EISSN : 2075-4442
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 565
Latest articles in this journal
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090094
The augmentation of lubricant oil properties is key to protecting engines, bearings, and machine parts from damage due to friction and wear and minimizing energy lost in countering friction. The tribological and rheological properties of the lubricants are of utmost importance to prevent wear under unembellished conditions. The marginal addition of particulate and filamentous nanofillers enhances these properties, making the lubricant oil stable under severe operating conditions. This research explores the improvement in SAE 5w-30 base oil performance after the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in six marginal compositions, namely, Base, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 weight percentage. The effect of the addition of MWCNTs on flash and pour points, thermal conductivity, kinematic viscosity, friction coefficients, and wear are investigated and reported. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize the MWCNTs. The purity, crystallinity, size, shape, and orientation of the MWCNTs are confirmed by XRD and TEM characterization. Pour points and flash points increase by adding MWCNTs but inconsistency is observed after the 0.06 wt.% composition. The thermal conductivity and kinematic viscosity increase significantly and consistently. The friction coefficient and wear scar diameter reduce to 0.06 wt.% MWCNTs and then the trend is reversed due to agglomeration and inhomogeneity. A composition of 0.06 wt.% is identified as the optimum considering all the investigated properties. This composition ensures the stability of the tribo-film and hydrodynamic lubrication.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090095
The oil film generation of a U-cup rod seal and the oil film thickness on the rod after outstroke were analyzed analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The analyzed sealing system consists of an unmodified, commercially available U-cup, a polished rod, and mineral oil. The inverse theory of hydrodynamic lubrication (IHL) and an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model—both based on the Reynolds equation for thin lubricating films—were utilized to simulate the oil film generation. In the EHL analysis, physical parameters and numerical EHL parameters were varied. Both the analytical and numerical results for the varied parameters show that the film thickness follows a square-root function (i.e., with a function exponent of 0.5) with respect to the product of dynamic viscosity and rod speed, also referred to as the duty parameter. In comparison to the analytical and numerical results, the film thickness obtained via ellipsometry measurements is a function of the duty parameter with an exponent of approximately 0.85. Possible causes for the discrepancy between theory and experiments are discussed. A potential remedy for the modeling gap is proposed.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090093
Gravimetric measurements were applied to study the inhibitory effect of 4-benzyl-1-(4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoyl)thiosemicarbazide (BOT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl. BOT has a good inhibitory efficacy of 92.5 percent at 500 ppm, according to weight loss results. The effect of inhibitor concentration on the mild corrosion behavior of steel was investigated and it was discovered that the higher the inhibitor concentration, the higher the damping efficiency. The results confirm that BOT is an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in the presence of 1.0 M HCl. Furthermore, the higher protection efficiency with increasing temperature and the free energy value showed that BOT molecules participate in both chemisorption (coordination bonds between the active sites of BOT molecules and d-orbital of iron atoms) and physisorption (through the physical interactions on the mild steel surface). The adsorption mechanism on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Quantum chemical calculations based on the DFT calculations were conducted on BOT. DFT calculations indicated that the protective efficacy of the tested inhibitor increased with the increase in energy of HOMO. The theoretical findings revealed that the broadly stretched linked functional groups (carbonyl and thionyl) and heteroatoms (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) in the structure of tested inhibitor molecules are responsible for the significant inhibitive performance, due to possible bonding with Fe atoms on the mild steel surface by donating electrons to the d-orbitals of Fe atoms. Both experimental and theoretical findings in the current investigation are in excellent harmony.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090092
A critical review of recent work on fuel lubricant interactions is undertaken. The work focusses on liquid fuels used in diesel and gasoline vehicles. The amount of fuel that contaminates the lubricant depends on driving conditions, engine design, fuel type, and lubricant type. When fuel contaminates a lubricant, the viscosity of the lubricant will change (it will usually decrease), the sump oil level may increase, there may be a tendency for more sludge formation, there may be an impact on friction and wear, and low speed pre-ignition could occur. The increased use of biofuels (particularly biodiesel) may require a reduction in oil drain intervals, and fuel borne additives could contaminate the lubricant. The move towards the active regeneration of particulate filters by delayed fuel post-injection and the move towards hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with stop-start systems will lead to increased fuel dilution. This will be of more concern in diesel engines, since significant fuel dilution could persist at sump oil temperatures in the range of 100–150 °C (whereas in gasoline engines the more volatile gasoline fuel will have substantially evaporated at these temperatures). It is anticipated that more research into fuel lubricant interactions, particularly for diesel engines, will be needed in the near future.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090091
Technical thermoplastic materials (e.g., PEEK, PPA and POM) are widely used for tribological applications combined with different filler systems (e.g., glass- or carbon fibres) because of their excellent mechanical properties. The friction and wear behaviour of thermoplastics can be specifically improved by solid lubrication systems such as graphite, PTFE and MoS2. Besides these systems, others such as WoS2 and MnS are becoming scientifically interesting. This work investigates the influence of different solid lubricants—alternative metal sulphides and polymer-based—in combination with different glass fibre contents on the tribological behaviour of unfilled PEEK and glass fibre-filled PPA. For this purpose, compounds were produced and injection-moulded into tribological test specimens that were subsequently tested. It is particularly evident for both matrix materials that the solid lubricant SLS 22 shows a 25% wear rate reduction when compared to MoS2 and, in addition, the proportion of fibre content in PPA shows an additional wear rate reduction by a factor of 10. The friction level could be kept at a similar level compared to the usually utilised solid lubricants. The investigations showed the potential use of metal sulphide filler systems in high-performance thermoplastic with enhanced tribological properties as alternatives to the well-established solid lubricants.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090090
Using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ReaxFF potential, two different types of PFPE lubricants (Ztetraol and ZTMD) are prepared on a-C film, and SiO2 particles are adsorbed onto the lubricants at room temperature. From the simulation results, it is observed that the adsorbed SiO2 particles increase the stiffness of PFPE lubricants leading to less airshear displacement. Since Ztetraol has higher mobility with lower viscosity than ZTMD, the adsorbed SiO2 particles penetrate deeper into the Ztetraol lubricants. Accordingly, the effect of SiO2 on the airshear displacement is more obvious to Ztetraol than ZTMD. In addition, the adsorbed SiO2 particles increase the friction force and the amount of lubricant pick-up during the sliding contact with a nanosized a-C tip.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090089
Applying nanomaterials and nanotechnology in lubrication has become increasingly popular and important to further reduce the friction and wear in engineering applications. To achieve green manufacturing and its sustainable development, water-based nanolubricants are emerging as promising alternatives to the traditional oil-containing lubricants that inevitably pose environmental issues when burnt and discharged. This review presents an overview of recent advances in water-based nanolubricants, starting from the preparation of the lubricants using different types of nanoadditives, followed by the techniques to evaluate and enhance their dispersion stability, and the commonly used tribo-testing methods. The lubrication mechanisms and models are discussed with special attention given to the roles of the nanoadditives. Finally, the applications of water-based nanolubricants in metal rolling are summarised, and the outlook for future research directions is proposed.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090088
In the present study, a computational investigation into acoustic and tribological performances in journal bearings is presented. A heterogeneous pattern, in which a rough surface is engineered in certain regions and is absent in others, is employed to the bearing surface. The roughness is assumed to follow the sand-grain roughness model, while the bearing noise is solved based on broadband noise source theory. Three types of heterogeneous rough/smooth journal bearings exhibiting different placement and number of the rough zone are evaluated at different combinations of eccentricity ratio using the CFD method. Numerical results show that the heterogeneous rough/smooth bearings can supply lower noise and larger load-carrying capacity in comparison with conventional bearings. Moreover, the effect on the friction force is also discussed.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090086
Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are rising stars in many scientific disciplines and industries, and high hopes are being pinned upon them. Likewise, ML and AI approaches have also found their way into tribology, where they can support sorting through the complexity of patterns and identifying trends within the multiple interacting features and processes. Published research extends across many fields of tribology from composite materials and drive technology to manufacturing, surface engineering, and lubricants. Accordingly, the intended usages and numerical algorithms are manifold, ranging from artificial neural networks (ANN), decision trees over random forest and rule-based learners to support vector machines. Therefore, this review is aimed to introduce and discuss the current trends and applications of ML and AI in tribology. Thus, researchers and R&D engineers shall be inspired and supported in the identification and selection of suitable and promising ML approaches and strategies.
Lubricants, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090087
The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are essential for the friction behavior and wear performance of total joint replacements. Standardized in vitro wear tests for endoprosthesis recommend diluted calf serum, which exhibits substantial different rheological properties compared to SF. Therefore, the in vitro test conditions do not mimic the in vivo conditions. SF samples from osteoarthritis knee patients and patients undergoing knee endoprosthesis revision surgery were compared biochemically and rheologically. The flow properties of SF samples were compared to synthetic fluid constituents, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hyaluronic acid (HA). Interestingly, HA was identified as a significant contributor to shear-thinning. Using the acquired data and mathematical modelling, the flow behavior of human SF was modelled reliably by an adapted adjustment of biorelevant fluid components. Friction tests in a hard/soft bearing (ceramic/UHMWPE) demonstrated that, in contrast to serum, the synthetic model fluids generate a more realistic friction condition. The developed model for an SF mimicking lubricant is recommended for in vitro wear tests of endoprostheses. Furthermore, the results highlight that simulator tests should be performed with a modified lubricant considering an addition of HA for clinically relevant lubrication conditions.