Journal of Polymer Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0021-8995 / 1097-4628
Published by: Wiley (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 59,091
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Alan Silva dos Santos, Thais Cardoso de Oliveira, Karla Faquine Rodrigues, Amanda Alvarenga Coutinho Silva, Gustavo José Lauer Coppio, Beatriz Carvalho Da Silva Fonseca, Evelyn Alves Nunes Simonetti, Luciana De Simone Cividanes
Published: 13 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51355

Abstract:
Pre-impregnated carbon fiber/epoxy resin (CF/epoxy prepreg) gained its popularity for significant stress applications, especially in the aerospace industry, owing to its excellent resistance and low specific mass. However, these CF/epoxy prepregs have a tendency to crack propagation. A solution for the prepregs fragility is the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), especially those functionalized with amino groups, reinforcing the material due to its exceptional mechanical properties. In this work, the influence of the carbon chain length of two different amino-functionalized CNTs from diverse backgrounds (commercial and laboratory growth CNTs) is studied. The nanofillers were added in CF/epoxy prepregs by dry spraying without solvent aid. CNTs' samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while the composites were analyzed by TGA, dynamic-mechanical analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The various surface treatment occurred at different levels according to the CNTs background, and all samples exhibited a distinct behavior. These differences were also observed in the composites' thermomechanical performance: CNTs functionalized with larger carbon chain amine presented the best results, with an increase of almost 100% in the storage moduli (E'), confirming the efficiency of amino-functionalized CNTs in the reinforcement of CF/epoxy prepregs.
Clara V. Lang, Taoran Wang,
Published: 13 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51363

Abstract:
Eco-friendly chemical treatments using citric acid (CA) and sodium bicarbonate were employed to remove pectin, hemicellulose, and extractives from apple pomace (AP) for improving AP fiber quality and maximizing its utilization in producing biocomposite boards with newspaper (NP) fibers (AP:NP ratio of 2:1) using molded pulp technique. CA treatment was further optimized at different pH and temperature and cellulose nanofiber (CNF, 0.15, 0.3% w/w pulp solids) was used as reinforcement agent to enhance mechanical property and water resistance of biocomposite boards. CA treatment improved AP fiber strength and cellulose content. AP treated by CA at pH 2.5 and 75°C with 0.15% CNF reinforcement produced AP/NP biocomposite board with high flexural strength, and dimension stability, and low density. Thermal analysis verified increased cellulose content, crystallinity, and thermal stability of CA treated AP fibers. This study provided new insight to improve fiber functionality and utilize AP for developing sustainable packaging.
Houfang Chi, Hui Han, Guannan Tian, Hengyu Luo, , Junyu Li,
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51368

Abstract:
The melt viscosity of triblock copolymer styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) filling systems decreased in some sense by adding 0.1 wt% fillers. The types of fillers included both nano- and non-nano fillers. It was insufficient to explain the phenomenon of viscosity reduction only from the view of nanoscale effects of particles. The results of SAXS and TEM enabled us to relate this behavior to the damage of PS microphase in SIS. The PS microphase acted as a strong entanglement point in the SIS system. When it was damaged, the entanglement among molecular chains weakened greatly, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The dynamic viscoelasticity (complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus) of the filling systems was also studied.
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51378

Abstract:
Thermoelectric properties of poly({4,8-bis [(2-ethylhexyl)oxy] benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2,6- diyl}{3-fluoro-2- [(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b] thiophenediyl}), commonly known as PTB7 conducting polymer was investigated for the first time by the first author in 2017, and it showed higher electrical conductivity or Seebeck coefficient (or even both) and hence, higher thermoelectric power factor than a variety of organic semiconductors. Therefore, it is worth working more on this semiconductor to improve its thermoelectric power factor. In this work, for the first time, 4 new dopants are introduced to PTB7 polymer to improve its thermoelectric properties. The materials are famous oxidants that are inexpensive and easily available with no need to perform any synthesis process, including antimony pentachloride (SbCl5), iron trichloride (FeCl3), thionyl chloride (S O Cl2), and iodine (I2). As a result, significant enhancement of thermoelectric power factor after doping with antimony pentachloride (from 0.224 to 25.5 μWK−2 m−1,) and iron trichloride (from 0.224 to 18.2 μWK−2 m−1,) and moderate enhancement with thionyl chloride was obtained. For the case of iodine doping, simultaneous enhancement of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient was observed due to increasing the mobility.
Karolin Dietrich, , Valérie Orsat, Luis F. Del Rio
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51375

Abstract:
Large-scale replacement of petroplastics with compostable plastics, like polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) will contribute to elimination plastic pollution, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and valorize local biomass resources. Lignocellulose hydrolysates have emerged as potentially sustainable carbon sources for PHB production. For industrial processing, it is necessary to know the polymer properties. Yet, most studies on PHB samples from lignocellulose report few material properties. PHB samples produced from a pilot scale hardwood holocellulose hydrolysate conversion process were characterized and compared with PHB from a sugar hydrolysate and a commercial PHB powder. PHB from hardwood holocellulose hydrolysate was found to be comparable with commercial PHB in all properties. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis showed that all samples had similar thermal behavior, where the melting temperature was 176°C and the decomposition temperature was 293°C. From the melting enthalpy, all samples showed 63% crystallinity. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a glass transition temperature at 5°C and a crystallization temperature of 57°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that the samples were homopolymers comprised of hydroxybutyrate units. The difference among the samples was the number average molecular mass, being lower for wood hydrolysate (246.4 kDa) than sugar hydrolysate (670.3 kDa).
Valiya Parambath Swapna, Meera Krishnan, Vakkoottil Sivadasan Abhisha,
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51377

Abstract:
In this work, the thermal degradation of functionalized cage structured polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) blend membranes were discussed. PVA-PEO/POSS and cross-linked PVA/POSS systems exhibited excellent improvement in thermal stability at lower loading of POSS as compared to pure PVA and uncross-linked PVA/POSS system. Uncross-linked PVA and PVA/POSS systems exhibited mainly two degradation steps. However, cross-linked PVA/POSS systems showed more degradation steps due to the formation of 3-dimentional network structure in the polymer. The mechanical stability of PVA/POSS and PVA-PEO/POSS systems at hydrated state were analyzed and observed a remarkable stability even in the wet condition.
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51369

Abstract:
This study investigates creep and viscoelastic behavior of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin and triethylenetetramine (TETA) system containing an imidazolium ionic liquid (IL), the 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4MImCl). Different time-dependent analysis methods are studied using data from tensile creep, tensile creep/recovery, and three-point and four-point flexural creep tests of epoxy with 1.0 or 4.0 phr of IL. From the results, the composition containing 1.0 phr of C4MImCl, cured at 60°C, presented greater viscoelasticity and crosslink density compared to compositions cured at 30 and 40°C, which was attributed to higher free volume and higher molecular mobility induced by the presence of the IL. In tensile creep tests using the stepped isostress method (SSM), no important degrading effects were found after the addition of 1.0 phr of IL over long time periods. This composition also showed the best overall performance in flexural SSM creep tests.
Song Zhang, Luke A. Galuska,
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/pol.20210281

Abstract:
Thin films with a nanometer-scale thickness are of great interest to both scientific and industrial communities due to their numerous applications and unique behaviors different from the bulk. However, the understanding of thin-film mechanics is still greatly hampered due to their intrinsic fragility and the lack of commercially available experimental instruments. In this review, we first discuss the progression of thin-film mechanical testing methods based on the supporting substrate: film-on-solid substrate method, film-on-water tensile tests, and water-assisted free-standing tensile tests. By comparing past studies on a model polymer, polystyrene, the effect of different substrates and confinement effect on the thin-film mechanics is evaluated. These techniques have generated fruitful scientific knowledge in the field of organic semiconductors for the understanding of structure–mechanical property relationships. We end this review by providing our perspective for their bright prospects in much broader applications and materials of interest.
Yujiao Gao, Dongning Liu, Yuanyuan Xie, Yiheng Song, Enwen Zhu, Zhuqun Shi, Quanling Yang, Chuanxi Xiong
Published: 12 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.51367

Abstract:
In recent years, the wearable electronic skin (E-skin) has attracted more and more attention due to high sensitivity, good portability and flexibility. In this work, we used the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (TOCN) as the substrate, and used the in-situ polymerization method to introduce polypyrrole (PPy) into the TOCN substrate. Then, the nylon gauze was used as microstructure template to prepare a TOCN/PPy E-skin with a surface microstructure. This E-skin possessed excellent sensing and mechanical properties. In the pressure range of 0–600 Pa, the sensitivity of E-skin was 3.13 kPa−1. In addition, the E-skin exhibited ultrafast response/recovery time (≤10 ms), ultralow detection limit of 0.3 Pa, good stability (>9000 cycles) and mechanical strength of up to 117 MPa. Therefore, the TOCN/PPy E-skin has broad development prospects in the fields of artificial intelligence and health monitoring.
Jung Min Kim,
Published: 11 July 2021
Journal of Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/pol.20210383

Abstract:
Understanding multi-component transport behavior through hydrated dense membranes is of interest for numerous applications. For the particular case of photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction cells (PEC-CRC), it is important to understand the multi-component transport behavior of CO2 electrochemical reduction products including mobile carboxylates (formate and acetate) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) in the ion exchange membranes as one role of the membrane in these devices is to minimize the permeation of these CO2 reduction products to the anolyte as they often oxidize back to CO2. Cation exchange membranes (CEM) are promising candidates for such devices as they act to minimize the permeation of mobile anions, such as carboxylates. However, the design of new CEMs is necessary as the permeation of carboxylates often increases in co-permeation with alcohols. Here, we investigate the transport behavior of carboxylates and alcohols in two types of CEMs (1) a crosslinked CEM was prepared by free-radical copolymerization of a sulfonated monomer (AMPS) with a crosslinker (PEGDA), and (2) Nafion® 117. We observe an increase in both PEGDA-AMPS and Nafion® 117 diffusivities to carboxylates in co-diffusion with alcohols. We attribute this behavior to charge screening by co-diffusing alcohol that reduces the electrostatic repulsion between bound sulfonates and mobile carboxylates.
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