Biomolecules & Therapeutics

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ISSN / EISSN : 2005-4483 / 1976-9148
Total articles ≅ 1,078
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Yong-Hyun Han, KyeongJin Lee, Abhirup Saha, Juhyeong Han, Haena Choi, Minsoo Noh, Yun-Hee Lee, Mi-Ock Lee
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 455-464; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.094

Abstract:
Uncontrolled inflammation is considered the pathophysiological basis of many prevalent metabolic disorders, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. The inflammatory response is a self-limiting process that produces a superfamily of chemical mediators, called specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). SPMs include the Ω-3-derived family of molecules, such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, as well as arachidonic acid-derived (Ω-6) lipoxins that stimulate and promote resolution of inflammation, clearance of microbes, and alleviation of pain and promote tissue regeneration via novel mechanisms. SPMs function by binding and activating G protein-coupled receptors, such as FPR2/ALX, GPR32, and ERV1, and nuclear orphan receptors, such as RORα. Recently, several studies reported that SPMs have the potential to attenuate lipid metabolism disorders. However, the understanding of pharmacological aspects of SPMs, including tissue-specific biosynthesis, and specific SPM receptors and signaling pathways, is currently limited. Here, we summarize recent advances in the role of SPMs in resolution of inflammatory diseases with metabolic disorders, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity, obtained from preclinical animal studies. In addition, the known SPM receptors and their intracellular signaling are reviewed as targets of resolution of inflammation, and the currently available information on the therapeutic effects of major SPMs for metabolic disorders is summarized.
Wi-Jin Jeon, Ki Wung Chung, Joon-Hee Lee, Dong-Soon Im
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 492-497; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.206

Abstract:
Levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), an intercellular signaling molecule, reportedly increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with asthma. Although the type 4 S1P receptor, S1P4 has been detected in mast cells, its functions have been poorly investigated in an allergic asthma model in vivo. S1P4 functions were evaluated following treatment of CYM50358, a selective antagonist of S1P4, in an ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model, and antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. CYM50358 inhibited antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Eosinophil accumulation and an increase of Th2 cytokine levels were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and via the inflammation of the lungs in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma mice. CYM50358 administration before ovalbumin sensitization and before the antigen challenge strongly inhibited the increase of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CYM50358 administration inhibited the increase of IL-4 cytokines and serum IgE levels. Histological studies revealed that CYM50358 reduced inflammatory scores and PAS (periodic acid-Schiff)-stained cells in the lungs. The pro-allergic functions of S1P4 were elucidated using in vitro mast cells and in vivo ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model experiments. These results suggest that S1P4 antagonist CYM50358 may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of allergic asthma.
Yejing Jeong, Jinuk Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Ka Young Chung
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 527-535; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.234

Abstract:
Sclerostin (SOST), a regulator of bone formation in osteocytes, inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling by interacting with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) to prevent Wnt binding. Loss-of-function mutations of the SOST gene caused massive bone outgrowth and SOST-null mouse exhibited a high bone density phenotype. Therefore, SOST has been suggested as a promising therapeutic target for osteoporosis. A few previous studies with X-ray crystallography identified the binding interfaces between LRP6 and SOST, but there are limitations in these studies as they used truncated SOST protein or SOST peptide. Here, we analyzed the conformational dynamics of SOST-LRP6 E1E2 complex using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). We examined the effect of the C-terminal tail of SOST on LRP6 conformation upon complex formation. HDXMS analysis suggested a new potential binding interface for the C-terminal region of SOST that was missing from the previous crystal structure of the SOST-LRP6 E1E2 complex.
Taewoo Kim, Jeha Jeon, Jin-Sun Park, Yeongwon Park, Jooeui Kim, Haneul Noh, Hee-Sun Kim, Hyemyung Seo
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 483-491; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.181

Abstract:
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Matrix metalloproteinases-8 (MMP-8), neutrophil collagenase, is a functional player in the progressive pathology of various inflammatory disorders. In this study, we administered an MMP-8 inhibitor (MMP-8i) in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S transgenic mice, to determine the effects of MMP-8i on PD pathology. We observed a significant increase of ionized calcium- binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive activated microglia in the striatum of LRRK2 G2019S mice compared to normal control mice, indicating enhanced neuro-inflammatory responses. The increased number of Iba1-positive activated microglia in LRRK2 G2019S PD mice was down-regulated by systemic administration of MMP-8i. Interestingly, this LRRK2 G2019S PD mice showed significantly reduced size of cell body area of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in SN region and MMP-8i significantly recovered cellular atrophy shown in PD model indicating distinct neuro-protective effects of MMP-8i. Furthermore, MMP-8i administration markedly improved behavioral abnormalities of motor balancing coordination in rota-rod test in LRRK2 G2019S mice. These data suggest that MMP-8i attenuates the pathological symptoms of PD through anti-inflammatory processes.
Jinwon Park, Jaehyun Choi, Dae-Duk Kim, Seunghee Lee, Bongjin Lee, Yunhee Lee, Sanghee Kim, Sungwon Kwon, Minsoo Noh, Mi-Ock Lee, et al.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 465-482; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.107

Henusha D. Jhundoo, Tobias Siefen, Alfred Liang, Christoph Schmidt, John Lokhnauth, Brice Moulari, Arnaud Béduneau, Yann Pellequer, Crilles Casper Larsen, Alf Lamprecht
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 536-544; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.227

Abstract:
5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) is a standard therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) whereas more severe forms involve the use of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan that has shown epithelium protective effects in experimental colitis recently. In this study, both 5-ASA (30 mg/kg) and HA (15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) were administered rectally and investigated for their potential complementary therapeutic effects in moderate or severe murine colitis models. Intrarectal treatment of moderate and severe colitis with 5-ASA alone or HA alone at a dose of 30 mg/kg led to a significant decrease in clinical activity and histology scores, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in colitis mice compared to untreated animals. The combination of HA (30 mg/kg) and 5-ASA in severe colitis led to a significant improvement of colitis compared to 5-ASA alone (MPO, moderate, 5-ASA: 1,776 ± 315, 5-ASA+HA: 1,157 ± 561; severe, 5-ASA: 5,742 ± 611, 5-ASA+HA: 2,953 ± 2,611 U/g tissue). Combined rectal therapy with HA and 5-ASA could be a treatment alternative for severe cases of IBD as it was the only treatment tested that was not significantly different from the healthy control group. This study further underlines the benefit of searching for yet unexplored drug combinations that show therapeutic potential in IBD without the need of designing completely new drug entities.
Ching-Ling Lin, Ming-Lin Tsai, Yu-Hsin Chen, Wei-Ni Liu, Chun-Yu Lin, Kai-Wen Hsu, Chien-Yu Huang, Yu-Jia Chang, Po-Li Wei, Shu-Huey Chen, et al.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 551-561; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.205

Abstract:
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancers, such as papillary and follicular cancers, have a favorable prognosis. However, poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, such as medullary, squamous and anaplastic advanced thyroid cancers, are very aggressive and insensitive to radioiodine treatment. Thus, novel therapies that attenuate metastasis are urgently needed. We found that both PDGFC and PDGFRA are predominantly expressed in thyroid cancers and that the survival rate is significantly lower in patients with high PDGFRA expression. This finding indicates the important role of PDGF/PDGFR signaling in thyroid cancer development. Next, we established a SW579 squamous thyroid cancer cell line with 95.6% PDGFRA gene insertion and deletions (indels) through CRISPR/Cas9. Protein and invasion analysis showed a dramatic loss in EMT marker expression and metastatic ability. Furthermore, xenograft tumors derived from PDGFRA geneedited SW579 cells exhibited a minor decrease in tumor growth. However, distant lung metastasis was completely abolished upon PDGFRA gene editing, implying that PDGFRA could be an effective target to inhibit distant metastasis in advanced thyroid cancers. To translate this finding to the clinic, we used the most relevant multikinase inhibitor, imatinib, to inhibit PDGFRA signaling. The results showed that imatinib significantly suppressed cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and cell death in SW579 cells. Our developed noninvasive apoptosis detection sensor (NIADS) indicated that imatinib induced cell apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, we believe that developing a specific and selective targeted therapy for PDGFRA would effectively suppress PDGFRA-mediated cancer aggressiveness in advanced thyroid cancers.
Bin Xiao, Dan-Dan Li, Ying Wang, Eun La Kim, Na Zhao, Shang-Wu Jin, Dong-Hao Bai, Li-Dong Sun, Jee H. Jung
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, Volume 29, pp 519-526; https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.008

Abstract:
In a search for effective PPAR-γ agonists, 110 clinical drugs were screened via molecular docking, and 9 drugs, including parecoxib, were selected for subsequent biological evaluation. Molecular docking of parecoxib to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR-γ showed high binding affinity and relevant binding conformation compared with the PPAR-γ ligand/antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone. Per the docking result, parecoxib showed the best PPAR-γ transactivation in Ac2F rat liver cells. Further docking simulation and a luciferase assay suggested parecoxib would be a selective (and partial) PPAR-γ agonist. PPAR-γ activation by parecoxib induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. Parecoxib promoted adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced the expression of adipogenesis transcription factors PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, and -β. These data indicated that parecoxib might be utilized as a partial PPAR-γ agonist for drug repositioning study.
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