Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention

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ISSN / EISSN : 1728-8800 / 2619-0125
Published by: Silicea - Poligraf, LLC (10.15829)
Total articles ≅ 1,142
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O. M. Drapkina, L. Y. Drozdova, S. N. Avdeev, S. A. Boytsov, E. S. Ivanova, А. D. Kaprin, T. A. Kunaeva, Е. A. Lavrenova, M. A. Liusan, I. V. Maev, et al.
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3172

Abstract:
Guidelines were approved at the meeting of the academic council of the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, Moscow (Protocol No. 10 of 19.10.2021).The aim of these guidelines is to provide primary care physicians with scientifically based algorithms for the implementation of dispensary monitoring in patients with chronic non-communicable diseases in the conditions of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, including the use of telemedicine technologies.The organization and conduct of high-quality medical follow-up are the most important tasks aimed at both reducing the risks of developing complications of chronic non-communicable diseases and reducing overall mortality, especially in the current conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The guidelines contain clinical aspects of dispensary follow-up, general principles of tactics for managing patients with various chronic non-communicable diseases in COVID-19 conditions, in addition, brief checklists with options for interviewing patients with various chronic non-communicable diseases are presented, topical aspects of the interaction of drugs used in the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases with antiviral drugs are considered.The guidelines are intended for general practitioners, district therapists, general practitioners (family doctors), as well as doctors of other specialties providing primary health care.
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3114

Abstract:
The search for early disease markers and the development of diagnostic systems has recently been expanding within genomics. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and microbiome DNA obtained from different types of samples (tissues, blood and its derivatives, feces, etc.) are used as objects of genetic research. It has been shown that cfDNA that enters the bloodstream, in particular, as a result of apoptosis, necrosis, active tumor secretion and metastasis, is of great importance for studying molecular mechanisms of the pathological process and application in clinical practice. Circulating nucleic acid analysis can be used to monitor response to treatment, assess drug resistance, and quantify minimal residual disease. The review article reflects the following information about the biomaterial: source of cfDNA, methods of cfDNA isolation, storage and use for the diagnosis of certain diseases. Cell-free DNA can be present in biological fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, synovial and cerebrospinal fluid. In most cases, cfDNA is isolated from blood derivatives (serum and plasma), while it is most correct to use blood plasma for cfDNA isolation. Optimal and economically justifiable is the use of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid tubes for taking blood and obtaining plasma with subsequent cfDNA isolation. There is evidence that the optimal shelf life in an ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid tube from the moment of blood sampling to subsequent isolation is a 2-hour interval. After centrifugation, cfDNA in plasma (or serum) can be stored for a long time at a temperature of -80O C. Storage at -20O C is undesirable, since DNA fragmentation increases.
V. Yu. Tabakov
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3027

Abstract:
Biobanking is one of the most important elements of the modern infrastructure for biomedical research. Organization of a biobank on the basis of the N. P. Bochkov Medical Genetics Research Center provides a centralized infrastructure for preparing biomaterial for research. Biobank has the format of a research equipment sharing center and works with two types of unique biomaterials from patients with genetic diseases: blood/blood components and vital cells of various tissue origin. The storage facility of the Biobank is equipped with low-temperature (-80° C) and cryostorage (-196° C) systems. Identification and search of samples is carried out using a bar-coding system and is implemented through the information interface of the biobank, which is integrated into the general database of patients at the Medical Genetics Research Center. Information on biomaterial samples is presented in periodically updated catalogs on the page of equipment sharing center “Biobank”. Biobank collection is available to internal and external users.
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3120

Abstract:
Currently, a significant part of research in the fields of human and medical genetics is carried out using tissue samples, genealogical, population, medical and personal data. Their use is of particular relevance in the “genome era”, since only joint analysis of genomic data and health status of the population is crucial for understanding how genes are associated with health and disease. Genetic studies of adults without symptoms of diseases are carried out to obtain data on a possible predisposition to multifactorial diseases, to establish the carrier status of autosomal recessive mutations as part of preconception care and to assess individual sensitivity to drugs. In addition, healthy individuals can be tested to detect an inherited disease at presymptomatic stage. This situation increasingly emphasizes the importance of storing data on genome sequencing or any other patient tests for subsequent data reanalysis, as well as their safety, including biosamples from an individual and one’s family. The review article, based on international experience, summarizes guidelines for genetic testing of healthy individuals. The options for storing biological samples and related data are considered.
, R. A. Illarionov, , N. A. Yurkina, , T. B. Postnikova, O. N. Bespalova,
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3107

Abstract:
The main condition for ensuring effective sampling for creating a bioresource collection is quality management, which implies careful planning and predicting errors at all stages. Risk management of samples and data loss is ensured by correct logistics, circumspect algorithms and standardization of processes. Features of the logistic processes for creating biosample collection from the pregnant women are described in this article.
, A. I. Ershova, , , I. A. Efimova, Z. Z. Serebryanskaya, A. V. Blokhina, A. L. Borisova, , A. S. Limonova, et al.
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3119

Abstract:
Aim. To analyze the structure of clinical data, as well as the principles of collecting and storing related data of the biobank of the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine (hereinafter Biobank).Material and methods. The analysis was carried out using the documentation available in the Biobank, as well as the databases used in its work. The paper presents clinical data on biosamples available in the Biobank as of August 18, 2021.Results. At the time of analysis, the Biobank had 373547 samples collected from 54192 patients within 37 research projects. The article presents the analysis of data representation and quantitative assessment of the presence/absence of common diagnoses in clinical projects. Approaches to documenting clinical information associated with biological samples stored in the Biobank were assessed. The methods and tools used for standardization and automation of processes used in the Biobank were substantiated.Conclusion. The Biobank of the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine is the largest research biobank in Russia, which meets all modern international requirements and is one of the key structures that improve the research quality and intensify their conduct both within the one center and in cooperation with other biobanks and scientific institutions. The collection and systematic storage of clinical abstracts of biological samples is an integral and most important part of the Biobank’s work.
, , , E. S. Ovsyannikov, E. S. Drobysheva, V. I. Bolotskih, , M. V. Lushchik
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-2892

Abstract:
Cardiovascular disease remains the most relevant public health problem. Most cardiovascular diseases are associated with an atherosclerosis, the development of which is associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Melatonin is a neurohormone that is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland and plays a central role in the regulation of sleep and some other body cyclic processes. For a long time, melatonin was perceived as a substance that is effective in the treatment of circadian cycle impairments. At the same time, a large number of studies have accumulated recently that demonstrate a wider range of its biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihypertensive and, possibly, hypolipidemic. The review includes current data from experimental and clinical studies demonstrating the cardioprotective effects of melatonin in atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, and heart failure.
, E. V. Gosteva, O. N. Belousova, S. G. Gorelik, N. I. Klyushnikov, Yu. A. Lykov, A. N. Khachaturov, V. V. Bukatov
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3087

Abstract:
Aim. To compare the effect of beta-blocker therapy (bisoprolol and nebivolol) on the dynamics of fibrotic and vascular endothelial dysfunction markers in elderly hypertensive patients after ischemic stroke (IS).Material and methods. This prospective cohort study included 75 hypertensive patients who were admitted to the hospital due to IS. The mean age of patients was 67±6 years. The average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 7±3. The followup period was 6 months. The control group consisted of 20 elderly people with hypertension without prior myocardial infarction. The patients were divided into groups based on received therapy: group 1 (n=38) — bisoprolol; group 2 (n=37) — nebivolol. The level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAKit, USA). Vascular ultrasound was carried out using a LOGIQP9 (GE) system according to the Celermajer method.Results. After 6-month nebivolol, we revealed a decrease in the level of MMP-9 by 30,2% (p<0,01), TIMP-1 by 15,6% (p<0,05). After 6-month bisoprolol therapy, the level of MMP-9 decreased by 14,5% (p<0,05), while TIMP-1 did not change. Intergroup comparison found that when using nebivolol, there was a higher decrease in the level of MMP-9 by 15,7% (p<0,05), TIMP-1 by 9,7% (p<0,05), MMP-9/TIMP-1 by 7,8% (p<0,05) than with bisoprolol therapy. After 6-month bisoprolol therapy, there was a decrease in the proportion of patients with severe endothelial dysfunction (ED) by 7,9% (p<0,05). Two patients from the nebivolol group moved into mild ED category. The number of patients with moderate ED increased by 19% (p<0,01), while prevalence of severe ED decreased by 24,4% (p<0,01).Conclusion. The results obtained indicate that the beta-blocker nebivolol at an average dose of 8,55+1,75 mg/day significantly reduces the vascular fibrosis, normalizes the ratio of collagen synthesis and degradation markers, improves the vasodilation brachial artery properties in comparison with bisoprolol in elderly hypertensive patients after IS.
, , N. E. Gavrilova, , N. L. Bogdanova, , B. A. Rudenko,
Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-3098

Abstract:
Aim. To identify and characterize the associations of the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of various localization with the blood level of biochemical parameters, as well as to assess the potential of their use as markers of metabolic disorders with increased atherogenic potential.Material and methods. The study included 216 patients (men, 53%) aged 24-87 years (mean age, 61,5±10,73 years). All patients underwent coronary angiography, carotid (CA) and femoral arterial (FA) duplex ultrasound to assess the presence and severity of atherosclerosis. In blood serum/plasma, biochemical parameters were analyzed using standard methods.Results. Based on the analysis of circulating biomarker profile, diagnostic complexes have been established that allow assessing atherosclerosis of different localization. According to the data obtained, the determinants of coronary and CA atherosclerosis are endothelial dysfunction (concentration of nitric oxide metabolites <36,0 μmol/L) and an increased level of creatinine (≥73,0 μmol/L). The specific markers associated with severe atherosclerosis of coronary and FAs (but not CA) were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≤1,0/1,2 μmol/L for male/ female, respectively) and an increased C-reactive protein level (≥1,0 mg/l). Severe peripheral atherosclerosis (CA and FA involvement) was associated with hyperglycemia (glucose ≥6,1 μmol/L), while severe FA atherosclerosis — with hyperinsulinemia (insulin ≥14,0 μU/ml).Conclusion. The analysis of associations of circulating biochemical parameters with atherosclerosis localization and severity revealed a number of metabolic markers associated with the increased atherogenic potential. It is possible to distinguish both universal parameters that are associated with atherosclerosis, regardless of its localization and/or severity, and specific biomarkers that characterize either the localization or the severity of atherosclerosis, or both.
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