuming step of the NFR method is the derivation of frequency response functions (FRFs). The computer-aided Nonlinear Frequency Response (cNFR) method, presented in this work, uses a software application for automatic derivation of the FRFs, thus making the NFR analysis much simpler, even for systems with complex dynamics. The cNFR application uses an Excel user-friendly interface for defining the model equations and variables, and MATLAB code which performs analytical derivations. As a result, the cNFR application generates MATLAB files containing the derived FRFs in a symbolic and algebraic vector form. In this paper, the software is explained in detail and illustrated through: (1) analysis of periodic operation of an isothermal continuous stirred-tank reactor with a simple reaction mechanism, and (2) experimental identification of electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction.
Ikenna H. Ezenwajiaku, Emmanuel Samuel, Robin A. Hutchinson
Published: 26 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111352

Abstract:
The radical homopolymerization kinetics of 3-(methacryloylaminopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC) and its batch copolymerization with nonionized acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solution are investigated and modeled. The drift in monomer composition is measured during copolymerization by in situ NMR over a range of initial AA molar fractions and monomer weight fractions up to 0.35 at 50 °C. The copolymer becomes enriched in MAPTAC for monomer mixtures containing up to 60 mol% MAPTAC, but is enriched in AA for MAPTAC-rich mixtures; this azeotropic behavior is dependent on initial monomer content, as electrostatic interactions from the cationic charges influence the system reactivity ratios. Models for MAPTAC homopolymerization and AA-MAPTAC copolymerization are developed to represent the rates of monomer conversion and comonomer composition drifts over the complete range of experimental conditions.
Jaeyoung Han, Sangseok Yu, Jinwon Yun
Published: 26 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111353

Abstract:
In this study, transient responses of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell system were performed to understand the effect of sensor fault signal on the temperature sensor of the stack and the coolant inlet. We designed a system-level fuel cell model including a thermal management system, and a controller to analyze the dynamic behavior of fuel cell system applied with variable sensor fault scenarios such as stuck, offset, and scaling. Under drastic load variations, transient behavior is affected by fault signals of the sensor. Especially, the net power of the faulty system is 45.9 kW. On the other hand, the net power of the fault free system is 46.1 kW. Therefore, the net power of a faulty system is about 0.2 kW lower than that of a fault-free system. This analysis can help in understanding the transient behavior of fuel cell systems at the system level under fault situations and provide a proper failure avoidance control strategy for the fuel cell system.
Igor Lomovskiy, Liudmila Makeeva, Ekaterina Podgorbunskikh, Oleg Lomovsky
Published: 25 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111348

Abstract:
Adsorbed polyphenolic compound (resveratrol) to a wheat straw matrix was considered as a model system for studying the influence of particle sizes and crystallinity of cell wall cellulose on the extraction process from the matrix of plant material. The morphology of wheat straw particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and changes in the crystal structure of cellulose were determined using X-ray diffraction. The kinetics of resveratrol extraction were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The diffusion constants were determined for particles of different sizes and particles having the same size but varying in the degree of disordering of cellulose, the main component of cell walls. The applicability of the Axelrud equation for calculating the mass transfer constants for plant objects with a complex internal structure was shown. Comparison of the particle sizes, the degree of crystallinity, and the calculated mass transfer constant makes it possible to suggest that it is the disordering of pore walls and their subsequent collapse that changes the diffusion mechanism. Schemes of resveratrol fluxes were proposed for extraction from particles of a plant matrix of different sizes; the mass transfer constants were calculated using these data. It was shown that the mass transfer constant has a maximum depending on the disordering of the crystalline structure of plant materials. By disordering the plant matrix, it is possible to increase the flow of matter by seven times. At high crystallinity index, the mass transfer process is impeded by diffusion through the cell wall. Intensive grinding leads to deep disordering of the structure and collapse of pores—the main diffusion channels.
Sidra Bashir, Nadiah Zafar, Noureddine Lebaz, Asif Mahmood, Abdelhamid Elaissari
Published: 25 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111350

Abstract:
The study aims to prepare a smart copolymeric for controlled delivery of Galantamine hydrobromide. The synthesis of the hydrogel was executed through free radical polymerization using HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and pectin as polymers and acrylic acid as monomer. Cross-linking was performed by methylene bisacrylamide (MBA). HPMC-pectin-co-acrylic acid hydrogel was loaded with Galantamine hydrobromide (antidementia drug) as a model drug for treatment of Alzheimer based dementia. Formulated hydrogels (SN1–SN9) were characterized for Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray. Drug loading efficiency, gel fraction, measurements of porosity, and tensile strength were reported. Swelling and release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4. Drug liberation mechanism was evaluated by applying different release kinetic models. Galantamine hydrobromide was released from prepared hydrogels by Fickian release mechanism. Swelling, gel fraction, porosity, and drug release percentages were found to be dependent on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, pectin, acrylic acid, and methylene bisacrylamide concentrations. By increasing HPMC amount, swelling was increased from 76.7% to 95.9%. Toxicity studies were conducted on albino male rabbits for a period of 14 days. Hematological and histopathological studies were carried out to evaluate safety level of hydrogel. Successfully prepared HPMC-pectin-co-acrylic acid hydrogel showed good swelling and release kinetics, which may help greatly in providing controlled release drug effect leading to enhanced patient compliance for dementia patients.
Uwe Strotmann, Daniel Pastor Flores, Odorico Konrad, Cornelia Gendig
Published: 25 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111349

Abstract:
The activated sludge respiration inhibition test and the luminescent bacteria test with Vibrio fischeri are important bacterial test systems for evaluation of the toxicity of chemical compounds. These test systems were further optimized to result in better handling, reliability and sensitivity. Concerning the Vibrio fischeri test, media components such as yeast extract and bivalent cation concentrations like Ca2+ and Mg2+ were optimized. The cultivation, storage conditions and reactivation process of the stored bacteria were also improved, which enabled simpler handling and led to good reproducibility. Additionally, the respiration inhibition test with a prolonged incubation time was further analyzed using different chlorinated phenols as reference compounds. It could be stated that a longer incubation period significantly improved the sensitivity of the test system.
Aliasghar Azma, Yongxiang Zhang
Published: 24 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111344

Abstract:
Channel confluences happen commonly in water transport networks and natural rivers. Utilizing a 3D CFD code, a series of numerical simulations were performed using a large eddy simulation turbulence model to investigate the effect of the variations in tributary channel width and the transverse geometrical shape of the main channel on the flow parameters and vertical structure in a T-shape confluence. The code was calibrated using the experimental data from the literature. Flow parameters were considered in ratios of tributary width to the main channel width in trapezoidal and rectangular channels. Results indicate that decreasing the width ratio of the tributary channel to the main channel significantly affects the flow structure in the confluence. Generally, it increases the width and length of the main recirculation zone. It also increases the maximum velocity near the bed, especially in cases with a trapezoidal shape. Besides, it highly affects the structure and formation of the recirculation zone in trapezoidal channels.
Sebastian Bunte, Birgit Keller, Bussarakam Chuppava, Josef Kamphues, Christian Visscher, Amr El-Wahab
Published: 24 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111345

Abstract:
Improving the hygienic status of feed ingredients by biotechnological processes as fermentation is of the greatest concern. This preliminary study aimed to investigate whether there are relevant effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the survival of potential pathogens in vitro. The feed (fresh basis) consisted of 50% rye, 30% rapeseed extracted meal, 10% barley and 10% wheat. Glass bottles were filled about 14.1 g water (38 °C) containing the diluted starter culture and feed (8.81 g). Fermentation led to high levels of lactate (5–7% of dry matter), low pH values (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens after 6 h of controlled fermentation, was significantly reduced (10 CFU/g). The counts of Candida krusei in FLF at 3 h and 6 h post inoculation remained almost unchanged regardless of the incubation time. Even adding sodium-benzoate at a concentration of up to 0.25% in the liquid feed did not reduce the survival of C.krusei during fermentation. Based on this in vitro study, feeding of FLF seems a promising strategy to reduce pathogen transmission but has to be confirmed on natural feeds by pathogens for increasing the hygienic properties.
Si Song, Minh Le, Man Lee
Published: 24 October 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8111347

Abstract:
The manufacture of semiconductor materials containing gallium and indium requires the separation of these metals owing to their coexistence in the resources of these materials. In this work, solvent extraction of In(III) and Ga(III) from a hydrochloric acid solution by ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated to separate them. The ILs were synthesized by reacting organophosphorus acids (Cyanex 272, PC88A and D2EHPA) and Aliquat 336 (ALi-CY, ALi-PC, and ALi-D2). In(III) was selectively extracted over Ga(III) by the ILs in the range of initial pH from 0.1 to 2.0. The equilibrium pH was always higher than the initial pH because of the coextraction of hydrogen ions. The highest separation factor between In(III) and Ga(III) was 87, which was obtained by ALi-PC at an initial pH of 1.0. Stripping of the loaded ALi-PC with hydrochloric and sulfuric acid led to selective stripping of In(III) over Ga(III). Scrubbing of the loaded ALi-PC with pure In(III) solution was not effective in removing the small amount of Ga(III) present in the loaded ALi-PC. Batch simulation experiments for the three counter-current extraction stages indicated that the complete separation of both metal ions was possible by extracting In(III) using ALi-PC, with remaining Ga(III) in the raffinate.
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