International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development

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EISSN : 2187-3666
Total articles ≅ 281
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Pindo Tutuko, Nurhamdoko Bonifacius, Dani Yuniawan, Razqyan Mas Bimatyugra Jati, Imam Santoso, Mochamad Rizqi Junianto, Reynold Johan Aleksander Telnoni
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 102-115; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_102

Abstract:
In Indonesia, a kampong is an urban village region where about 75% of the city populace resides. Of late, kampongs have been drawing the attention of city government authorities with regards to formulation of kampong improvement initiatives and the conservation of kampongs by adhering to specific themes. This includes Malang city as well. Concerning one of the many urban planning challenges regarding sustainability, it is essential to monitor the kampong pattern in Malang. This pattern may be used for creating other kampongs using the template. The space syntax approach is utilised for determining the attributes of the kampong spatial patterns in Malang city. Moreover, kampong patterns were compared to determine the anticipated pattern. Depth computation and map connectivity concerning any theme-based Malang kampongs were used. Computing such patterns requires connectivity and depth computations. Justified plots are mathematical tools used for such computations; the DepthMapX software is used for the same. The present research aims to determine computations used for kampong pattern identification utilised for city planning. This computation will help determine which kampong has the most superior depth and connectivity among the reviewed kampongs and which kampong has the most intricate spatial syntax.
Dillip Kumar Das, Innocent Chirisa
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 82-101; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_82

Abstract:
Some of the most important challenges in the city regions of Africa are related to food, energy, water, and nutrients. To meet these challenges, arguments have emerged that cities should become regenerative, resource-efficient and arrest the decline of ecosystems. Therefore, a case study was performed by considering the linkage between Lake Chivero, and the Harare city region to conceptualize a framework of the water-nutrient-food nexus and to examine how nutrients from the wastewater that is disposed to Lake Chivero can assist in contributing to the food production in the Harare city region. An Applied Systems Analysis (ASA) linked System Dynamics (SD) modelling methodology was used. It is observed that the water supply in the city region, wastewater generation and disposal to Lake Chivero, nutrients, food production, food consumption and wastewater generated from consumption in the city, all work in a feedback mechanism. Premised upon the feedback mechanism, the ASA linked SD model estimates that Lake Chivero has already accumulated about 19,800 tonnes of Nitrogen (N) in its sediments, of which over half can be extracted. To comprehend the significance, it is estimated that 100 tonnes of N might assist in the production of over 35,000 tonnes of food if extracted and utilised in the city region. Therefore, the waste generated in the city region needs to be considered as a resource and recovered, which might turn a recalcitrant problem of pollution into the benefits of resource recovery and environmental and socio-economic wellbeing of the city region.
Yasushi Asami
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_1

Abstract:
Two concerns for city information are discussed. The first topic is the big data. Volume of information is increasing and sooner or later a better way to handle information may become necessary, that is to forget wisely. The second topic is the vague data. Casual information we often transmit is vague. A wiser operation to deal with vague data is essential. Both are the frontiers in studying city information.
Mehran Alalhesabi, Mostafa Behzadfar, Faezeh Behnamifard
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 31-49; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_31

Abstract:
In response to the Covid-19 outbreak, nations worldwide imposed various restrictions on their citizens in an attempt to stem its spread. One underlying aspect of the success of these policies is people's adaptation to epidemics and their continuous cooperation with urban management to adhere to precautionary measures. Otherwise, the disease incidence and death rates in the countries will not decrease. The situation that has occurred in Iran since the beginning of September and a sudden rise has put this country at the top of the daily reported deaths of Covid-19 (in proportion to the population) in October and November. Thus, this study will focus on two important Iranian metropolises (Tehran and Karaj) to understand: 1) What is the level of citizens’ cooperation in complying with Covid-19-related precautionary measures? 2) How has the level of citizens' precautionary behaviors changed compared to the early days of the outbreak? 3) Is there a correlative relationship between citizens' personal and socioeconomic characteristics and their level of cooperation in this period? This cross-sectional study is based on online surveys (completion of 667 online questionnaires by ordinary citizens living in Tehran and Karaj). Findings show the participation of 30.3% in implementing all precautionary measures, with women, high-income groups, unemployed people, and those without a history of Covid-19 infection having a higher odds ratio than others. In terms of citizens' behavior, 21% have reduced their level of cooperation in this area, which is correlated with their personal and socioeconomic characteristics (except their city of residence).
Pindo Tutuko, Nurhamdoko Bonifacius, Dani Yuniawan, Razqyan Mas Bimatyugra Jati
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 67-81; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_67

Abstract:
This study proposes an easy method for calculating the spatial arrangement of Indonesian city planning, in line with sustainable urban forms. Several Indonesian cities originated during the Dutch colonial era. Although it is very important to consider the original plans of these cities to maintain their sustainability, generally, the original plans tend to be ignored. The master plans investigated in this work are those of three cities in Indonesia designed by Dutch planners of Semarang, Bandung, and Malang, and which are compared to two cities in the Netherlands (Delft and Amsterdam). The method used was by collecting images of ancient maps of Amsterdam, Delft, Bandung, Semarang, and Malang, then digitising the image from raster to vector so that it can be calculated using DepthMapX. This study utilised maps for computing the Depth of the cities. Then, a space syntax approach using Depth Calculation (DC) techniques is deployed for determining the similarity ratio among the cities. Based on the results of the assessment, it is found that there is similarity in Depth in the cities of Amsterdam and Delft against three Dutch colonial cities in Indonesia. This study supports that the DC in the master plan of cities in Indonesia is similar. The resulting ratio shows the extent of the difference between the pattern of Indonesian colonial cities and the pattern of Dutch cities. It is expected that this study will contribute to urban planners’ and city governments’ determination of the direction of development of a city designed during the Dutch colonial period. Maintaining the sustainability of the old colonial urban form requires harmony between urban planning and the policies made by the city government.
Hee-Jin Oh, Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 50-66; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_50

Abstract:
The spread of infectious diseases is a spatial process, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cluster infections of COVID-19 have arisen globally in various urban spaces, implying that tracking the spread necessitates a spatial approach to understanding the dynamics of the disease. In this study, we employ an online survey in the Seoul metropolitan area in South Korea to examine changes in the use of urban spaces and factors that affect individual’s choice in using urban spaces in the COVID-19 era. We classify various urban spaces into three activity types according to the previous studies: spaces for mandatory activities, maintenance activities, and discretionary activities. The results show that every type of urban space is visited less than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Factors involved in the use of spaces for mandatory activities include the preference for offline consumption, gender, and risk perception of COVID-19. In the case of non-mandatory activity spaces, factors that commonly influence the use of the spaces are compliance with social distancing regulations, preference for offline consumption, refraining from outdoor activities, risk perception of COVID-19, and perceived safety in the city concerning COVID-19. The present study is significant as it identified not only different factors affecting the choice of mandatory and non-mandatory activity spaces but also distinctive variables determining the choice of urban spaces for maintenance activity and discretionary activity. From the analysis, this study draws policy implications to effectively prevent and control infectious disease in the context of urban spaces.
Herry Santosa, Fauziah Nur, Widisono Adrian
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 10-30; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_10

Abstract:
Maintaining the continuity of a valuable and livable visual experience is very important for the quality of urban streetscape planning and design. One of the impacts of the rapid development of urban streetscape is unsatisfying pedestrian space for spatial and visual comfort. In line with establishing good governance, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of urban visuals by involving community participation through online participation. The case study on the five provincial streets In Malang, Indonesia, has become a strategic route for the uncontrolled rapid growth of commercial districts alongside these streetscapes. This study promoted spatial multimedia development as a decision support system in the planning process as one of the recent developments in design planning activity by developing a multimedia 3D spatial system based on public preferences in the local community. A combination of three sequential stages was conducted, starting with investigating public preferences that produced spatial and visual comfort assessment through the Semantic Differential method and regression model analysis, followed by the 3D streetscape modeling ends with the development of a Spatial Multimedia System. This study resulted in several findings. The investigation of public preferences determined dominant variables and significant variables that affect the streetscape's spatial and visual comfort aspects. This outcome guided the development scenario of 3D modeling construction and 3D simulation of each streetscape and the development of a decision-making system in the 3D spatial multimedia system. This finding also revealed the significance of the leveling strategy of user interactive advancement in the system.
Muhammad Ahmad Al-Rashid, Muhammad Nadeem, Adel Shaheen Aldosary, Yong Adilah Shamsul Harumain, Hafiz Syed Hamid Arshad
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 116-138; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_116

Abstract:
Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon, and urbanisation is increasing rapidly, particularly in developing countries. The high pace of unmanaged urbanisation and consequent low-density urban sprawl poses severe challenges to most big cities globally. Such growth features are primarily contributing to haphazard changes in land uses, leading to agricultural loss. This research adopts an integrated approach to analysing the urban growth patterns in Sialkot, Pakistan. It utilises Landsat satellite data and examines the change of land use and land cover (LULC) over 28 years (1990 - 2018). It estimates the agricultural area converted into built-up area during this time frame. Moreover, a spatiotemporal saturation analysis is also performed to analyse the nature of urban growth further. This change analysis is then compared to urban growth strategies introduced under previous urban master plans. The results indicate that the built-up area of Sialkot city has increased from 2,786.49 ha (28.89%) to 7,191.63 ha (74.56%) during the years 1990 - 2018. In comparison, the agriculture area has reduced from 69.5% to 24.84%. Similarly, the saturation value has decreased from 0.85 to 0.75, depicting the city is moving towards urban sprawl. The policy review and interview results indicate a lack of focus toward implementation of urban master plans, which has contributed to ribbon development in Sialkot. The study provides recommendations for concerned urban planning authorities to control urban sprawl in Sialkot.
Robert Hellberg, Mirko Guaralda, Damrongsak Rinchumphu
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_1

Abstract:
Walkability is considered a critical factor that has shaped pre-industrial cities, and today it is promoted as the central element to achieve sustainable urban design and resilient communities. This paper aims to identify walkability profiles specific to Brisbane, Australia, one of the Australasian region’s fastest growing cities. The study seeks to understand if the specific urban conditions of Brisbane impact people’s attitude towards walking. Data on Brisbane walkability have been collected through a quantitative methodology; findings reveal that Brisbane pedestrians walk an average of 28-35 minutes daily, covering a maximum of 3.3 kilometers. The research also indicates that age is not a critical factor influencing walking times or distances and that the movement speed for distances below 10 kilometers is comparable to the average of other transport modes (car and public transport). This research is a pilot study to understand Brisbane’s walkability and to inform future research on sustainable urban design in the region.
Tsolmon Bayrsaikhan, Jiwon Lee, Moon Hyun Kim, Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_30

Abstract:
Due to the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic and various restrictions, peoples’ leisure activity patterns significantly change. Thus, it is necessary to understand how people’s travel and leisure behaviors have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on how individuals’ COVID-19 risk perception influences their leisure destination choice behavior. This empirical study aims to confirm the relationship between risk perception of COVID-19 and choice of leisure destination and to explore any differences between them related to demographic characteristics. A total of 537 valid samples were used for SUR model analysis by conducting an online survey targeting citizens of the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Our findings show that the risk perception of COVID-19 has a significant effect on the choice of leisure places. In particular, the risk perception of COVID-19 has a positive effect on the choice of natural places, disinfected areas, and socially distanced spaces while negatively influencing the choice of crowded leisure places. In addition, age and gender are more effective factors than other control variables in COVID-19 risk perception and leisure destination choices. Furthermore, this study also provides several implications for urban leisure place planners and service providers to respond to the changing leisure activity patterns caused by COVID-19.
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