Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2075-1729 / 2075-1729
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 2,145
Current Coverage
SCOPUS
PUBMED
PMC
DOAJ
SCIE
Archived in
EBSCO
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Published: 5 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The impact of enteric microflora on the expression of genes associated with cocaine and amphetamine addiction was described. Human genome-wide experiments on RNA transcripts expressed in response to three selected Escherichia coli strains allowed for significant alteration (p > 0.05) of the linear regression model between HT-29 RNA transcripts associated with the KEGG pathway:hsa05030:Cocaine addiction after 3 h stimulation with intracellular pathogenic E. coli strain UM146 versus non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917. Among the features influenced by the UM146 bacterial strain were visual learning, response to the presence of morphine, response to hypoxia, behavioral fear response and cognitive functions.
Published: 5 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The psychological aspect may play an important role in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). The aims of this study were to explore the differences between patients with UC and CD regarding chronotype, temperament and depression, and to assess the psychological factors mentioned as predictors of disease activity. In total, n = 37 patients with UC and n = 47 patients with CD were included in the study. They underwent a clinical assessment, including the Mayo score or Crohn Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and completed questionnaires: a sociodemographic survey, Formal Characteristics of Behavior–Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), Chronotype Questionnaire (CQ), and the Beck Depression Index II (BDI). The Sensory Sensitivity score was higher among patients with CD than UC (p = 0.04). The emotional reactivity and endurance scores were higher among women than men with CD (p = 0.028 and p = 0.012 respectively). CQ Morningness–Eveningness (ME) correlated with Endurance (p = 0.041), Emotional Reactivity (p = 0.016), and Activity (p = 0.004). ME correlated with Rhythmicity among CD patients (p = 0.002). The Mayo score was predicted by Perseverance. The CDAI score was predicted by the BDI score. The pattern of the relationship between chronotype and temperament may differentiate patients with UC and CD. Personal disposition may play a role in the clinical assessment of patients with IBD.
Published: 4 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTX) is impacted by adverse effects of immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, and post-transplant lung cancer is a common occurrence. This study aimed to examine the risk factors, treatment, and prognosis of patients with post-transplant lung cancer. We included 625 adult patients who received HTX at Heidelberg Heart Center between 1989 and 2018. Patients were stratified by diagnosis and staging of lung cancer after HTX. Analysis comprised donor and recipient characteristics, medications including immunosuppressive drugs, and survival after diagnosis of lung cancer. A total of 41 patients (6.6%) were diagnosed with lung cancer after HTX, 13 patients received curative care and 28 patients had palliative care. Mean time from HTX until diagnosis of lung cancer was 8.6 ± 4.0 years and 1.8 ± 2.7 years from diagnosis of lung cancer until last follow-up. Twenty-four patients (58.5%) were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor after diagnosis of lung cancer. Multivariate analysis showed recipient age (HR: 1.05; CI: 1.01–1.10; p = 0.02), COPD (HR: 3.72; CI: 1.88–7.37; p< 0.01), and history of smoking (HR: 20.39; CI: 2.73–152.13; p< 0.01) as risk factors for post-transplant lung cancer. Patients in stages I and II had a significantly better 1-year (100.0% versus 3.6%), 2-year (69.2% versus 0.0%), and 5-year survival (53.8% versus 0.0%) than patients in stages III and IV (p< 0.01). Given the poor prognosis of late-stage post-transplant lung cancer, routine reassessment of current smoking status, providing smoking cessation support, and intensified lung cancer screening in high-risk HTX recipients are advisable.
Published: 4 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Background. Sudden unexpected death (SUD) is one of the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in emergency medicine and forensic pathology. Sudden unexpected deaths in adults (SUDA) are frequently caused by cardiac events, while infections usually cause those in infants younger than one year (SUDI), and to a lesser extent, in children older than one year (SUDC). However, in some instances of children under the age of one dying (SIDS), a cause is not discovered despite a thorough investigation that includes a review of clinical history, examination of the death scene, and a complete autopsy. Several studies demonstrate that the microbiome influences host immunity, alters susceptibility to viral respiratory infections, and has a vital role in various health, disease, and death outcomes. The main objective of this systematic review was to compile and offer a complete vision of the main lines of research on microbiome and sudden death that have emerged in recent years and their relationship with forensic sciences, as well as the possible contributions or limitations in the field of forensic sciences. Methods. Following PRISMA principles, a systematic evaluation of the microbiome and sudden death in forensic science was conducted. In this review, our study classified the sudden deaths as SUDA, SUDI, and SIDS. Results. The role of microbiome research in sudden death is discussed in this review. Various studies have linked the detection of different bacteria or viruses as a probable cause of sudden death. Bacteria analysed differ between studies that used autopsy specimens from deaths classified as SUDA, SUDI, and SIDS, or, except in the case of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which have been analysed in both SUDI and SIDS autopsies. In the case of viruses, only Cytomegalovirus has been analysed in both SIDS and SUDI cases. However, all the viruses studied are respiratory viruses found in samples of nasopharyngeal or lung fluid. Conclusions. Although the application of the microbiome in sudden death and other fields of forensic science is still in its early stages, a role of the microbiome in sudden deaths cannot be ruled out, but we cannot conclude that it is a significant factor either.
Published: 4 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
SETMAR is a protein lysine methyltransferase that is involved in several DNA processes, including DNA repair via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, regulation of gene expression, illegitimate DNA integration, and DNA decatenation. However, SETMAR is an atypical protein lysine methyltransferase since in anthropoid primates, the SET domain is fused to an inactive DNA transposase. The presence of the DNA transposase domain confers to SETMAR a DNA binding activity towards the remnants of its transposable element, which has resulted in the emergence of a gene regulatory function. Both the SET and the DNA transposase domains are involved in the different cellular roles of SETMAR, indicating the presence of novel and specific functions in anthropoid primates. In addition, SETMAR is dysregulated in different types of cancer, indicating a potential pathological role. While some light has been shed on SETMAR functions, more research and new tools are needed to better understand the cellular activities of SETMAR and to investigate the therapeutic potential of SETMAR.
Published: 4 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Novel density functional theory calculations are presented regarding a mechanism for prebiotic amino acid synthesis from alpha-keto acids that was suggested to happen via catalysis by dinucleotide species. Our results were analysed with comparison to the original hypothesis (Copley et al., PNAS, 2005, 102, 4442–4447). It was shown that the keto acid–dinucleotide hypothesis for possible prebiotic amino acid synthesis was plausible based on an initial computational analysis, and details of the structures for the intermediates and transition states showed that there was wide scope for interactions between the keto acid and dinucleotide moieties that could affect the free energy profiles and lead to the required proto-metabolic selectivity.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Previously, it was proposed that protein receptors evolved from self-binding peptides that were encoded by self-interacting gene segments (inverted repeats) widely dispersed in the genome. In addition, self-association of the peptides was thought to be mediated by regions of amino acid sequence similarity. To extend these ideas, special features of receptors have been explored, such as their degree of homology to other proteins, and the arrangement of their genes for clues about their evolutionary origins and dynamics in the genome. As predicted, BLASTP searches for homologous proteins detected a greater number of unique hits for queries with receptor sequences than for sequences of randomly-selected, non-receptor proteins. This suggested that the building blocks (cohesion modules) for receptors were duplicated, dispersed, and maintained in the genome, due to structure/function relationships discussed here. Furthermore, the genes coding for a representative panel of receptors participated in a larger number of gene–gene interactions than for randomly-selected genes. This could conceivably reflect a greater evolutionary conservation of the receptor genes, with their more extensive integration into networks along with inherent properties of the genes themselves. In support of the latter possibility, some receptor genes were located in active areas of adaptive gene relocation/amalgamation to form functional blocks of related genes. It is suggested that adaptive relocation might allow for their joint regulation by common promoters and enhancers, and affect local chromatin structural domains to facilitate or repress gene expression. Speculation is included about the nature of the coordinated communication between receptors and the genes that encode them.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
It is believed that the codon–amino acid assignments of the standard genetic code (SGC) help to minimize the negative effects caused by point mutations. All possible point mutations of the genetic code can be represented as a weighted graph with weights that correspond to the probabilities of these mutations. The robustness of a code against point mutations can be described then by means of the so-called conductance measure. This paper quantifies the wobble effect, which was investigated previously by applying the weighted graph approach, and seeks optimal weights using an evolutionary optimization algorithm to maximize the code’s robustness. One result of our study is that the robustness of the genetic code is least influenced by mutations in the third position—like with the wobble effect. Moreover, the results clearly demonstrate that point mutations in the first, and even more importantly, in the second base of a codon have a very large influence on the robustness of the genetic code. These results were compared to single nucleotide variants (SNV) in coding sequences which support our findings. Additionally, it was analyzed which structure of a genetic code evolves from random code tables when the robustness is maximized. Our calculations show that the resulting code tables are very close to the standard genetic code. In conclusion, the results illustrate that the robustness against point mutations seems to be an important factor in the evolution of the standard genetic code.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative organism that is highly contagious and has been responsible for more than 240 million cases and 5 million deaths worldwide. Using masks, soap-based hand washing, and maintaining social distancing are some of the common methods to prevent the spread of the virus. In the absence of any preventive medications, from the outset of pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have been one of the first-line measures to control transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this narrative review is to evaluate the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 towards ABHS and understand their potential adverse effects on humans. Ethanol and isopropanol have been the most commonly used alcohols in ABHS (e.g., gel, solution, spray, wipes, or foam) with alcohol in the range of 70–85% v/v in World Health Organization or Food and Drug Administration-approved ABHS. The denaturation of proteins around the envelope of SARS-CoV-2 positive sense single-stranded RNA virus is the major mechanism of action of ABHS. Due to frequent use of high-percentage alcohol-containing ABHS over an extended period of time, the oral, dermal, or pulmonary absorption is a possibility. In addition to the systemic toxicity, topical adverse effects such as contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are plausible and have been reported during COVID-19. ABHS appear to be effective in controlling the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with the concern of oral, dermal, or pulmonary absorption.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Benefits of photobiomodulation (PBM) have been known for several decades. More recently, PBM applied in sports offers a special chance to support the modeling of the performance and recovery. Increasingly complex physical activities and fierce competition in the world of sports generate a state of psycho-emotional and physical stress that can induce chronic fatigue syndrome, failure in physical training, predisposition to muscle damage, physical and emotional exhaustion etc., for which PBM could be an excellent solution. To evaluate and identify all risk factors and the influence of PBM on health and performance in sport and for a better understanding of its effects, we did a search for “Photobiomodulation and Sports” on PubMed, to update the PBM science applied in sports, and we retained for analysis the articles published from 2014 to date. The term “PBM” is recent, and we did not include previous studies with “low level laser therapy” or “LLLT” before 2014. In the present research, PBM has been shown to have valuable protective and ergogenic effects in 25 human studies, being the key to success for high performance and recovery, facts supported also by 22 animal studies. PBM applied creatively and targeted depending on sport and size of the level of physical effort could perfectly modulate the mitochondrial activity and thus lead to remarkable improvements in performance. PBM with no conclusive results or without effects from this review (14 studies from a total of 39 on humans) was analyzed and we found the motivations of the authors from the perspective of multiple causes related to technological limitations, participants, the protocols for physical activity, the devices, techniques and PBM parameters. In the near future, dose–response experiments on physical activity should be designed and correlated with PBM dose–response studies, so that quantification of PBM parameters to allow the energy, metabolic, immune, and neuro-endocrine modulation, perfectly coupled with the level of training. There is an urgent need to continuously improve PBM devices, delivery methods, and protocols in new ingenious future sports trials. Latest innovations and nanotechnologies applied to perform intracellular signaling analysis, while examining extracellular targets, coupled with 3D and 4D sports motion analysis and other high-tech devices, can be a challenge to learn how to maximize PBM efficiency while achieving unprecedented sports performance and thus fulfilling the dream of millions of elite athletes.
Back to Top Top