The International Journal of Aviation Psychology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1050-8414 / 1532-7108
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.1080)
Total articles ≅ 589
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Latest articles in this journal

The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Volume 26, pp 75-104; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508414.2017.1313096

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 50) regarding gaze behavior and performance when piloting an aircraft. Background: Optimal gaze behavior can lead to improved flying performance under both normal and stressful conditions. Method: A computerized as well as a manual search of the literature was conducted. Articles were grouped according to prevalent themes, such as basic cockpit visual scanning, visual scanning in the automated cockpit, effects of new technology on visual scanning, nonnormal flight circumstances, differences between experts and novices, and mathematical models of visual scanning. A summary and key findings for each theme were reported. Results: The review revealed specific gaze behaviors that might be important when performing various flight tasks and when monitoring automated processes, and that can differentiate between expert and novice pilots. However, several concerns arose from the review. Among these concerns are the unexamined role of peripheral vision, the scarcity of studies on in-flight emergencies, and the lack of interventional studies. Conclusion: Specific gaze patterns appear to be related to improved flight performance. Future studies should address the methodological concerns mentioned to better clarify the relationship between gaze behavior and flying performance.
, Kim-Phuong L. Vu, Dan L. Chiappe, Corey A. Morgan, Gregory Morales, Vernol Battiste
The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Volume 26, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508414.2016.1235363

Abstract:
Objective: Determine how combinations of NextGen-automation concepts for separation assurance and spacing affect air traffic controller (ATCo) situation awareness, workload, and performance. Background: In previous research, situation awareness was not measured with valid and reliable instruments. Previous work also evaluated separation assurance and spacing concepts individually, and did not examine weather. Method: Retired ATCos worked en route and transitional sectors. Four operating concepts for separation assurance and spacing were tested based on whether automation or ATCo was responsible for each function. Standard methods for assessing workload and situation awareness were used; performance measures included safety and efficiency. Results: Workload was lowest when both functions were automated; however, situation awareness depended on operating concept and sector. In the en route sector, the highest levels of situation awareness were found for ATCo-managed separation assurance and automation-managed spacing. In the transitional sector, the highest situation awareness occurred when ATCos performed both functions. The numbers of loss of separation were highest for ATCo-managed separation assurance; sector complexity depended on weather, but only for automation-managed separation assurance. Spacing efficiency was highest for ATCo-managed separation assurance, but more communications were required. Conclusion: In air traffic management, separation assurance and spacing functions interact with each other in determining ATCo workload, situation awareness, and performance, depending on sector characteristics and weather. Therefore, evaluations of NextGen-automation solutions must include multiple concepts of operation, and involve different sectors and environmental conditions.
, William Rogers, Stephen D. Whitlow, Robert Demers
The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Volume 26, pp 15-35; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508414.2016.1226834

Abstract:
Objective: Human performance risks and benefits of adaptive systems were identified through a systematic analysis and pilot evaluation of adaptive system component types and characteristics. Background: As flight-deck automation is able to process ever more types of information in sophisticated ways to identify situations, it is becoming more realistic for adaptive systems to adapt behavior based on their own authority. Method: A framework was developed to describe the types and characteristics of adaptive system components and was used to perform a risk–benefit analysis to identify potential issues. Subsequently, eight representative adaptive system storyboards were developed for an evaluation with pilots to augment the analysis results and to explore more detailed issues and potential risk mitigations. Results: Analysis identified the principal drivers of adaptive “triggering conditions” risk as complexity and transparency. It also identified the drivers of adaptations risks and benefits as the task level and the level of control versus information adaptation. Conclusion: Pilots did not seem to distinguish between adaptive automation and normal automation if the rules were simple and obvious; however, their perception of risk increased when the level of complexity and opacity of triggering conditions reached a point where its behavior was perceived as nondeterministic.
The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Volume 26, pp 46-61; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508414.2016.1234936

Abstract:
Objective: We wished to assess whether current-generation in-cockpit looping Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) can reliably enable safe flight around severe (“heavy”) convective weather. Background: Numerous studies suggest that estimating the closest point of approach (CPA) to heavy weather is difficult, and that current in-cockpit NEXRAD may be intrinsically inadequate for the task. Method: To investigate theoretically, we first examined the visual information present in looping NEXRAD. This predicted inherent task difficulty. Next, to investigate empirically, we developed a mathematical model of an “ideal storm,” generated a looping NEXRAD-type part-task simulation, and tested 21 general aviation (GA) pilots to measure effects of weather system depth (19 vs. 40 nm), and the opening and closing of gaps at various closure rates between cells (14, 7, 0, 7, 14 kt). Results: For the values tested, weather system depth had no significant effect on clearance from heavy weather (>40 dBZ reflectivity). However, weather movement greatly degraded safety. Moreover, it did not seem to matter if movement was as slow as 7 kt, nor whether gaps were opening or closing. Any weather movement made an already difficult task more so. Conclusion: Analysis suggests the necessity of adding future-predicted weather plus a range ring. Without these two key elements, judgment of CPA will clearly remain difficult. Training is also necessary to improve performance, but is unlikely to be sufficient.
Gregor M. T. McLean, ,
The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Volume 26, pp 36-45; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508414.2016.1235364

Abstract:
Objective: This article examines the practical impacts of integrating simulation-based training into an ab initio pilot-training course. Background: As flight simulation technology has become more advanced, and the associated costs have been reduced, there has been a corresponding increase in the use of flight simulation during ab initio phases of pilot training. Subsequently, important questions have arisen regarding the utility of simulation-based training to develop students’ rudimentary piloting skills. Method: The progression of 29 students completing a course consisting of 25% simulation is compared to a baseline sample of 62 students (sourced from historical data) completing the same course prior to the integration of additional simulation-based training. Results: The integration of simulation was found to have 2 primary impacts. Although a small decrease in aircraft training hours was evident, there was also a significant increase in the overall training time once simulation-based training was incorporated. Conclusion: Simulation will always provide significant safety and risk-reduction benefits to flight training; however, when considering the practical implications of integrating simulation-based training, the current data provide a cautionary tale that positive outcomes for training efficiency and cost-effectiveness are not always guaranteed. More targeted inquiry is still needed to assist flight schools to properly operationalize the findings from the research literature to effectively integrate simulation into their flight-training curriculums.
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