Processes

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EISSN : 22279717
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 1,636
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Mohammed Al-Hemyari, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Mehmet F. Orhan
Published: 18 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020232

Abstract:This study investigates the interrelated parameters affecting heat transfer from a hot gas flowing on a flat plate while cool air is injected adjacent to the flat plate. The cool air forms an air blanket that shield the flat plate from the hot gas flow. The cool air is blown from a confined jet and is simulated using a two-dimensional numerical model under three variable parameters; namely, blowing ratio, jet angle and density ratio. The interrelations between these parameters are evaluated to properly understand their effects on heat transfer. The analyses are conducted using ANSYS-Fluent, and the performance of the air blanket is reported using local and average adiabatic film cooling effectiveness (AFCE). The interrelation between these parameters and the AFCE is established through a statistical method known as response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM model shows that the AFCE has a second order relation with the blowing ratio and a first order relation with both jet angle and density ratio. Also, it is found that the highest average AFCE is reached at an injection angle of 30 degree, a density ratio of 1.2 and a blowing ratio of 1.8.
Xiaoli Wang, Jie Yi, Ziyu Zhou, Chunhua Yang
Published: 18 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020233

Abstract:The rotation speed of a mill is an important factor related to its operation and grinding efficiency. Analysis and regulation of the optimal speed under different working conditions can effectively reduce energy loss, improve productivity, and extend the service life of the equipment. However, the relationship between the optimal speed and different operating parameters has not received much attention. In this study, the relationship between the optimal speed and particle size and number was investigated using discrete element method (DEM). An improved exponential approaching law sliding mode control method is proposed to track the optimal speed of the mill. Firstly, a simulation was carried out to investigate the relationship between the optimal speed and different operating parameters under cross-over testing. The model of the relationships between the optimal rotation speed and the size and number of particles was established based on the response surface method. An improved sliding mode control using exponential approaching law is proposed to track the optimal speed, and simulation results show it can improve the stability and speed of sliding mode control near the sliding surface.
Basel Al Muallim, Mazlan Wahid, Hussein Mohammed, Mohammed Mohammed, Daryoush Habibi
Published: 17 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020231

Abstract:In this study, the numerical conjugate heat transfer and hydraulic performance of nanofluids flow in a rectangular microchannel heat sink (RMCHS) with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) was investigated at different Reynolds numbers (200–1200). Three-dimensional simulations are performed on a microchannel heated by a constant temperature with five different configurations with different angles of attack for the LVGs under laminar flow conditions. The study uses five different nanofluid combinations of Al2O3 or CuO, containing low volume fractions in the range of 0.5% to 3.0% with various nanoparticle sizes that are dispersed in pure water, PAO (Polyalphaolefin) or ethylene glycol. The results show that for Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 1100, Al2O3–water has the best performance compared with CuO nanofluid with Nusselt number values between 7.67 and 14.7, with an associated increase in Fanning friction factor by values of 0.0219–0.095. For the case of different base fluids, the results show that CuO–PAO has the best performance with Nusselt number values between 9.57 and 15.88, with an associated increase in Fanning friction factor by 0.022–0.096. The overall performance of all configurations of microchannels equipped with LVGs and nanofluid showed higher values than the ones without LVG and water as a working fluid.
Nur Haninah Harun, Zurina Zainal Abidin, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Rizafizah Othaman
Published: 17 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020230

Abstract:More recent attention has been focused on the utilization of Jatropha curcas in the field of water treatment. The potential of Jatropha oil in the synthesis of membrane for water filtration had been explored, its performance compared to the addition of graphene oxide (GO) in the polymer matrix. Jatropha oil was modified in a two-step method to produce Jatropha oil-based polyol (JOL) and was blended with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) to produce Jatropha polyurethane membrane (JPU). JPU was synthesized in different conditions to obtain the optimized membrane and was blended with different GO loading to form Jatropha/graphene oxide composite membrane (JPU/GO) for performance improvement. The synthesized pristine JPU and JPU/GO were evaluated and the materials were analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle, water flux, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the ratio of HDI to JOL for optimized JPU was obtained at 5:5 (v/v) with the cross-linking temperature at 90°C and curing temperature at 150°C. As GO was added into JPU, several changes were observed. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and onset temperature (To) increased from 58°C to 69°C and from 170°C to 202°C, respectively. The contact angle, however, decreased from 88.8° to 52.1° while the water flux improved from 223.33 L/m2.h to 523.33 L/m2.h, and the pore distribution in JPU/GO became more orderly. Filtration of copper ions using the synthesized membrane was performed to give rejection percentages between 33.51% and 71.60%. The results indicated that GO had a significant impact on JPU. Taken together, these results have suggested that JPU/GO has the potential for use in water filtration.
Mothi Viswanathan, D. Raman, Kurt Rosentrater, Brent Shanks
Published: 16 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020229

Abstract:Technoeconomic analyses using established tools such as SuperPro Designer® require a level of detail that is typically unavailable at the early stage of process evaluation. To facilitate this, members of our group previously created a spreadsheet-based process modeling and technoeconomic platform explicitly aimed at joint fermentative‒catalytic biorefinery processes. In this work, we detail the reorganization and expansion of this model—ESTEA2 (Early State Technoeconomic Analysis, version 2), including detailed design and cost calculations for new unit operations. Furthermore, we describe ESTEA2 validation using ethanol and sorbic acid process. The results were compared with estimates from the literature, SuperPro Designer® (Version 8.5, Intelligen Inc., Scotch Plains, NJ, 2013), and other third-party process models. ESTEA2 can perform a technoeconomic analysis for a joint fermentative‒catalytic process with just 12 user-supplied inputs, which, when modeled in SuperPro Designer®, required approximately eight additional inputs such as equipment design configurations. With a reduced amount of user information, ESTEA2 provides results similar to those in the literature, and more sophisticated models (ca. 7%–11% different).
Khalil Rehman, Nabeela Kousar, Waqar Khan, Nosheen Fatima
Published: 15 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020226

Abstract:In this paper we have considered a staggered cavity. It is equipped with purely viscous fluid. The physical design is controlled through mathematical formulation in terms of both the equation of continuity and equation of momentum along with boundary constraints. To be more specific, the Navier-Stokes equations for two dimensional Newtonian fluid flow in staggered enclosure is formulated and solved by well trusted method named finite element method. The novelty is increased by considering the motion of upper and lower walls of staggered cavity case-wise namely, in first case we consider that the upper wall of staggered cavity is moving and rest of walls are kept at zero velocity. In second case we consider that the upper and bottom walls are moving in a parallel way. Lastly, the upper and bottom walls are considered in an antiparallel direction. In all cases the deep analysis is performed and results are proposed by means of contour plots. The velocity components are explained by line graphs as well. The kinetic energy examination is reported for all cases. It is trusted that the findings reported in present pagination well serve as a helping source for the upcoming studies towards fluid flow in an enclosure domains being involved in an industrial areas.
Heba Ismaeil, Walied Abdo, Said Amer, Amin Tahoun, Diaa Massoud, Eatemad Zanaty, May Bin-Jumah, Ayman Mahmoud
Published: 15 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020225

Abstract:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the predominant intestinal diseases associated with chronic inflammation and ulceration of the colon. This study explored the ameliorative effect of Aloe vera extract (Aloe) and/or heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L.137 (HK L.137) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Aloe and/or HK L.137 were supplied for 9 days and the mice were challenged with DSS for 7 days. The DSS group demonstrated bloody diarrhea, colitis of high histologic grade, increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and decreased IL-10 expression. These alterations were dwindled in DSS-induced mice treated with Aloe and HK L.137 separately. Aloe and HK L.137 together have augmented the therapeutic effect of each other. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that Aloe and/or HK L.137 ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by promoting the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators. This study indicated that A. vera may function synergistically with HK L.137 to confer an effective strategy to prevent colitis.
Fengqin Li, Baoling Cui, Lulu Zhai
Published: 15 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020227

Abstract:Pump annular seals can cause fluid reaction forces that have great effects on the vibration characteristic and stability of a pump system. For this reason, it is important to study rotordynamic characteristics of annular seals. In this paper, a new transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with dynamic mesh is proposed to investigate rotordynamic characteristics of the pump annular seal. The reliability of the transient CFD method is validated by comparison with the results from the experiment and the bulk-flow method, and the relationship between the seal length and rotordynamic characteristics is investigated by the transient CFD method. The results indicate that direct stiffness decreases sharply even turns to negative as the seal length increases, this phenomenon may change the direction of fluid force on the rotor surface and affect supporting condition of the pump rotor. With the increasing seal length, the whirl frequency ratio gradually increases, which would weaken the stability of the pump rotor system.
MohammadHadi Nakhaei, Bona Lu, Yujie Tian, Wei Wang, Kim Dam-Johansen, Hao Wu
Published: 15 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020228

Abstract:Gas–solid cyclone separators are widely utilized in many industrial applications and usually involve complex multi-physics of gas–solid flow and heat transfer. In recent years, there has been a progressive interest in the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to understand the gas–solid flow behavior of cyclones and predict their performance. In this paper, a review of the existing CFD studies of cyclone separators, operating in a wide range of solids loadings and at ambient and elevated temperatures, is presented. In the first part, a brief background on the important performance parameters of cyclones, namely pressure drop and separation efficiency, as well as how they are affected by the solids loading and operating temperature, is described. This is followed by a summary of the existing CFD simulation studies of cyclones at ambient temperature, with an emphasis on the high mass loading of particles at elevated temperatures. The capabilities as well as the challenges and limitations of the existing CFD approaches in predicting the performance of cyclones operating in such conditions are evaluated. Finally, an outlook on the prospects of CFD simulation of cyclone separators is provided.
Shungo Natsui, Kazui Tonya, Hiroshi Nogami, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Ryosuke Suzuki, Ko-Ichiro Ohno, Sohei Sukenaga, Tatsuya Kon, Shingo Ishihara, Shigeru Ueda
Published: 14 February 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/pr8020221

Abstract:In the bottom region of blast furnaces during the ironmaking process, the liquid iron and molten slag drip into the coke bed by the action of gravity. In this study, a practical multi-interfacial smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation is carried out to track the complex liquid transient dripping behavior involving two immiscible phases in the coke bed. Numerical simulations were performed for different conditions corresponding to different values of wettability force between molten slag and cokes. The predicted dripping velocity changes and interfacial shape were investigated. The relaxation of the surface force of liquid iron plays a significant role in the dripping rate; i.e., the molten slag on the cokes acts as a lubricant against liquid iron flow. If the attractive force between the coke and slag is smaller than the gravitational force, the slag then drops together with the liquid iron. When the attractive force between the coke and slag becomes dominant, the iron-slag interface will be preferentially detached. These results indicate that transient interface morphology is formed by the balance between the momentum of the melt and the force acting on each interface.