Open Journal of Geology
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 49-60; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.113004
The present study focuses on source rock evaluation of the Sargelu Formation by using core chips of rocks collected from well Atrush-2, Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. The Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance were executed. Subsequently, the selected parameters were used for source rock evaluation and 1-D Basin Modelling calibration. The upper part of the formation mainly comprises argillaceous limestone with low content of organic matter (0.64% - 1% TOC). By contrast, the lower part is dominated with shale interval and contains high amounts of TOC values (>4% for 1272 - 1278 m) reveling good to very good quality source rock. Accordingly, good to very good hydrocarbon generation potential is suggested for this formation. Organic matter of the Sargelu Formation contains type II and mixed-type II-III kerogen. The values of Tmax and vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) demonstrate that the formation is thermally mature and in the oil zone. In order to construct a thermal history of the formation and determine the timing of hydrocarbon maturation and generation, the 1-D basin modelling PetroMod 2019.1 was used in this study. Based on the 1-D Basin modelling simulation and its outputs, about 3500 m of overburden have been eroded at the study area. The present-day heat flow was found to be 30 mW/m2. The organic matter of Sargelu Formation entered the early oil zone in 64 Ma and reached the main oil zone ca. 5 Ma. The formation is still in the main oil zone at present-day. In well Atrush-2, the highest rate of oil generation for the Sargelu Formation was in the 8.5 Ma, the onset of oil expulsion from Sargelu Formation was in 50 Ma and the expulsion mass has been reached 0.5 Mtons at present-day.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 1-17; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.111001
The interest of this research: there is oil seepage at the contact between coal seam-A and sandstone facies of Warukin Formation, so it is necessary to study where is the source rock. The correlation between HI and Tmax as result from rock eval pyrolysis shows that the shale of the Warukin Formation is immature while the correlation between HI and OI shows oil prone. The vitrinite (Ro) reflectance of Central Wara coal is between 0.48% up to 0.5% (immature), the content of the vitrinite group is 68.0 - 84.8 (% Vol.), Liptinite 3.0 - 14.0 (% Vol.) and inertinite 0.48 - 25.0 (% Vol.). The high content of liptinite mineral groups (14% Vol.) and the presence of exsudatinite maceral are as an initial indication of bitumenization of oil formation when there is a change in reflectance and fluorescence. Therefore, Central Wara coal plays an important role as the source rock of the Warukin Formation, although the maturity level is immature, the presence of exsudatinite maceral is believed to be the source of origin for producing oil, where the organic material comes from terrestrial.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 105-141; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.114007
Recent petro-structural investigations on the Faboula gold deposit located in the Bougouni-Kékoro basin, in southern Mali, north-west of the Leo-Man Shield, have provided new data on the nature and spatial organization of the lithostratigraphic units as well as their deformation style. The deposit is covered by a thick lateritic layer and is hosted by a metavolcano-sedimentary sequence of Paleoproterozoic age intersected by intrusive bodies and filled fractures of various shapes and types. The lithostratigraphic units consist of metagreywackes, metasiltstones, meta-argillites, slates and schists. Metagreywackes and metasiltstones are generally feldspathic, both may contain biotite and locally amphibole, just as slates may contain andalusite which is locally stretched. Plutonic units most often occur as stocks or as dikes on the drill core, up to 1 m. The metavolcano-sedimentary rocks are schistose and deformed under greenschist facies conditions, and locally they reach the epidote-amphibolite facies. The structural study revealed that the deposit is affected by several stages of deformation evolving from a ductile type to a brittle type via a ductile-brittle type. The dominant ductile and brittle-ductile deformations show a combination of isoclinal folding and strike-slip faults. Both the isoclinal folding and the strike-slip faults whose sigmoidal en-echelon tension gashes indicate a dextral movement in the NNE-SSW direction are the result of the same ENE-WSW regional shortening. Consequently, they highlight a transpressive deformation. This deformation noted here D2Fb, could be equivalent to the regional D2 or D3 deformations identified at the scale of the Leo-Man Shield if we refer to the style of deformation. There is an abundance of quartz veins networks. Their relation within the structural features indicates that the mineralization is structurally controlled during a hydrothermal event linked certainly to the circulations of fluids during the transpressive event D2Fb.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 38-48; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.112003
An optimum design of box cuts in soil formations is very crucial in order to obviate the major risk factors originating from the collapse of sidewalls and flooding of excavations during storm rainfall. The present paper aims to present a holistic classification of the Kalahari Formation stratigraphy in Zone 5 and define engineering properties of each lithological unit, in order to establish a safe working design. For the present objectives, collection of data was carried out through logging core from selected geotechnical boreholes drilled within vicinity of the proposed Northern mine box cut. Hydrogeological assessments and feasibility studies within the purview of study region were also considered. Geotechnical logging parameters gathered on site were derived from the Rock Mass Rating system (RMR) for design requirements . Input parameters and material characteristics taken from laboratory test results provided by KCM were incorporated in the analysis. The box cut slopes were modelled in “Rocscience software” for evaluation of safety factor using “limit equilibrium method”. Slope optimization required the slope surface to be as steep as possible while maintaining an adequate factor of safety ranging from 1.5 - 1.8. For the box cut design with optimum safety, the recommended parameters are: stable slope angle—35° - 40°; ramp angle—8°, depth of pit—60 meters; bench width—4.9 meters and the bench length—13.25 meters.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 142-154; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.114008
Gold recovery process is well known. The following paper presents the problematic related to the influence of Copper and Arsenic on the recovery of gold in the Yalea deposit. Multielement tests (Au, Cu, As) carried out on 37 blocks made it possible to understand that there is a correlation between these elements. This correlation has been observed since the analysis of block models (the block model for Copper, block model for Arsenic and the block model for gold. These models have shown that the Yalea deposit areas with a high gold content correspond to areas of high copper content and arsenic. Those who made it clear that copper and Arsenic are tracing elements of Gold in the Yalea deposit. In this paper, the mineralurgical tests carried out on 28 blocks revealed that the copper and the arsenic content in the ore penalize the recovery of Gold (146 ppm for copper and 4710 ppm for Arsenic). The Yalea deposit was emplaced by several hydrothermal phases that reactivated the structures. These phases are responsible for the establishment of large quantities of copper sulphides. Copper and Arsenic are elements that have a considerable influence on the gold recovery in the Yalea deposit.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 19-37; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.112002
Case histories have shown that the liquefaction-induced soil lateral spreading is one of the main causes of damage to pile foundations subjected to seismic loading. Post-liquefaction soil behaves similarly to a viscous fluid. This study investigated the effect of soil lateral spreading on a single pile based on fluid mechanics in which the liquefied soils were treated as Newtonian fluids. A numerical simulation on a single pile embedded in a fully saturated sandy foundation was conducted and compared with shake table tests. The lateral flow effect and the effect of shear strain rate were discussed. After liquefaction, the acceleration of the foundation shows that there are no obvious spikes and finally reaches a stable state. The presented method can predict the pile response better than p-y curve method. A parametric study was performed to explore the effect of several influence factors on pile behaviors. The results show that the pile head displacement decreases and the maximum bending moment at pile bottom increases with the increase of bending stiffness. With the same pile bending stiffness, the displacement and bending moment of pile increase with the increase of soil viscosity and acceleration amplitude.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 61-80; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.113005
Globally, the Paleogene period experienced several events marking the Paleocene-Eocene transition which is especially to one of the hottest periods that the Earth has ever known (Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, PETM), followed by the biological crisis that affected benthic foraminifera. The Bekrit Syncline, subject of this study, shows three Formations of range from the Cretaceous to the Eocene ages (the El Koubbat, Irbzer and Bekrit-Timahdite Formations). Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical analyses of collected samples, in the Bekrit syncline, were studied to determine the paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental conditions of the Middle Atlas. The carbonate rocks were analyzed by microscopic study and geochemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP). The results obtained highlight the sedimentary events that took place during the Paleogene. Thus, the Maastrichtian is characterized by a closed euxinic marine environment shared by a more open and oxidizing environment. On the other hand, the Paleocene was a restricted marine environment with evaporitic sedimentation, while the Eocene sees the installation of a carbonate platform with a bioclastic Shoal.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 81-104; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.113006
Lepidolite pegmatite occurs as intrusive within biotite gneiss and amphibolite of Assam Meghalaya Gneissic Complex (AMGC) or Precambrian Gneissic Complex in the Dhubri district, Assam. AMGC is the north western extension of the Proterozoic rocks of Meghalaya Plateau or Shillong plateau. In the field it occurs as small to large veins and scattered boulders. Lepidolite pegmatite is later intruded by non lepidolite pegmatite. Pegmatites are medium to coarse grained with quartz and K-feldspar. It also contains lepidolite, which occurs in the form of flakes and clusters varying from pink to purple in colour. Petrography of lepidolite pegmatite reveals lepidolite as major constituents with quartz, K-feldspar and muscovite as minor constituents. XRD analysis reveals lepidolite (muscovite) is major mineral phase with kaliophilite in minor amount. Geochemically, they are calc-alkaline to high calc-alkaline and per-aluminous in nature. On the basis of Alumina Saturation Index (ASI), these pegmatites resemble Lithium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT) family and compositional affinity with S-type granites of orogenic environments. Trace element compositions (Rb, Sr, Ba) indicate crystal fractionations, variable degrees of fractionation, highly evolved nature of pegmatite’s and strongly differentiated granites protoliths as source. The different tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate S-type and I-type melt for pegmatite derivations. Therefore, both the studied pegmatites could be an evolved variety of granitic rocks that originated from the same magma. The REE is relatively low to moderate.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 10, pp 1189-1197; doi:10.4236/ojg.2020.1012058
Sea Level Rise (SLR) above the Mean Sea Level (MSL) is more likely to cause a significant risk to the coastal regions. This research explores the potential impact of sea level rise, due to climate change, on coastal areas. It examines the impact of sea level rise on Basrah city and adjacent cities in Iraq. A digital elevation model (DEM) was used to create a model of Potentially Inundated Areas, manipulated and processed in Geographical Information System version 10.7 (ArcGIS 10.7). Through this model, the impact of sea level rise was assessed on the surface area. After the susceptible areas were delineated, it was estimated that at worst case scenario of 5 m sea level rise will impact Basrah city by losing 38 percent of its total surface area.
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 10, pp 957-970; doi:10.4236/ojg.2020.109043
This paper analyzes the gas source of the horizontally sectioned fully mechanized caving face in the steeply inclined and extra-thick seam of Adaohai Coal Mine, and numerically simulates the stress distribution and pressure relief of the lower section coal after the upper section working face is mined. It theoretically analyzed the reasonable layout of the drainage boreholes, and designed the drainage borehole layout accordingly. In the upper and lower section of the working face, the actual drainage effect of the boreholes was inspected, and the air exhaust gas volume in the working face was statistically analyzed. It was confirmed that the layout of boreholes was reasonable, the gas control effect of working face was greatly improved and fully met the needs of safe mining. The control effect was greatly improved and the need for safe mining was fully met, and thus a gas drainage technology suitable for the coal seam storage conditions and mining technology of the Adaohai Coal Mine was found. That is to say: the gas emission from the working face of the section mining mainly comes from its lower coal body. Pre-draining the lower coal body of the section and depressurizing gas interception and drainage are the key to effectively solve the problem of gas emission from the working face. Drainage boreholes in the working face of the section should be arranged at high and low positions. The high-level boreholes are located about 2 m from the top of the working face, and the high-level boreholes are about 9 m away from the top of the working face. Through the pre drainage of high and low-level boreholes in advance and the interception and pressure relief drainage, the gas control in the horizontal sublevel fully mechanized caving mining face in steep and extra thick coal seam can realize a virtuous cycle.